Abstract

In this paper, by adaptively partitioning and precoding the subcarriers, we proposed a practical and effective entropy loading (EL) scheme for single sideband discrete multi-tone (SSB-DMT) systems. To reveal the practical performance, information bits per symbol (IBPS) is used to identify the optimal probabilistically shaped quadrature amplitude modulation (PS-QAM). Under the constraint of normalized generalized mutual information (NGMI) of the off-the-shelf forward error correction (FEC), we obtain the PS-QAMs that achieve the maximum IBPS using different constellations for different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Based on the result, we proposed two adaptively partitioning methods, equally partitioned precoding (EPP) and optimally partitioned precoding (OPP), to perform hybrid constellation entropy loading (HCEL). The HCEL with OPP significantly reduces the number of distribution matcher to 3 from generally several hundred of conventional EL with negligible loss of net data rate (NDR). As demonstrated by experiments, the HCEL with OPP achieves 4.4 dB receiver sensitivity gain compared to conventional bit and power loading, Levin-Campello (LC), and 1.2 dB receiver sensitivity gain compared to HCEL with EPP at the NDR of 60 Gb/s after 80 km standard single mode fiber transmission, making it a competitive and practical solution for EL in the short-to-medium reach transmission systems.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (2)

2018 (8)

C. Xie, Z. Chen, S. Fu, W. Liu, Z. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “Achievable information rate enhancement of visible light communication using probabilistically shaped OFDM modulation,” Opt. Express 26(1), 367–375 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Zhong, X. Zhou, J. Huo, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Digital Signal Processing for Short-Reach Optical Communications: A Review of Current Technologies and Future Trends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 377–400 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Che and W. Shieh, “Approaching the Capacity of Colored-SNR Optical Channels by Multicarrier Entropy Loading,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 68–78 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Cho, X. Chen, S. Chandrasekhar, and P. Winzer, “On line rates, information rates, and spectral efficiencies in probabilistically shaped QAM systems,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9784–9791 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wei, N. Stojanovic, and C. Xie, “Nonlinearity mitigation of intensity modulation and coherent detection systems,” Opt. Lett. 43(13), 3148–3151 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, D. T. Neilson, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber-optic transmission and networking: the previous 20 and the next 20 years [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(18), 24190–24239 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. P. Guiomar, L. Bertignono, A. Nespola, and A. Carena, “Frequency-Domain Hybrid Modulation Formats for High Bit-Rate Flexibility and Nonlinear Robustness,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(20), 4856–4870 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (3)

2015 (4)

2013 (1)

1995 (1)

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, “A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43(2/3/4), 773–775 (1995).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27(3), 379–423 (1948).
[Crossref]

Agrell, E.

Alreesh, S.

Alvarado, A.

Amann, M.

Antonelli, C.

X. Chen, J. Cho, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Single-wavelength, single-polarization, single- photodiode kramers-kronig detection of 440-Gb/s entropy-loaded discrete multitone modulation transmitted over 100-km SSMF,” in2017 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) Part II (2017), pp. 1–2.

Bayvel, P.

Berenguer, P. W.

Bergmann, M.

Bertignono, L.

Bingham, J. A. C.

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, “A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43(2/3/4), 773–775 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bocherer, G.

P. Schulte and G. Bocherer, “Constant Composition Distribution Matching,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 62(1), 430–434 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Bocherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate Adaptation and Reach Increase by Probabilistically Shaped 64-QAM: An Experimental Demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(7), 1599–1609 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Bocherer, F. Steiner, and P. Schulte, “Bandwidth Efficient and Rate-Matched Low-Density Parity-Check Coded Modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 63(12), 4651–4665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Buchali, F.

Campello, J.

J. Campello, “Optimal discrete bit loading for multicarrier modulation systems,” in proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1998), pp. 193.

Carena, A.

Chagnon, M.

Chandrasekhar, S.

J. Cho, X. Chen, S. Chandrasekhar, and P. Winzer, “On line rates, information rates, and spectral efficiencies in probabilistically shaped QAM systems,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9784–9791 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, J. Cho, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Single-wavelength, single-polarization, single- photodiode kramers-kronig detection of 440-Gb/s entropy-loaded discrete multitone modulation transmitted over 100-km SSMF,” in2017 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) Part II (2017), pp. 1–2.

Che, D.

D. Che and W. Shieh, “Approaching the Capacity of Colored-SNR Optical Channels by Multicarrier Entropy Loading,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 68–78 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Che and W. Shieh, “Achievable Rate Comparison between Entropy and Bit Loading in a 100-Gb/s DM-DD DMT System,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. W1F–W3F.

Chen, J.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Cho, X. Chen, S. Chandrasekhar, and P. Winzer, “On line rates, information rates, and spectral efficiencies in probabilistically shaped QAM systems,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9784–9791 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Z. Feng, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Performance enhanced DDO-OFDM system with adaptively partitioned precoding and single sideband modulation,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23093–23108 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng, C. Xie, Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, and S. Fu, “Comparison of Coherent and IMDD Transceivers for Intra Datacenter Optical Interconnects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. W1F–W2F.

X. Chen, J. Cho, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Single-wavelength, single-polarization, single- photodiode kramers-kronig detection of 440-Gb/s entropy-loaded discrete multitone modulation transmitted over 100-km SSMF,” in2017 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) Part II (2017), pp. 1–2.

Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, H. Jiang, Y. Xiang, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Simplified Bit-Level Shaping with High Spectral Efficiency and High Throughput,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4B–M5B.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, H. Zhou, J. Cui, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Uniform Entropy Loading for Precoded DMT Systems in Fading Optical Channel,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, J. Cui, S. Fu, L. Xia, and D. Liu, “Optimally Partitioned Precoding Assisted Hybrid Constellation Entropy Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M1H–M4H.

Chen, Y.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, J. Cui, S. Fu, L. Xia, and D. Liu, “Optimally Partitioned Precoding Assisted Hybrid Constellation Entropy Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M1H–M4H.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, H. Zhou, J. Cui, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Uniform Entropy Loading for Precoded DMT Systems in Fading Optical Channel,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, H. Jiang, Y. Xiang, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Simplified Bit-Level Shaping with High Spectral Efficiency and High Throughput,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4B–M5B.

J. Cheng, C. Xie, Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, and S. Fu, “Comparison of Coherent and IMDD Transceivers for Intra Datacenter Optical Interconnects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. W1F–W2F.

Chen, Z.

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng, C. Xie, Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, and S. Fu, “Comparison of Coherent and IMDD Transceivers for Intra Datacenter Optical Interconnects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. W1F–W2F.

Cho, J.

J. Cho and P. Winzer, “Probabilistic Constellation Shaping for Optical Fiber Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(6), 1590–1607 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Cho, X. Chen, S. Chandrasekhar, and P. Winzer, “On line rates, information rates, and spectral efficiencies in probabilistically shaped QAM systems,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9784–9791 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, J. Cho, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Single-wavelength, single-polarization, single- photodiode kramers-kronig detection of 440-Gb/s entropy-loaded discrete multitone modulation transmitted over 100-km SSMF,” in2017 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) Part II (2017), pp. 1–2.

Chow, P. S.

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, “A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43(2/3/4), 773–775 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

Cioffi, J. M.

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, “A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43(2/3/4), 773–775 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cui, J.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, H. Zhou, J. Cui, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Uniform Entropy Loading for Precoded DMT Systems in Fading Optical Channel,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, J. Cui, S. Fu, L. Xia, and D. Liu, “Optimally Partitioned Precoding Assisted Hybrid Constellation Entropy Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M1H–M4H.

Deng, L.

Dong, P.

Du, J.

Elschner, R.

Feng, Z.

Fischer, J. K.

Frey, F.

Fu, S.

C. Xie, Z. Chen, S. Fu, W. Liu, Z. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “Achievable information rate enhancement of visible light communication using probabilistically shaped OFDM modulation,” Opt. Express 26(1), 367–375 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Z. Feng, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Performance enhanced DDO-OFDM system with adaptively partitioned precoding and single sideband modulation,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23093–23108 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng, C. Xie, Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, and S. Fu, “Comparison of Coherent and IMDD Transceivers for Intra Datacenter Optical Interconnects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. W1F–W2F.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, J. Cui, S. Fu, L. Xia, and D. Liu, “Optimally Partitioned Precoding Assisted Hybrid Constellation Entropy Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M1H–M4H.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, H. Zhou, J. Cui, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Uniform Entropy Loading for Precoded DMT Systems in Fading Optical Channel,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, H. Jiang, Y. Xiang, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Simplified Bit-Level Shaping with High Spectral Efficiency and High Throughput,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4B–M5B.

Gan, L.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guiomar, F. P.

He, Z.

Huo, J.

Idler, W.

Jiang, H.

Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, H. Jiang, Y. Xiang, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Simplified Bit-Level Shaping with High Spectral Efficiency and High Throughput,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4B–M5B.

Jiang, T.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

Karinou, F.

J. Wei, Q. Zhang, L. Zhang, N. Stojanovic, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and C. Xie, “Challenges and Advances of Direct Detection Systems for DCI and Metro Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. W2A–W60A.

Kögel, B.

Lau, A. P. T.

Lavery, D.

Li, Z.

Lin, R.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Xie, Z. Chen, S. Fu, W. Liu, Z. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “Achievable information rate enhancement of visible light communication using probabilistically shaped OFDM modulation,” Opt. Express 26(1), 367–375 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Z. Feng, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Performance enhanced DDO-OFDM system with adaptively partitioned precoding and single sideband modulation,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23093–23108 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, H. Zhou, J. Cui, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Uniform Entropy Loading for Precoded DMT Systems in Fading Optical Channel,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, J. Cui, S. Fu, L. Xia, and D. Liu, “Optimally Partitioned Precoding Assisted Hybrid Constellation Entropy Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M1H–M4H.

Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, H. Jiang, Y. Xiang, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Simplified Bit-Level Shaping with High Spectral Efficiency and High Throughput,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4B–M5B.

Liu, G. N.

Liu, W.

Lu, C.

Maher, R.

Mao, Y.

Mecozzi, A.

X. Chen, J. Cho, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Single-wavelength, single-polarization, single- photodiode kramers-kronig detection of 440-Gb/s entropy-loaded discrete multitone modulation transmitted over 100-km SSMF,” in2017 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) Part II (2017), pp. 1–2.

Molle, L.

Morsy-Osman, M.

Neilson, D. T.

Nespola, A.

Neumeyr, C.

Nölle, M.

Ozolins, O.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pang, X.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

Plant, D. V.

Popov, S.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

Prodaniuc, C.

J. Wei, Q. Zhang, L. Zhang, N. Stojanovic, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and C. Xie, “Challenges and Advances of Direct Detection Systems for DCI and Metro Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. W2A–W60A.

Qiu, M.

Schatz, R.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schmalen, L.

Schmidt-Langhorst, C.

Schubert, C.

Schulte, P.

F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Bocherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate Adaptation and Reach Increase by Probabilistically Shaped 64-QAM: An Experimental Demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(7), 1599–1609 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Schulte and G. Bocherer, “Constant Composition Distribution Matching,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 62(1), 430–434 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Bocherer, F. Steiner, and P. Schulte, “Bandwidth Efficient and Rate-Matched Low-Density Parity-Check Coded Modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 63(12), 4651–4665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27(3), 379–423 (1948).
[Crossref]

Shieh, W.

D. Che and W. Shieh, “Approaching the Capacity of Colored-SNR Optical Channels by Multicarrier Entropy Loading,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 68–78 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Che and W. Shieh, “Achievable Rate Comparison between Entropy and Bit Loading in a 100-Gb/s DM-DD DMT System,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. W1F–W3F.

Shtaif, M.

X. Chen, J. Cho, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Single-wavelength, single-polarization, single- photodiode kramers-kronig detection of 440-Gb/s entropy-loaded discrete multitone modulation transmitted over 100-km SSMF,” in2017 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) Part II (2017), pp. 1–2.

Spiga, S.

Steiner, F.

F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Bocherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate Adaptation and Reach Increase by Probabilistically Shaped 64-QAM: An Experimental Demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(7), 1599–1609 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Bocherer, F. Steiner, and P. Schulte, “Bandwidth Efficient and Rate-Matched Low-Density Parity-Check Coded Modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 63(12), 4651–4665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, N.

J. Wei, N. Stojanovic, and C. Xie, “Nonlinearity mitigation of intensity modulation and coherent detection systems,” Opt. Lett. 43(13), 3148–3151 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wei, Q. Zhang, L. Zhang, N. Stojanovic, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and C. Xie, “Challenges and Advances of Direct Detection Systems for DCI and Metro Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. W2A–W60A.

Sun, L.

Tang, M.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Xie, Z. Chen, S. Fu, W. Liu, Z. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “Achievable information rate enhancement of visible light communication using probabilistically shaped OFDM modulation,” Opt. Express 26(1), 367–375 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, Z. Feng, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Performance enhanced DDO-OFDM system with adaptively partitioned precoding and single sideband modulation,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23093–23108 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng, C. Xie, Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, and S. Fu, “Comparison of Coherent and IMDD Transceivers for Intra Datacenter Optical Interconnects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. W1F–W2F.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, J. Cui, S. Fu, L. Xia, and D. Liu, “Optimally Partitioned Precoding Assisted Hybrid Constellation Entropy Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M1H–M4H.

Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, H. Jiang, Y. Xiang, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Simplified Bit-Level Shaping with High Spectral Efficiency and High Throughput,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4B–M5B.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, H. Zhou, J. Cui, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Uniform Entropy Loading for Precoded DMT Systems in Fading Optical Channel,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

Tong, T.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, H. Zhou, J. Cui, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Uniform Entropy Loading for Precoded DMT Systems in Fading Optical Channel,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, H. Jiang, Y. Xiang, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Simplified Bit-Level Shaping with High Spectral Efficiency and High Throughput,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4B–M5B.

Udalcovs, A.

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Wei, J.

J. Wei, N. Stojanovic, and C. Xie, “Nonlinearity mitigation of intensity modulation and coherent detection systems,” Opt. Lett. 43(13), 3148–3151 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wei, Q. Zhang, L. Zhang, N. Stojanovic, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and C. Xie, “Challenges and Advances of Direct Detection Systems for DCI and Metro Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. W2A–W60A.

Winzer, P.

Winzer, P. J.

Xia, L.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, J. Cui, S. Fu, L. Xia, and D. Liu, “Optimally Partitioned Precoding Assisted Hybrid Constellation Entropy Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M1H–M4H.

Xiang, Y.

Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, H. Jiang, Y. Xiang, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Simplified Bit-Level Shaping with High Spectral Efficiency and High Throughput,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4B–M5B.

Xie, C.

J. Wei, N. Stojanovic, and C. Xie, “Nonlinearity mitigation of intensity modulation and coherent detection systems,” Opt. Lett. 43(13), 3148–3151 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Xie, Z. Chen, S. Fu, W. Liu, Z. He, L. Deng, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “Achievable information rate enhancement of visible light communication using probabilistically shaped OFDM modulation,” Opt. Express 26(1), 367–375 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. Winzer, M. Bergmann, B. Kögel, C. Neumeyr, and M. Amann, “400-Gb/s PDM-4PAM WDM System Using a Monolithic 2×4 VCSEL Array and Coherent Detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(3), 670–677 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wei, Q. Zhang, L. Zhang, N. Stojanovic, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and C. Xie, “Challenges and Advances of Direct Detection Systems for DCI and Metro Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. W2A–W60A.

J. Cheng, C. Xie, Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, and S. Fu, “Comparison of Coherent and IMDD Transceivers for Intra Datacenter Optical Interconnects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. W1F–W2F.

Xu, K.

Xu, X.

Yu, C.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, T. Zuo, Y. Mao, Q. Zhang, E. Zhou, G. N. Liu, and X. Xu, “Beyond 100-Gb/s Transmission Over 80-km SMF Using Direct-Detection SSB-DMT at C-Band,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 723–729 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wei, Q. Zhang, L. Zhang, N. Stojanovic, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and C. Xie, “Challenges and Advances of Direct Detection Systems for DCI and Metro Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. W2A–W60A.

Zhang, Q.

L. Zhang, T. Zuo, Y. Mao, Q. Zhang, E. Zhou, G. N. Liu, and X. Xu, “Beyond 100-Gb/s Transmission Over 80-km SMF Using Direct-Detection SSB-DMT at C-Band,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 723–729 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wei, Q. Zhang, L. Zhang, N. Stojanovic, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and C. Xie, “Challenges and Advances of Direct Detection Systems for DCI and Metro Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. W2A–W60A.

Zhong, K.

Zhou, E.

Zhou, H.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, H. Zhou, J. Cui, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Uniform Entropy Loading for Precoded DMT Systems in Fading Optical Channel,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

Zhou, X.

Zhuge, Q.

Zuo, T.

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27(3), 379–423 (1948).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Chen, R. Lin, J. Cui, L. Gan, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, T. Jiang, R. Schatz, S. Popov, J. Chen, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “TDHQ Enabling Fine-Granularity Adaptive Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(19), 1687–1690 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, “A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43(2/3/4), 773–775 (1995).
[Crossref]

G. Bocherer, F. Steiner, and P. Schulte, “Bandwidth Efficient and Rate-Matched Low-Density Parity-Check Coded Modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 63(12), 4651–4665 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

P. Schulte and G. Bocherer, “Constant Composition Distribution Matching,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 62(1), 430–434 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (10)

J. Cho and P. Winzer, “Probabilistic Constellation Shaping for Optical Fiber Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(6), 1590–1607 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Che and W. Shieh, “Approaching the Capacity of Colored-SNR Optical Channels by Multicarrier Entropy Loading,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 68–78 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Alvarado, E. Agrell, D. Lavery, R. Maher, and P. Bayvel, “Replacing the Soft-Decision FEC Limit Paradigm in the Design of Optical Communication Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(20), 4338–4352 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhuge, M. Morsy-Osman, X. Xu, M. Chagnon, M. Qiu, and D. V. Plant, “Spectral Efficiency-Adaptive Optical Transmission Using Time Domain Hybrid QAM for Agile Optical Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(15), 2621–2628 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Buchali, F. Steiner, G. Bocherer, L. Schmalen, P. Schulte, and W. Idler, “Rate Adaptation and Reach Increase by Probabilistically Shaped 64-QAM: An Experimental Demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(7), 1599–1609 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. P. Guiomar, L. Bertignono, A. Nespola, and A. Carena, “Frequency-Domain Hybrid Modulation Formats for High Bit-Rate Flexibility and Nonlinear Robustness,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(20), 4856–4870 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. K. Fischer, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, S. Alreesh, R. Elschner, F. Frey, P. W. Berenguer, L. Molle, M. Nölle, and C. Schubert, “Generation, Transmission, and Detection of 4-D Set-Partitioning QAM Signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1445–1451 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Zhong, X. Zhou, J. Huo, C. Yu, C. Lu, and A. P. T. Lau, “Digital Signal Processing for Short-Reach Optical Communications: A Review of Current Technologies and Future Trends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 377–400 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. Winzer, M. Bergmann, B. Kögel, C. Neumeyr, and M. Amann, “400-Gb/s PDM-4PAM WDM System Using a Monolithic 2×4 VCSEL Array and Coherent Detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(3), 670–677 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, T. Zuo, Y. Mao, Q. Zhang, E. Zhou, G. N. Liu, and X. Xu, “Beyond 100-Gb/s Transmission Over 80-km SMF Using Direct-Detection SSB-DMT at C-Band,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 723–729 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (9)

Cisco, “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Trends, 2017–2022,” (2019).

J. Cheng, C. Xie, Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, and S. Fu, “Comparison of Coherent and IMDD Transceivers for Intra Datacenter Optical Interconnects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. W1F–W2F.

J. Campello, “Optimal discrete bit loading for multicarrier modulation systems,” in proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1998), pp. 193.

J. Wei, Q. Zhang, L. Zhang, N. Stojanovic, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and C. Xie, “Challenges and Advances of Direct Detection Systems for DCI and Metro Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2018), pp. W2A–W60A.

X. Chen, J. Cho, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Single-wavelength, single-polarization, single- photodiode kramers-kronig detection of 440-Gb/s entropy-loaded discrete multitone modulation transmitted over 100-km SSMF,” in2017 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) Part II (2017), pp. 1–2.

D. Che and W. Shieh, “Achievable Rate Comparison between Entropy and Bit Loading in a 100-Gb/s DM-DD DMT System,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. W1F–W3F.

Y. Chen, X. Chen, M. Tang, H. Jiang, Y. Xiang, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Simplified Bit-Level Shaping with High Spectral Efficiency and High Throughput,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M4B–M5B.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, H. Zhou, J. Cui, T. Tong, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “Uniform Entropy Loading for Precoded DMT Systems in Fading Optical Channel,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–3.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Tang, J. Cui, S. Fu, L. Xia, and D. Liu, “Optimally Partitioned Precoding Assisted Hybrid Constellation Entropy Loading for SSB-DMT Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2019), pp. M1H–M4H.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The relationships between IBPS and SNR for PS-16QAM, PS-64QAM, PS-256QAM and conventional QAM using the concatenated code of 20% LDPC and 6.25% staircase code under the NGMI limit of 0.858 in an AWGN channel.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The schematic diagrams of EPP algorithm and OPP algorithm. (a) The SNR variation of a fading channel. EPP: (b) The SNR variation after EPP. OPP: (c) The sorted SNR variation, (d) all the precoding patterns of two sets, (e) the total capacity versus the subcarriers in Set 1 for the patterns in (d), (f) the SNR variation after OPP which achieves the maximum total capacity with recovered subcarrier indices.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The simulation setup for SSB-DMT systems, and (b) the digital signal processing flow of transmitter and receiver. Tx: transmitter, Rx: receiver, DSP: digital signal processing, CP: cyclic prefix, DAC: digital-to-analog converter, LPF: low-pass filter, EA: electrical amplifier, DD-MZM: Dual-driver Mach-Zehnder modulator, SSMF: standard single mode fiber, VOA: variable optical attenuator, EDFA: erbium doped fiber amplifier, OBPF: optical band-pass filter, PD: photodiode, ADC: analog-to-digital converter.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Net data rate versus the number of precoding sets for different EL schemes.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The net data rate versus OSNR for BPL and EL algorithms when the length of SSMF is (a) 0 km, (b) 20 km, (c) 80 km.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The SNR variation and relative theoretical capacity for different partitioned patterns during the searching procedure of OPP algorithm. (a) The SNR variation and (b) the relative theoretical capacity when the length of SSMF is 20 km and OSNR is 34 dB. (c) The SNR variation and (d) the relative theoretical capacity when the length of SSMF is 80 km and OSNR is 34 dB.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The allocation results of different adaptive loading algorithms. (a) The IBPS and (b) signal power level versus subcarrier indices when the length of SSMF is 20 km and OSNR is 34 dB. (c) The IBPS and and (d) signal power level versus subcarrier indices when the length of SSMF is 80 km and OSNR is 34 dB.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) The experimental setup for SSB-DMT systems, and (b) the main system parameters. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator, DSO: digital storage oscilloscope, Sub.: subcarrier, Syn.: synchronization. CE: channel estimation.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The results to find the optimal precoding pattern of HCEL with OPP scheme. (a) The SNR variation, (b) the theoretical capacity versus the number of subcarriers in precoding set 1 when NPS is 2, (c) the theoretical capacity variation with the number of subcarriers in precoding set 1 and 2 when NPS is 3. Insets: the allocated results of precoding sets. Different colors denote different sets. And the subscript f and g denote the subcarrier indices before and after sorting, respectively.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. The results after 80km SSMF transmission: (a) The relationships between the NDR and the NPS for EL schemes, (b) the net data rate versus ROP where the NPS of EL schemes are 3, (c) the SNR variation. insets: relative constellations.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a) The relationships between the NDR and the NPS for EL schemes in OB2B scenario, (b) the relationships between the NDR and the NPS for EL schemes after 15 km SSMF transmission, (c) the SNR variations when length of SSMF is 15 km and ROP is −19 dBm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. The optimal constellation for different SNR region

Equations (4)

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I B P S = m c
I B P S = 2 + m ( c 1 ) + 2 R D M
k = log 2 [ n c ! / n c ! ( n 1 ! n 3 ! n 2 m / m 2 2 1 ! ) ( n 1 ! n 3 ! n 2 m / m 2 2 1 ! ) ]
n α = P A ¯ ( α ) n c , α i n A = { 1 , 3 , , 2 m / m 2 2 1 }

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