Abstract

With the fast development of single photon-based technologies such as quantum computing and quantum cryptography, conventional avalanche photodiodes as single photon detectors are not the optimum tools anymore. They are currently replaced by Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors (SNSPDs) based on the superconducting to normal conducting phase transition. The current challenge with SNSPDs lies in overcoming the trade-off between detection efficiency and recovery time. While a large active area will lead to high detection efficiency, the associated high kinetic inductance causes a long recovery time. Plasmonic effects can play an important role in the absorption enhancement of SNSPDs. Nanostructuring with a suitable geometry can provide a high-absorption cross-section at the intrinsic nanowire surface plasmon resonance, which can be significantly larger than their geometric cross-section. We present a photodetector based on the intrinsic localized surface plasmon resonance of a niobium nanowire, which is one of the common superconductors with low kinetic inductance. Additionally, we are increasing the absorption of our nanostructures even further using a plasmonic perfect absorber scheme. We fabricated a plasmonic perfect absorber superconducting photodetector, investigated its response to external light at resonance, and proved its plasmonic behavior as evidenced by its polarization dependence.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

2017 (1)

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

S. Bagheri, N. Strohfeldt, F. Sterl, A. Berrier, A. Tittl, and H. Giessen, “Large-area low-cost plasmonic perfect absorber chemical sensor fabricated by laser interference lithography,” ACS Sens. 1(9), 1148–1154 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

R. Walter, A. Tittl, A. Berrier, F. Sterl, T. Weiss, and H. Giessen, “Large-area low-cost tunable plasmonic perfect absorber in the near infrared by colloidal etching lithography,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 398–403 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Bagheri, C. M. Zgrabik, T. Gissibl, A. Tittl, F. Sterl, R. Walter, S. De Zuani, A. Berrier, T. Stauden, G. Richter, E. L. Hu, and H. Giessen, “Large-area fabrication of TiN nanoantenna arrays for refractory plasmonics in the mid-infrared by femtosecond direct laser writing and interference lithography,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(11), 2625–2633 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, S. D. Dyer, A. E. Lita, I. Vayshenker, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors fabricated from MoSi thin-films,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33792–33801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rath, O. Kahl, S. Ferrari, F. Sproll, G. Lewes-Malandrakis, D. Brink, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, C. Nebel, and W. Pernice, “Superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with diamond nanophotonic circuits,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(10), e338 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Takemoto, Y. Nambu, T. Miyazawa, Y. Sakuma, T. Yamamoto, S. Yorozu, and Y. Arakawa, “Quantum key distribution over 120 km using ultrahigh purity single-photon source and superconducting single-photon detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Akhlaghi, E. Schelew, and J. F. Young, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors implemented as near-perfect absorbers of coherent radiation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8233 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Heath, M. G. Tanner, T. D. Drysdale, S. Miki, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, and R. H. Hadfield, “Nanoantenna enhancement for telecom-wavelength superconducting single photon detectors,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 819–822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 595–604 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Korneeva, M. Y. Mikhailov, Y. P. Pershin, N. N. Manova, A. V. Divochiy, Y. B. Vakhtomin, A. A. Korneev, K. V. Smirnov, A. G. Sivakov, A. Y. Devizenko, and G. N. Goltsman, “Superconducting single-photon detector made of MoSi film,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 095012 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Bagheri, H. Giessen, and F. Neubrech, “Large-area antenna-assisted SEIRA substrates by laser interference lithography,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1050–1056 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

2011 (5)

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4366–4369 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weiss, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, G. Granet, and H. Giessen, “Derivation of plasmonic resonances in the Fourier modal method with adaptive spatial resolution and matched coordinates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(2), 238–244 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with optical nano-antennae,” Opt. Express 19(1), 17–31 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W.-S. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3913–3961 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. J Annunziata, D. F. Santavicca, J. D. Chudow, L. Frunzio, M. J. Rooks, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 327-331 (2009).

T. Weiss, G. Granet, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and H. Giessen, “Matched coordinates and adaptive spatial resolution in the Fourier modal method,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8051–8061 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. L. O’Brien, “Optical quantum computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101110 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111116 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

R. Meservey and P. M. Tedrow, “Measurements of the kinetic inductance of superconducting linear structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(5), 2028–2034 (1969).
[Crossref]

Akhlaghi, M. K.

M. K. Akhlaghi, E. Schelew, and J. F. Young, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors implemented as near-perfect absorbers of coherent radiation,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8233 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anant, V.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101110 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annunziata, A. J

A. J Annunziata, D. F. Santavicca, J. D. Chudow, L. Frunzio, M. J. Rooks, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 327-331 (2009).

Arakawa, Y.

K. Takemoto, Y. Nambu, T. Miyazawa, Y. Sakuma, T. Yamamoto, S. Yorozu, and Y. Arakawa, “Quantum key distribution over 120 km using ultrahigh purity single-photon source and superconducting single-photon detectors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, S.

S. Bagheri, N. Strohfeldt, M. Ubl, A. Berrier, M. Merker, G. Richter, M. Siegel, and H. Giessen, “Niobium as alternative material for refractory and active plasmonics,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3298–3304 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Bagheri, N. Strohfeldt, F. Sterl, A. Berrier, A. Tittl, and H. Giessen, “Large-area low-cost plasmonic perfect absorber chemical sensor fabricated by laser interference lithography,” ACS Sens. 1(9), 1148–1154 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bagheri, C. M. Zgrabik, T. Gissibl, A. Tittl, F. Sterl, R. Walter, S. De Zuani, A. Berrier, T. Stauden, G. Richter, E. L. Hu, and H. Giessen, “Large-area fabrication of TiN nanoantenna arrays for refractory plasmonics in the mid-infrared by femtosecond direct laser writing and interference lithography,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(11), 2625–2633 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Bagheri, H. Giessen, and F. Neubrech, “Large-area antenna-assisted SEIRA substrates by laser interference lithography,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1050–1056 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beetz, J.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berg, B.

Berggren, K. K.

X. Hu, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with optical nano-antennae,” Opt. Express 19(1), 17–31 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101110 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111116 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berrier, A.

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Yorozu, S.

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K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic illustration of a Nb nanowire on a substrate with the electric field exciting particle plasmons along the short wire axis. (b) Schematic illustration of a Nb plasmonic perfect absorber. Mirror plasmons are generated on the gold mirror surface leading to a circular current and a magnetic response. (c) By optimizing the structure parameters of the Nb perfect absorber, a close to unity absorption could be achieved. (d) Schematic drawing of a perfect absorber SNSPD with a small active area responding to the incident light.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reproducibility of the electrical and optical properties of Nb films. Four different 100 nm Nb films were deposited over c-plane sapphire substrates (indicated by different colors) using DC magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized by mutual inductance measurements to determine the superconducting transition temperature ((a) and (b)). Modeled spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were carried out to determine the optical properties of the films in terms of the real (d) and imaginary (c) parts of the dielectric function. These values were used for our simulations afterwards.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic drawings of the perfect absorber nanofabrication process using electron beam lithography. (a) 20 nm Nb films are sputtered over the multilayer structure. (b) A negative photoresist is spin coated, exposed using standard electron beam lithography, and developed afterwards. (c) The pattern is transferred to Nb using a reactive ion beam etching process. (d) The residual photoresist is removed by immersing the sample in NEP solution.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) 20 nm thick Nb nanowires exhibit tunable particle plasmon resonance. We excite plasmons along the short wire axis, hence the resonance wavelength is tunable as a function of the wire width. (b) Simulated spectra of Nb plasmonic nanostructures using scattering matrix. (c) Relative transmission FTIR spectrum. (d) SEM images of the corresponding fields. The wire width from left to right is W = 260, 290, 330 nm with a periodicity of 750 nm, the scale bar is 5 μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic drawing of 20 nm thick Nb perfect absorber, with the electric field exciting plasmons along the short wire axis. (b) Absorption spectra for Nb perfect absorbers simulated using scattering matrix. (c) The measured data for the fabricated samples confirms the tunability of the plasmon resonance wavelength and a close to unity absorption at resonance. The wire width from left to right is W = 270, 290, 340 nm, and the periodicity is P = 750 nm. (d) SEM images for the corresponding fields, the scale bar is 5000 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) SEM image of the perfect absorber detector fabricated using electron beam lithography. The active area is connected to four pad contacts (from Nb as well) on top of perfect absorber structure. The scale bar is 100 μm. (b) The detector superconducting transition temperature is determined by performing four-point resistivity measurement and amounts to 7.5 K. (c) SEM image of the active area (10 x 10 µm2). The total wire length is 130 µm, with 100 nm thickness, 320 nm width, and periodicity 1 µm. The scale bar is 5 μm. (d) FTIR relative reflection measurement for the detector active area to obtain its absorption spectrum. Red indicates the E-field of the incident light polarized along the short axis (TM, φ = 0°), and blue indicates polarization of E-field along the long axis (TE, φ = 90°). No plasmonic enhancement is visible in the latter geometry.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The detector response for λ = 1142 nm represented by the voltage drop is measured over a wide power range for both polarization angles. For high power, the response is indistinguishable because the system transforms completely to a normal conducting state. The results indicate the polarization dependence of the detector response and prove that it is plasmonic. (b) FTIR absorption spectrum for the detector active area when the polarization angle is φ = 90° (TE) and the polarization angle is φ = 0° (TM). The absorption is maximum in this case due to the plasmonic excitation along the short wire axis.

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