Abstract

We investigate the effect of a ring resonator on the linewidth and output spectrum of monolithically integrated extended cavity multi-section DBR lasers with an intra-cavity ring resonator. The goal is to achieve an understanding of whether and how the use of an additional ring filter improves the performance of a DBR laser on the aspects of the SMSR and intrinsic linewidth using the capabilities of the InP active-passive integration platform. The laser output spectrum is in good agreement with our theoretical calculations from a steady-state spectral model. A side-mode suppression ratio between 60 and 70 dB is measured for a range of operating semiconductor optical amplifier currents. The frequency noise power spectral density is measured for a range of output power levels. A minimum intrinsic linewidth of 63 kHz is reported. We compare the measured Lorentzian linewidths with our theoretical expectations and present estimates of the possible linewidth improvement with the available photonic integration technology used in this work.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

L. M. Augustin, R. Santos, E. den Haan, S. Kleijn, P. J. A. Thijs, S. Latkowski, D. Zhao, W. Yao, J. Bolk, H. Ambrosius, S. Mingaleev, A. Richter, A. Bakker, and T. Korthorst, “InP-Based generic foundry platform for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Bolk, H. Ambrosius, R. Stabile, S. Latkowski, X. Leijtens, E. Bitincka, and K. A. Williams, “Deep UV lithography process in generic InP integration for arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(13), 1222–1225 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (2)

N. Prtljaga, C. Bentham, J. O’Hara, B. Royall, E. Clarke, L. R. Wilson, M. S. Skolnick, and A. M. Fox, “On-chip interference of single photons from an embedded quantum dot and an external laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(25), 251101 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Q. Liu, X. Fan, and Z. He, “Ultrahigh resolution optical fiber strain sensor using dual Pound – Drever – Hall feedback loops,” Opt. Lett. 41(5), 1066–1069 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive microring-resonator-coupled lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3561–3563 (2001).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. E. Wieman and L. Holberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62(1), 1–20 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

T. L. Koch and U. Koren, “Semiconductor lasers for coherent optical fiber communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(3), 274–293 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

H. Yasaka, M. Fukuda, and T. Ikegami, “Current tailoring for lowering linewidth floor,” Electron. Lett. 24(12), 760–762 (1988).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

R. J. Lang, K. J. Vahala, and A. Yariv, “The effect of spatially dependent temperature and carrier fluctuations on noise in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 443–451 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

E. Patzak, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, T. Mukai, and H. Olesen, “Semiconductor laser linewidth in optical feedback congurations,” Electron. Lett. 19(24), 1026–1027 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 112(6), 1940–1949 (1958).
[Crossref]

Achouche, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ambrosius, H.

L. M. Augustin, R. Santos, E. den Haan, S. Kleijn, P. J. A. Thijs, S. Latkowski, D. Zhao, W. Yao, J. Bolk, H. Ambrosius, S. Mingaleev, A. Richter, A. Bakker, and T. Korthorst, “InP-Based generic foundry platform for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Bolk, H. Ambrosius, R. Stabile, S. Latkowski, X. Leijtens, E. Bitincka, and K. A. Williams, “Deep UV lithography process in generic InP integration for arrayed waveguide gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(13), 1222–1225 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. D’Agostino, G. Carnicella, C. Ciminelli, P. Thijs, P. J. Veldhoven, H. Ambrosius, and M. Smit, “Low-loss passive waveguides in a generic InP foundry process via local diffusion of zinc,” Opt. Express 23(19), 25143–25157 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andreou, S.

S. Andreou, K.A. Williams, and E.A.J.M. Bente, “Steady state spectral model of lasers and its experimental validation for a multi-section DBR laser,” in Proc. European Conference of Integrate Optics (2018).

Antes, J.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arlunno, V.

Augustin, L.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Augustin, L. M.

L. M. Augustin, R. Santos, E. den Haan, S. Kleijn, P. J. A. Thijs, S. Latkowski, D. Zhao, W. Yao, J. Bolk, H. Ambrosius, S. Mingaleev, A. Richter, A. Bakker, and T. Korthorst, “InP-Based generic foundry platform for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bajwa, S.

M. C. Larson, A. Bhardwaj, W. Xiong, Y. Feng, X. D. Huang, K. P. Petrov, M. Moewe, H. Y. Ji, A. Semakov, C. W. Lv, S. Kutty, A. Patwardhan, N. Liu, Z. M. Li, Y. J. Bao, Z. H. Shen, S. Bajwa, F. H. Zhou, and P. C. Koh, “Narrow linewidth sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector laser with enhanced side-mode suppression,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2D.1.

Bakker, A.

L. M. Augustin, R. Santos, E. den Haan, S. Kleijn, P. J. A. Thijs, S. Latkowski, D. Zhao, W. Yao, J. Bolk, H. Ambrosius, S. Mingaleev, A. Richter, A. Bakker, and T. Korthorst, “InP-Based generic foundry platform for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, Y. J.

M. C. Larson, A. Bhardwaj, W. Xiong, Y. Feng, X. D. Huang, K. P. Petrov, M. Moewe, H. Y. Ji, A. Semakov, C. W. Lv, S. Kutty, A. Patwardhan, N. Liu, Z. M. Li, Y. J. Bao, Z. H. Shen, S. Bajwa, F. H. Zhou, and P. C. Koh, “Narrow linewidth sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector laser with enhanced side-mode suppression,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2D.1.

Bente, E.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bente, E.A.J.M.

S. Andreou, K.A. Williams, and E.A.J.M. Bente, “Steady state spectral model of lasers and its experimental validation for a multi-section DBR laser,” in Proc. European Conference of Integrate Optics (2018).

Bentham, C.

N. Prtljaga, C. Bentham, J. O’Hara, B. Royall, E. Clarke, L. R. Wilson, M. S. Skolnick, and A. M. Fox, “On-chip interference of single photons from an embedded quantum dot and an external laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(25), 251101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, A.

M. C. Larson, A. Bhardwaj, W. Xiong, Y. Feng, X. D. Huang, K. P. Petrov, M. Moewe, H. Y. Ji, A. Semakov, C. W. Lv, S. Kutty, A. Patwardhan, N. Liu, Z. M. Li, Y. J. Bao, Z. H. Shen, S. Bajwa, F. H. Zhou, and P. C. Koh, “Narrow linewidth sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector laser with enhanced side-mode suppression,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2D.1.

Bhat, S.

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Carnicella, G.

Carter, A.

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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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D. D’Agostino, G. Carnicella, C. Ciminelli, P. Thijs, P. J. Veldhoven, H. Ambrosius, and M. Smit, “Low-loss passive waveguides in a generic InP foundry process via local diffusion of zinc,” Opt. Express 23(19), 25143–25157 (2015).
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Dabbs, A.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Davies, I.

S.C. Davies, R.A. Griffin, A.J. Ward, N.D. Whitbread, I. Davies, L. Langley, S. Fourte, J. Mo, Y. Xu, and A. Carter, “Narrow linewidth, high power, high operating temperature digital supermode distributed Bragg reflector laser,” European Conference on Optical Communication (2013), paper Th.1.B.3.

Davies, S.C.

S.C. Davies, R.A. Griffin, A.J. Ward, N.D. Whitbread, I. Davies, L. Langley, S. Fourte, J. Mo, Y. Xu, and A. Carter, “Narrow linewidth, high power, high operating temperature digital supermode distributed Bragg reflector laser,” European Conference on Optical Communication (2013), paper Th.1.B.3.

de Vries, T.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Debregeas, H.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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L. M. Augustin, R. Santos, E. den Haan, S. Kleijn, P. J. A. Thijs, S. Latkowski, D. Zhao, W. Yao, J. Bolk, H. Ambrosius, S. Mingaleev, A. Richter, A. Bakker, and T. Korthorst, “InP-Based generic foundry platform for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–10 (2018).
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Deng, L.

Dogadaev, A.

Dutt, A.

Dzibrou, D.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eliyahu, D.

E. Dale, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “On phase noise of self-injection locked semiconductor lasers,” in Proc. SPIE 8960, Laser Resonators, Microresonators, and Beam Control XVI, 89600X (2014).

Fan, X.

Fan, Y.

Y. Fan, R. M. Oldenbeuving, C. G. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, D. Geskus, R. G. Heideman, and K. Boller, “290 Hz intrinsic linewidth from an integrated optical chip-based widely tunable InP-Si3N4 hybrid laser,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA Technical Digest, 2017), paper JTh5C.9.

Felicetti, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Feng, Y.

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Firth, P.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fourte, S.

S.C. Davies, R.A. Griffin, A.J. Ward, N.D. Whitbread, I. Davies, L. Langley, S. Fourte, J. Mo, Y. Xu, and A. Carter, “Narrow linewidth, high power, high operating temperature digital supermode distributed Bragg reflector laser,” European Conference on Optical Communication (2013), paper Th.1.B.3.

Fox, A. M.

N. Prtljaga, C. Bentham, J. O’Hara, B. Royall, E. Clarke, L. R. Wilson, M. S. Skolnick, and A. M. Fox, “On-chip interference of single photons from an embedded quantum dot and an external laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(25), 251101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
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Fukuda, M.

H. Yasaka, M. Fukuda, and T. Ikegami, “Current tailoring for lowering linewidth floor,” Electron. Lett. 24(12), 760–762 (1988).
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Gallagher, D.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Geluk, E.-J.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gentner, J.-L.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 083001 (2014).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the DBR laser with an intra-cavity ring resonator. The DBR mirrors that form the cavity are 300 µm and 400 µm long and the SOA 500 µm. The coupling to the ring resonator is implemented using 2 × 1 MMIs. (b) Cross-section of the SOA with the active core containing 4 quantum-wells, placed between Q1.25 quaternary material and n- and p-doped substrate and cladding respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) In the red dashed rectangle, the individual elements inside the cavity are presented. Every component is described by an individual T-matrix and the Tintra-cavity that describes a single-pass transmission through all the components can be calculated by matrix multiplication. The cavity is formed by the two DBR mirrors. (b) By adding the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and solving the equations that describe the system with the boundary conditions (DBR reflectivities) we can calculate the electric field in the cavity.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Recorded (blue) and calculated (orange) spectra for a multi-section DBR laser with an intra-cavity ring resonator and calculated spectra for a multi-section DBR laser (yellow). The blue trace is a recorded spectrum of the laser at 20 mA, slightly above threshold (res. BW 5 MHz) and it is in good agreement with the calculated spectrum for the same laser (orange). According to the calculations even though the cavity length of the DBR-RR laser is longer and the mode spacing smaller, with obtain a higher SMSR compared to a multi-section DBR laser (yellow).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Characteristics of a multi-section DBR laser with an intra-cavity ring resonator (${L_{SOA}} = 500\;\mu m$, ${L_{frontDBR}} = 300\;\mu m$, ${L_{rearDBR}} = 400\;\mu m$) (a) The light-current (black) and voltage-current (blue) curves of the laser at 18 °C. The threshold current is 15 mA corresponding to a current density of 1.5 kA/cm2. The output power almost 6 mW for which we assume about 4 dB fibre to facet coupling loss. The series resistance is 6 Ω. (b) The SMSR is well above 60 dB for a current range from 20 to 100 mA. In this current range the laser operation is modehop-free.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Single-side power spectral density of the frequency noise for the laser with 750 µm long SOA and 300 and 400 µm long DBR mirrors at different SOA current levels. The range indicated by the orange shaded area is the averaging region used to calculate the intrinsic laser linewidth. (b) The Lorentzian linewidth calculated from the white noise part of the frequency noise spectrum is plotted as a function of the inverse normalized output power for the three lasers. The minimum linewidth for the three lasers are 63 kHz (blue), 71 kHz (orange) and 93 kHz (yellow). A linewidth floor and a consequent linewidth increase is observed for all three lasers.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Measured (circular markers) and theoretically calculated (solid lines) Lorentzian linewidths of the three lasers as a function output power. (b) The calculated effective length (solid lines) for different power coupling coefficients of the ring resonator. (c) The corresponding calculated linewidth. The blue circle indicates the calculations with the current parameters of the laser, the red circle for using a 0.15 coupling coefficient with an MMI and the green square are calculations for using a directional coupler instead of an MMI. The purple square indicated the calculations for using a directional coupler and reducing the losses from 3 dB/cm to 0.4 dB/cm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Summary of the performance of the three characterized lasers

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Table 2. Parameters for the theoretical linewidth calculation

Equations (12)

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E t = κ 1 κ 2 a r e j θ 2 1 t 1 t 2 α r e j θ E i ,
L e f f = λ β ( d φ d λ ) ,
T p a s s i v e w g = [ e j 2 π λ n e f f L e a p a s s i v e L 2 0 0 e j 2 π λ n e f f L e a p a s s i v e L 2 ] ,
T r i n g = [ E i / E t 0 0 E t / E i ] ,
A 1 = A 2 T 11 + B 2 T 12 + A S E ,
B 1 = A 2 T 21 + B 2 T 22 ,
E ( λ ) = A S E T 22 R R D B R T 11 T 22 R R D B R R F D B R ,
Δ ν = v g 2 h ν n s p ( 1 + α 2 ) 4 π P o ( a m + a i ) a m 1 C 1 F 2 ,
C = ( 1 + R 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 ) ,
a m = 1 L S O A ln ( 1 R 1 R 2 ) ,
a i = L S O A a S O A + L p a s s i v e a p a s s i v e + a e x c e s s L S O A ,
F = 1 + n g , p a s s i v e ( L p a s s i v e + L e f f ) n g , S O A L S O A ,

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