Abstract

Epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) materials have recently been suggested as excellent candidates for constructing all-optical and electro-optical switches in the infrared. The performance of previously reported ENZ material-based optical switches, however, has been greatly hampered by the low quality– (Q-) factor of the ENZ cavity, resulting in a large required optical pump fluence or applied voltage, a large insertion loss, or a small modulation depth. Here, we propose a solution by integrating the ENZ material into a Bragg microcavity, such that the Q-factor of the coupled cavity can be dramatically enhanced. Using high-mobility Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide (CdO) as the prototype ENZ material, we numerically show an infrared all-optical switch with its reflectance modulated from near-zero to 94% under a pump fluence of only 7 μJ cm−2, about a 59-time-reduction compared with a state-of-the-art Berreman-type cavity. Moreover, the high-Q coupled cavity can also be adopted to realize a reflective electro-optical switch. Its reflectance can be switched from near-zero to 89%, with a bias electric field well below the breakdown field of conventional gate dielectrics. The switching operation can further be extended to the transmission mode with a slightly modified cavity geometry, with its absolute transmittance modulated by 40%.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

E. L. Runnerstrom, K. P. Kelley, T. G. Folland, J. R. Nolen, N. Engheta, J. D. Caldwell, and J.-P. Maria, “Polaritonic Hybrid-Epsilon-near-Zero Modes: Beating the Plasmonic Confinement vs Propagation-Length Trade-Off with Doped Cadmium Oxide Bilayers,” Nano Lett. 19(2), 948–957 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (6)

B. Yao, S.-W. Huang, Y. Liu, A. K. Vinod, C. Choi, M. Hoff, Y. Li, M. Yu, Z. Feng, D.-L. Kwong, Y. Huang, Y. Rao, X. Duan, and C. W. Wong, “Gate-tunable frequency combs in graphene-nitride microresonators,” Nature 558(7710), 410–414 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Meng, F. Hu, Y. Shen, Y. Yang, Q. Xiao, X. Fu, and M. Gong, “Ultracompact Graphene-Assisted Tunable Waveguide Couplers with High Directivity and Mode Selectivity,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13362 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Wood, S. Campione, S. Parameswaran, T. S. Luk, J. R. Wendt, D. K. Serkland, and G. A. Keeler, “Gigahertz speed operation of epsilon-near-zero silicon photonic modulators,” Optica 5(3), 233–236 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Anopchenko, L. Tao, C. Arndt, and H. W. H. Lee, “Field-Effect Tunable and Broadband Epsilon-Near-Zero Perfect Absorbers with Deep Subwavelength Thickness,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2631–2637 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (> 300°) phase tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. C. Passler, C. R. Gubbin, T. G. Folland, I. Razdolski, D. S. Katzer, D. F. Storm, M. Wolf, S. De Liberato, J. D. Caldwell, and A. Paarmann, “Strong Coupling of Epsilon-Near-Zero Phonon Polaritons in Polar Dielectric Heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 18(7), 4285–4292 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (7)

X. Chen, C. Zhang, F. Yang, G. Liang, Q. Li, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic Lithography Utilizing Epsilon Near Zero Hyperbolic Metamaterial,” ACS Nano 11(10), 9863–9868 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, J. H. Kang, H. Yuan, J. Park, S. J. Kim, Y. Cui, H. Y. Hwang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrical tuning of a quantum plasmonic resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(9), 866–870 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Yang, K. Kelley, E. Sachet, S. Campione, T. S. Luk, J. P. Maria, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Femtosecond optical polarization switching using a cadmium oxide-based perfect absorber,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 390–395 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. P. Iyer, M. Pendharkar, C. J. Palmstrøm, and J. A. Schuller, “Ultrawide thermal free-carrier tuning of dielectric antennas coupled to epsilon-near-zero substrates,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 472 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, N. Kinsey, C. DeVault, J. Kim, E. G. Carnemolla, L. Caspani, A. Shaltout, D. Faccio, V. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, and M. Ferrera, “Controlling hybrid nonlinearities in transparent conducting oxides via two-colour excitation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15829 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Kelley, E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, and J. P. Maria, “High mobility yttrium doped cadmium oxide thin films,” APL Mater. 5(7), 076105 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. L. Runnerstrom, K. P. Kelley, E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, and J. P. Maria, “Epsilon-near-Zero Modes and Surface Plasmon Resonance in Fluorine-Doped Cadmium Oxide Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(8), 1885–1892 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

M. Z. Alam, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region,” Science 352(6287), 795–797 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Guo, R. D. Schaller, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultrafast switching of tunable infrared plasmons in indium tin oxide nanorod arrays with large absolute amplitude,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 267–273 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

J. Park, J. H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically Tunable Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Metafilm Absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15754 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kinsey, C. DeVault, J. Kim, M. Ferrera, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Epsilon-near-zero Al-doped ZnO for ultrafast switching at telecom wavelengths,” Optica 2(7), 616–622 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Tyborski, S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, F. Henneberger, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Nonlinear Response of Bulk Plasmons in Highly Doped ZnO Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(14), 147401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, J. S. Harris, B. E. Gaddy, D. L. Irving, S. Curtarolo, B. F. Donovan, P. E. Hopkins, P. A. Sharma, A. L. Sharma, J. Ihlefeld, S. Franzen, and J. P. Maria, “Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 414–420 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Z. Ma, Z. R. Li, K. Liu, C. R. Ye, and V. J. Sorger, “Indium-Tin-Oxide for High-performance Electro-optic Modulation,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 198–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

M. A. Badsha, Y. C. Jun, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Admittance matching analysis of perfect absorption in unpatterned thin films,” Opt. Commun. 332, 206–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Piper and S. H. Fan, “Total Absorption in a Graphene Mono layer in the Optical Regime by Critical Coupling with a Photonic Crystal Guided Resonance,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 347–353 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Inoue, M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Realization of dynamic thermal emission control,” Nat. Mater. 13(10), 928–931 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. L. Pan, K. K. Meng, G. Y. Li, H. M. Sun, and J. S. Lian, “Structural, optical and electrical characterization of gadolinium and indium doped cadmium oxide/p-silicon heterojunctions for solar cell applications,” RSC Advances 4(94), 52451–52460 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

P. Moitra, Y. M. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. A. Benediktsson, J. Chanussot, and W. M. Moon, “Very High-Resolution Remote Sensing: Challenges and Opportunities,” Proc. IEEE 100(6), 1907–1910 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. M. Yu, M. A. Mayer, D. T. Speaks, H. C. He, R. Y. Zhao, L. Hsu, S. S. Mao, E. E. Haller, and W. Walukiewicz, “Ideal transparent conductors for full spectrum photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 123505 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. J. Mendelsberg, Y. K. Zhu, and A. Anders, “Determining the nonparabolicity factor of the CdO conduction band using indium doping and the Drude theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(42), 425302 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Y. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 185–189 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Jefferson, S. Hatfield, T. Veal, P. King, C. McConville, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, and V. Muñoz-Sanjosé, “Bandgap and effective mass of epitaxial cadmium oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 022101 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

F. Mondon and S. Blonkowski, “Electrical characterisation and reliability of HfO2 and Al2O3-HfO2 MIM capacitors,” Microelectron. Reliab. 43(8), 1259–1266 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

V. Ovchinnikov, A. Malinin, V. Sokolov, O. Kilpela, and J. Sinkkonen, “Photo and electroluminescence from PECVD grown a-Si: H/SiO2 multilayers,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 103–106 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

L. Kang, B. H. Lee, W. J. Qi, Y. Jeon, R. Nieh, S. Gopalan, K. Onishi, and J. C. Lee, “Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(4), 181–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1957 (1)

E. O. Kane, “Band structure of indium antimonide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 1(4), 249–261 (1957).
[Crossref]

Alam, M. Z.

M. Z. Alam, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region,” Science 352(6287), 795–797 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexander, R. W.

Anders, A.

R. J. Mendelsberg, Y. K. Zhu, and A. Anders, “Determining the nonparabolicity factor of the CdO conduction band using indium doping and the Drude theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(42), 425302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anderson, Z.

P. Moitra, Y. M. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anopchenko, A.

A. Anopchenko, L. Tao, C. Arndt, and H. W. H. Lee, “Field-Effect Tunable and Broadband Epsilon-Near-Zero Perfect Absorbers with Deep Subwavelength Thickness,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2631–2637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Arndt, C.

A. Anopchenko, L. Tao, C. Arndt, and H. W. H. Lee, “Field-Effect Tunable and Broadband Epsilon-Near-Zero Perfect Absorbers with Deep Subwavelength Thickness,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2631–2637 (2018).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

T. Inoue, M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Realization of dynamic thermal emission control,” Nat. Mater. 13(10), 928–931 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (> 300°) phase tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badsha, M. A.

M. A. Badsha, Y. C. Jun, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Admittance matching analysis of perfect absorption in unpatterned thin films,” Opt. Commun. 332, 206–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bell, R. J.

Benediktsson, J. A.

J. A. Benediktsson, J. Chanussot, and W. M. Moon, “Very High-Resolution Remote Sensing: Challenges and Opportunities,” Proc. IEEE 100(6), 1907–1910 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blonkowski, S.

F. Mondon and S. Blonkowski, “Electrical characterisation and reliability of HfO2 and Al2O3-HfO2 MIM capacitors,” Microelectron. Reliab. 43(8), 1259–1266 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

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V. Ovchinnikov, A. Malinin, V. Sokolov, O. Kilpela, and J. Sinkkonen, “Photo and electroluminescence from PECVD grown a-Si: H/SiO2 multilayers,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 103–106 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sokhoyan, R.

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (> 300°) phase tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokolov, V.

V. Ovchinnikov, A. Malinin, V. Sokolov, O. Kilpela, and J. Sinkkonen, “Photo and electroluminescence from PECVD grown a-Si: H/SiO2 multilayers,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 103–106 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V. J.

Z. Z. Ma, Z. R. Li, K. Liu, C. R. Ye, and V. J. Sorger, “Indium-Tin-Oxide for High-performance Electro-optic Modulation,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 198–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

Speaks, D. T.

K. M. Yu, M. A. Mayer, D. T. Speaks, H. C. He, R. Y. Zhao, L. Hsu, S. S. Mao, E. E. Haller, and W. Walukiewicz, “Ideal transparent conductors for full spectrum photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 123505 (2012).
[Crossref]

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N. C. Passler, C. R. Gubbin, T. G. Folland, I. Razdolski, D. S. Katzer, D. F. Storm, M. Wolf, S. De Liberato, J. D. Caldwell, and A. Paarmann, “Strong Coupling of Epsilon-Near-Zero Phonon Polaritons in Polar Dielectric Heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 18(7), 4285–4292 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, H. M.

L. L. Pan, K. K. Meng, G. Y. Li, H. M. Sun, and J. S. Lian, “Structural, optical and electrical characterization of gadolinium and indium doped cadmium oxide/p-silicon heterojunctions for solar cell applications,” RSC Advances 4(94), 52451–52460 (2014).
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Tao, L.

A. Anopchenko, L. Tao, C. Arndt, and H. W. H. Lee, “Field-Effect Tunable and Broadband Epsilon-Near-Zero Perfect Absorbers with Deep Subwavelength Thickness,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2631–2637 (2018).
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Y. W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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Y. W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
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T. Tyborski, S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, F. Henneberger, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Nonlinear Response of Bulk Plasmons in Highly Doped ZnO Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(14), 147401 (2015).
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P. Moitra, Y. M. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
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P. Jefferson, S. Hatfield, T. Veal, P. King, C. McConville, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, and V. Muñoz-Sanjosé, “Bandgap and effective mass of epitaxial cadmium oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 022101 (2008).
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B. Yao, S.-W. Huang, Y. Liu, A. K. Vinod, C. Choi, M. Hoff, Y. Li, M. Yu, Z. Feng, D.-L. Kwong, Y. Huang, Y. Rao, X. Duan, and C. W. Wong, “Gate-tunable frequency combs in graphene-nitride microresonators,” Nature 558(7710), 410–414 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walukiewicz, W.

K. M. Yu, M. A. Mayer, D. T. Speaks, H. C. He, R. Y. Zhao, L. Hsu, S. S. Mao, E. E. Haller, and W. Walukiewicz, “Ideal transparent conductors for full spectrum photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 123505 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Woerner, M.

T. Tyborski, S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, F. Henneberger, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Nonlinear Response of Bulk Plasmons in Highly Doped ZnO Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(14), 147401 (2015).
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N. C. Passler, C. R. Gubbin, T. G. Folland, I. Razdolski, D. S. Katzer, D. F. Storm, M. Wolf, S. De Liberato, J. D. Caldwell, and A. Paarmann, “Strong Coupling of Epsilon-Near-Zero Phonon Polaritons in Polar Dielectric Heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 18(7), 4285–4292 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Yao, S.-W. Huang, Y. Liu, A. K. Vinod, C. Choi, M. Hoff, Y. Li, M. Yu, Z. Feng, D.-L. Kwong, Y. Huang, Y. Rao, X. Duan, and C. W. Wong, “Gate-tunable frequency combs in graphene-nitride microresonators,” Nature 558(7710), 410–414 (2018).
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Xiao, Q.

Y. Meng, F. Hu, Y. Shen, Y. Yang, Q. Xiao, X. Fu, and M. Gong, “Ultracompact Graphene-Assisted Tunable Waveguide Couplers with High Directivity and Mode Selectivity,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13362 (2018).
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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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X. Chen, C. Zhang, F. Yang, G. Liang, Q. Li, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic Lithography Utilizing Epsilon Near Zero Hyperbolic Metamaterial,” ACS Nano 11(10), 9863–9868 (2017).
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X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Y. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 185–189 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Y. Meng, F. Hu, Y. Shen, Y. Yang, Q. Xiao, X. Fu, and M. Gong, “Ultracompact Graphene-Assisted Tunable Waveguide Couplers with High Directivity and Mode Selectivity,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13362 (2018).
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Y. M. Yang, K. Kelley, E. Sachet, S. Campione, T. S. Luk, J. P. Maria, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Femtosecond optical polarization switching using a cadmium oxide-based perfect absorber,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 390–395 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Moitra, Y. M. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

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B. Yao, S.-W. Huang, Y. Liu, A. K. Vinod, C. Choi, M. Hoff, Y. Li, M. Yu, Z. Feng, D.-L. Kwong, Y. Huang, Y. Rao, X. Duan, and C. W. Wong, “Gate-tunable frequency combs in graphene-nitride microresonators,” Nature 558(7710), 410–414 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Z. Z. Ma, Z. R. Li, K. Liu, C. R. Ye, and V. J. Sorger, “Indium-Tin-Oxide for High-performance Electro-optic Modulation,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 198–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, K. M.

K. M. Yu, M. A. Mayer, D. T. Speaks, H. C. He, R. Y. Zhao, L. Hsu, S. S. Mao, E. E. Haller, and W. Walukiewicz, “Ideal transparent conductors for full spectrum photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 123505 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

B. Yao, S.-W. Huang, Y. Liu, A. K. Vinod, C. Choi, M. Hoff, Y. Li, M. Yu, Z. Feng, D.-L. Kwong, Y. Huang, Y. Rao, X. Duan, and C. W. Wong, “Gate-tunable frequency combs in graphene-nitride microresonators,” Nature 558(7710), 410–414 (2018).
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X. Liu, J. H. Kang, H. Yuan, J. Park, S. J. Kim, Y. Cui, H. Y. Hwang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrical tuning of a quantum plasmonic resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(9), 866–870 (2017).
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X. Chen, C. Zhang, F. Yang, G. Liang, Q. Li, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic Lithography Utilizing Epsilon Near Zero Hyperbolic Metamaterial,” ACS Nano 11(10), 9863–9868 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, R. Y.

K. M. Yu, M. A. Mayer, D. T. Speaks, H. C. He, R. Y. Zhao, L. Hsu, S. S. Mao, E. E. Haller, and W. Walukiewicz, “Ideal transparent conductors for full spectrum photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 123505 (2012).
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R. J. Mendelsberg, Y. K. Zhu, and A. Anders, “Determining the nonparabolicity factor of the CdO conduction band using indium doping and the Drude theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(42), 425302 (2012).
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P. Jefferson, S. Hatfield, T. Veal, P. King, C. McConville, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, and V. Muñoz-Sanjosé, “Bandgap and effective mass of epitaxial cadmium oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 022101 (2008).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

X. Chen, C. Zhang, F. Yang, G. Liang, Q. Li, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic Lithography Utilizing Epsilon Near Zero Hyperbolic Metamaterial,” ACS Nano 11(10), 9863–9868 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (3)

E. L. Runnerstrom, K. P. Kelley, E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, and J. P. Maria, “Epsilon-near-Zero Modes and Surface Plasmon Resonance in Fluorine-Doped Cadmium Oxide Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(8), 1885–1892 (2017).
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J. R. Piper and S. H. Fan, “Total Absorption in a Graphene Mono layer in the Optical Regime by Critical Coupling with a Photonic Crystal Guided Resonance,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 347–353 (2014).
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A. Anopchenko, L. Tao, C. Arndt, and H. W. H. Lee, “Field-Effect Tunable and Broadband Epsilon-Near-Zero Perfect Absorbers with Deep Subwavelength Thickness,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2631–2637 (2018).
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K. P. Kelley, E. Sachet, C. T. Shelton, and J. P. Maria, “High mobility yttrium doped cadmium oxide thin films,” APL Mater. 5(7), 076105 (2017).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Jefferson, S. Hatfield, T. Veal, P. King, C. McConville, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, and V. Muñoz-Sanjosé, “Bandgap and effective mass of epitaxial cadmium oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 022101 (2008).
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IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

L. Kang, B. H. Lee, W. J. Qi, Y. Jeon, R. Nieh, S. Gopalan, K. Onishi, and J. C. Lee, “Electrical characteristics of highly reliable ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21(4), 181–183 (2000).
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K. M. Yu, M. A. Mayer, D. T. Speaks, H. C. He, R. Y. Zhao, L. Hsu, S. S. Mao, E. E. Haller, and W. Walukiewicz, “Ideal transparent conductors for full spectrum photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 123505 (2012).
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R. J. Mendelsberg, Y. K. Zhu, and A. Anders, “Determining the nonparabolicity factor of the CdO conduction band using indium doping and the Drude theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(42), 425302 (2012).
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Microelectron. Reliab. (1)

F. Mondon and S. Blonkowski, “Electrical characterisation and reliability of HfO2 and Al2O3-HfO2 MIM capacitors,” Microelectron. Reliab. 43(8), 1259–1266 (2003).
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E. L. Runnerstrom, K. P. Kelley, T. G. Folland, J. R. Nolen, N. Engheta, J. D. Caldwell, and J.-P. Maria, “Polaritonic Hybrid-Epsilon-near-Zero Modes: Beating the Plasmonic Confinement vs Propagation-Length Trade-Off with Doped Cadmium Oxide Bilayers,” Nano Lett. 19(2), 948–957 (2019).
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Y. W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (> 300°) phase tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. C. Passler, C. R. Gubbin, T. G. Folland, I. Razdolski, D. S. Katzer, D. F. Storm, M. Wolf, S. De Liberato, J. D. Caldwell, and A. Paarmann, “Strong Coupling of Epsilon-Near-Zero Phonon Polaritons in Polar Dielectric Heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 18(7), 4285–4292 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (1)

Z. Z. Ma, Z. R. Li, K. Liu, C. R. Ye, and V. J. Sorger, “Indium-Tin-Oxide for High-performance Electro-optic Modulation,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 198–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

M. Clerici, N. Kinsey, C. DeVault, J. Kim, E. G. Carnemolla, L. Caspani, A. Shaltout, D. Faccio, V. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, and M. Ferrera, “Controlling hybrid nonlinearities in transparent conducting oxides via two-colour excitation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15829 (2017).
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P. P. Iyer, M. Pendharkar, C. J. Palmstrøm, and J. A. Schuller, “Ultrawide thermal free-carrier tuning of dielectric antennas coupled to epsilon-near-zero substrates,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 472 (2017).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

X. Liu, J. H. Kang, H. Yuan, J. Park, S. J. Kim, Y. Cui, H. Y. Hwang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrical tuning of a quantum plasmonic resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(9), 866–870 (2017).
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Nat. Photonics (4)

P. J. Guo, R. D. Schaller, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultrafast switching of tunable infrared plasmons in indium tin oxide nanorod arrays with large absolute amplitude,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 267–273 (2016).
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Y. M. Yang, K. Kelley, E. Sachet, S. Campione, T. S. Luk, J. P. Maria, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Femtosecond optical polarization switching using a cadmium oxide-based perfect absorber,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 390–395 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Moitra, Y. M. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Y. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 185–189 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yao, S.-W. Huang, Y. Liu, A. K. Vinod, C. Choi, M. Hoff, Y. Li, M. Yu, Z. Feng, D.-L. Kwong, Y. Huang, Y. Rao, X. Duan, and C. W. Wong, “Gate-tunable frequency combs in graphene-nitride microresonators,” Nature 558(7710), 410–414 (2018).
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V. Ovchinnikov, A. Malinin, V. Sokolov, O. Kilpela, and J. Sinkkonen, “Photo and electroluminescence from PECVD grown a-Si: H/SiO2 multilayers,” Opt. Mater. 17(1-2), 103–106 (2001).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Tyborski, S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, F. Henneberger, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Nonlinear Response of Bulk Plasmons in Highly Doped ZnO Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(14), 147401 (2015).
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L. L. Pan, K. K. Meng, G. Y. Li, H. M. Sun, and J. S. Lian, “Structural, optical and electrical characterization of gadolinium and indium doped cadmium oxide/p-silicon heterojunctions for solar cell applications,” RSC Advances 4(94), 52451–52460 (2014).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Static optical response. (a) Schematic diagram of the high-Q perfect absorber based on the coupled cavity. The dimensions are: tSi = 291.6 nm, tSiO2 = 714.3 nm, tCdO = 10 nm, tf = tb = 586.2 nm. (b) Absorption spectrum of the coupled cavity calculated by the transfer matrix method. The black dashed line indicates the ENZ wavelength of 3.84 μm. The wavelengths and incident angles of the pump and probe beams are labelled by the white arrows. (c) |E|2 distribution (normalized to the incident electric field intensity |E0|2) as a function of the wavelength and position. The inset is the zoom-in view of the white dashed rectangle. (d) The permittivity of CdO used as the ENZ material. (e) Schematic diagram of the perfect absorber based on the Berreman cavity. The thickness of the CdO layer is 240 nm. (f) The maximum absorption of the Berreman cavity as a function of the thickness of CdO. (g) Absorption spectrum of the Berreman cavity calculated by the transfer matrix method. The black dashed line indicates the ENZ wavelength of CdO. The wavelengths and incident angles of the pump and probe beams are labelled by the black arrows. (h) |E|2 distribution (normalized to the incident electric field intensity |E0|2) as a function of the wavelength and position.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Theoretical interpretation of the perfect absorption. (a) The radiative and non-radiative loss rate of the coupled cavity. The blue circles mark the pump and probe beam wavelengths. (b) Absorption spectrum of the coupled cavity calculated by the coupled mode theory. (c) The radiative and non-radiative loss rate of the Berreman cavity. The blue circle marks the wavelength of the probe beam. (d) Absorption spectrum of the Berreman cavity calculated by the coupled mode theory.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 All-optical switching. (a) Schematic illustration of the electron dynamics in CdO upon intra-band photoexcitation. The black dashed line represents the parabolic approximation. (b) Reflectance spectra of the coupled cavity at a 45° incident angle with different pump fluences. In the coupled cavity, the probe wavelength is 3.619 μm and the pump wave is 3.960 μm. (c) ΔR as a function of the pump fluence for the coupled cavity and the Berreman cavity, respectively. The blue dashed lines indicate ΔR of 94%. The inset is a zoom-in view of ΔR at low pump fluences. In the Berreman cavity, the probe wavelength is 3.802 μm and the pump wavelength is 3.840 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electro-optical switching. (a) Schematic diagram of the electro-optical switch based on the coupled cavity. The thickness of the MgO layer is 567.2 nm; the thickness of the two CdO layers are both 10 nm; and the thickness of the HfO2 layer is 5 nm. (b) The purple line illustrates the dependence of λENZ on Ne. The red and black dashed line mark the doping levels of CdO1 and CdO2 layers. The inset shows a schematic diagram of the field effect in the CdO1/ HfO2/CdO2 layered structure. (c) Electron density distribution near the CdO1/HfO2 interface with different applied voltages. (d) Electron density distribution near the CdO2/HfO2 interface with different applied voltages. (e) Reflectance spectra of the reflection-mode electro-optical switch with different applied voltages. (f) The dependence of ΔR on the applied voltage for the coupled cavity, the Berreman cavity with 10-nm-thick CdO, and the Berreman cavity with 240-nm-thick CdO, respectively. (g) Transmittance spectra of the transmission-mode electro-optical switch as a function of the applied voltage.

Equations (7)

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A= 4 γ NR γ R ( ω ω 0 ) 2 + ( γ NR + γ R ) 2
ε(ω)=ε'+iε''= ε ω p 2 ω 2 +iωΓ
2 k 2 2m =E+ E 2 E g
N e ( μ c , T e )= 1 π 2 0 dE m 2 (1+2E/ E g ) ( 2m 2 (E+ E 2 / E g )) 1 2 f 0 ( μ c , T e )
U( μ c , T e )= 1 π 2 0 dE m 2 E(1+2E/ E g ) ( 2m 2 (E+ E 2 / E g )) 1 2 f 0 ( μ c , T e )
ω p ( μ c , T e ) 2 = e 2 3m π 2 ε 0 0 dE ( 2m 2 (E+ E 2 / E g )) 3 2 (1+2E/ E g ) 1 ( f 0 ( μ c , T e ) E )
m*= 2 f(E, T e )dk f(E, T e )( d 2 E/d k 2 )dk

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