Abstract

Reconfigurable/reprogrammable universal silicon photonic circuits represent a paradigm shift in designing photonic devices. However, it is very challenging to perform adaptive arbitrary reconfiguration when the high-dimensional solution of phase distribution cannot be explicitly determined, especially when there are random initial phase errors, which hinder the implementation of novel potential functions in universal circuits. This work presents an arbitrary black-box reconfiguration for universal circuits with random phase errors by a bacteria-foraging algorithm and unlocks a novel function of arbitrary-port-and-arbitrary-bit-resolution reconfigurable 6-bit photonic digital-to-analog conversion. This work offers a general and efficient method to ease multipurpose reconfiguration for universal silicon photonic circuits.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (5)

Q. Cheng, S. Rumley, M. Bahadori, and K. Bergman, “Photonic switching in high performance datacenters,” Opt. Express 26(12), 16022–16043 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. C. Harris, J. Carolan, D. Bunandar, M. Prabhu, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Hones, M. L. Fanto, A. Matthew Smith, C. C. Tison, P. M. Alsing, and D. Englund, “Linear programmable nanophotonic processors,” Optica 5(12), 1623–1631 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Qiang, X. Zhou, J. Wang, C. M. Wilkes, T. Loke, S. O’Gara, L. Kling, G. D. Marshall, R. Santagati, T. C. Ralph, J. B. Wang, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “Large-scale silicon quantum photonics implementing arbitrary two-qubit processing,” Nat. Photonics 12(9), 534–539 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, W. Li, X. Jiang, Y.-M. He, Y.-H. Li, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, W.-J. Zhang, H. Li, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, J. P. Dowling, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Toward scalable boson sampling with photon loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 230502 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, M. Prabhu, Y. Lahini, J. Mower, D. Bunandar, C. Chen, F. N. C. Wong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Lloyd, and D. Englund, “Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 447–452 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Qiao, W. Tang, and T. Chu, “32 × 32 silicon electro-optic switch with built-in monitors and balanced-status units,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, “Deep learning with coherent nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 441–446 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

2015 (5)

K. Tanizawa, K. Suzuki, M. Toyama, M. Ohtsuka, N. Yokoyama, K. Matsumaro, M. Seki, K. Koshino, T. Sugaya, S. Suda, G. Cong, T. Kimura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 32 × 32 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire optical switch with fan-out LGA interposer,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17599–17606 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, K.-J. Boller, and A. J. Lowery, “Programmable photonic signal processor chip for radiofrequency applications,” Optica 2(10), 854–859 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mower, N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, Y. Lahini, and D. Englund, “High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits,” Phys. Rev. A 92(3), 032322 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, B. Gao, X. Ge, and S. Pan, “Simplified 2-bit photonic digital-to-analog conversion unit based on polarization multiplexing,” Opt. Eng. 55(3), 031115 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

D. A. B. Miller, “Self-aligning universal beam coupler,” Opt. Express 21(5), 6360–6370 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Integrated multimode interferometers with arbitrary designs for photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 545–549 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

P. J. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

H. Chen, Y. Zhu, and K. Hu, “Cooperative bacterial foraging optimization,” Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2009, 1–17 (2009).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Yacoubian and P. K. Das, “Digital-to-analog conversion using electrooptic modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(1), 117–119 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. M. Passino, “Biomimicry of bacterial foraging for distributed optimization and control,” IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 22(3), 52–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Abraham, A.

S. Das, A. Biswas, S. Dasgupta, and A. Abraham, Foundations of Computational Intelligence Volume 3 (Springer, 2009), pp. 23–55.

Acín, A.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alioto, M.

M. Alioto, Enabling the Internet of Things: From Integrated Circuits to Integrated Systems (Springer, 2018), Ch. 13.

Alsing, P. M.

Augusiak, R.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bacco, D.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Hones, T.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, “Deep learning with coherent nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 441–446 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, M. Prabhu, Y. Lahini, J. Mower, D. Bunandar, C. Chen, F. N. C. Wong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Lloyd, and D. Englund, “Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 447–452 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bahadori, M.

Barbieri, M.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

Biswas, A.

S. Das, A. Biswas, S. Dasgupta, and A. Abraham, Foundations of Computational Intelligence Volume 3 (Springer, 2009), pp. 23–55.

Bogaerts, W.

Boller, K.-J.

Bonneau, D.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brod, D. J.

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Integrated multimode interferometers with arbitrary designs for photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 545–549 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bunandar, D.

N. C. Harris, J. Carolan, D. Bunandar, M. Prabhu, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Hones, M. L. Fanto, A. Matthew Smith, C. C. Tison, P. M. Alsing, and D. Englund, “Linear programmable nanophotonic processors,” Optica 5(12), 1623–1631 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, M. Prabhu, Y. Lahini, J. Mower, D. Bunandar, C. Chen, F. N. C. Wong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Lloyd, and D. Englund, “Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 447–452 (2017).
[Crossref]

Capmany, J.

Carolan, J.

N. C. Harris, J. Carolan, D. Bunandar, M. Prabhu, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Hones, M. L. Fanto, A. Matthew Smith, C. C. Tison, P. M. Alsing, and D. Englund, “Linear programmable nanophotonic processors,” Optica 5(12), 1623–1631 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, M. Prabhu, Y. Lahini, J. Mower, D. Bunandar, C. Chen, F. N. C. Wong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Lloyd, and D. Englund, “Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 447–452 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, Y. Zhu, and K. Hu, “Cooperative bacterial foraging optimization,” Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2009, 1–17 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.-C.

H. Wang, W. Li, X. Jiang, Y.-M. He, Y.-H. Li, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, W.-J. Zhang, H. Li, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, J. P. Dowling, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Toward scalable boson sampling with photon loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 230502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Cheng, Q.

Chiba, T.

Chu, T.

L. Qiao, W. Tang, and T. Chu, “32 × 32 silicon electro-optic switch with built-in monitors and balanced-status units,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Clements, W. R.

Cong, G.

Crespi, A.

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Integrated multimode interferometers with arbitrary designs for photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 545–549 (2013).
[Crossref]

Das, P. K.

A. Yacoubian and P. K. Das, “Digital-to-analog conversion using electrooptic modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(1), 117–119 (2003).
[Crossref]

Das, S.

S. Das, A. Biswas, S. Dasgupta, and A. Abraham, Foundations of Computational Intelligence Volume 3 (Springer, 2009), pp. 23–55.

Dasgupta, S.

S. Das, A. Biswas, S. Dasgupta, and A. Abraham, Foundations of Computational Intelligence Volume 3 (Springer, 2009), pp. 23–55.

Datta, A.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Ding, X.

H. Wang, W. Li, X. Jiang, Y.-M. He, Y.-H. Li, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, W.-J. Zhang, H. Li, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, J. P. Dowling, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Toward scalable boson sampling with photon loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 230502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dowling, J. P.

H. Wang, W. Li, X. Jiang, Y.-M. He, Y.-H. Li, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, W.-J. Zhang, H. Li, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, J. P. Dowling, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Toward scalable boson sampling with photon loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 230502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Englund, D.

N. C. Harris, J. Carolan, D. Bunandar, M. Prabhu, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Hones, M. L. Fanto, A. Matthew Smith, C. C. Tison, P. M. Alsing, and D. Englund, “Linear programmable nanophotonic processors,” Optica 5(12), 1623–1631 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, “Deep learning with coherent nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 441–446 (2017).
[Crossref]

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J. Mower, N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, Y. Lahini, and D. Englund, “High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits,” Phys. Rev. A 92(3), 032322 (2015).
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Fanto, M. L.

Galvão, E. F.

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Integrated multimode interferometers with arbitrary designs for photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 545–549 (2013).
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F. Zhang, B. Gao, X. Ge, and S. Pan, “Simplified 2-bit photonic digital-to-analog conversion unit based on polarization multiplexing,” Opt. Eng. 55(3), 031115 (2015).
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Gates, J. C.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
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F. Zhang, B. Gao, X. Ge, and S. Pan, “Simplified 2-bit photonic digital-to-analog conversion unit based on polarization multiplexing,” Opt. Eng. 55(3), 031115 (2015).
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J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
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N. C. Harris, J. Carolan, D. Bunandar, M. Prabhu, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Hones, M. L. Fanto, A. Matthew Smith, C. C. Tison, P. M. Alsing, and D. Englund, “Linear programmable nanophotonic processors,” Optica 5(12), 1623–1631 (2018).
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N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, M. Prabhu, Y. Lahini, J. Mower, D. Bunandar, C. Chen, F. N. C. Wong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Lloyd, and D. Englund, “Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 447–452 (2017).
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Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, “Deep learning with coherent nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 441–446 (2017).
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J. Mower, N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, Y. Lahini, and D. Englund, “High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits,” Phys. Rev. A 92(3), 032322 (2015).
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J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
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Hashimoto, T.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
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H. Wang, W. Li, X. Jiang, Y.-M. He, Y.-H. Li, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, W.-J. Zhang, H. Li, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, J. P. Dowling, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Toward scalable boson sampling with photon loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 230502 (2018).
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Hochberg, M.

N. C. Harris, J. Carolan, D. Bunandar, M. Prabhu, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Hones, M. L. Fanto, A. Matthew Smith, C. C. Tison, P. M. Alsing, and D. Englund, “Linear programmable nanophotonic processors,” Optica 5(12), 1623–1631 (2018).
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Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, “Deep learning with coherent nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 441–446 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, M. Prabhu, Y. Lahini, J. Mower, D. Bunandar, C. Chen, F. N. C. Wong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Lloyd, and D. Englund, “Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 447–452 (2017).
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Höfling, S.

H. Wang, W. Li, X. Jiang, Y.-M. He, Y.-H. Li, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, W.-J. Zhang, H. Li, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, J. P. Dowling, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Toward scalable boson sampling with photon loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 230502 (2018).
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H. Chen, Y. Zhu, and K. Hu, “Cooperative bacterial foraging optimization,” Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc. 2009, 1–17 (2009).
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W. R. Clements, P. C. Humphreys, B. J. Metcalf, W. S. Kolthammer, and I. A. Walmsley, “Optimal design for universal multiport interferometers,” Optica 3(12), 1460–1465 (2016).
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J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Igarashi, Y.

Ikeda, K.

Inoue, T.

G. Cong, N. Yamamoto, T. Inoue, M. Okano, Y. Maegami, M. Ohno, and K. Yamada, “High-efficient black-box calibration of large-scale silicon photonics switches by bacterial foraging algorithm,” OFC2019, M3B.3, San Diego, USA, March, 2019.

Itoh, M.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

H. Wang, W. Li, X. Jiang, Y.-M. He, Y.-H. Li, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, W.-J. Zhang, H. Li, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, J. P. Dowling, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Toward scalable boson sampling with photon loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 230502 (2018).
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Jin, X. M.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kamp, M.

H. Wang, W. Li, X. Jiang, Y.-M. He, Y.-H. Li, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, W.-J. Zhang, H. Li, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, J. P. Dowling, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Toward scalable boson sampling with photon loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 230502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kawashima, H.

Kim, S. H.

Kimura, T.

Kling, L.

X. Qiang, X. Zhou, J. Wang, C. M. Wilkes, T. Loke, S. O’Gara, L. Kling, G. D. Marshall, R. Santagati, T. C. Ralph, J. B. Wang, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “Large-scale silicon quantum photonics implementing arbitrary two-qubit processing,” Nat. Photonics 12(9), 534–539 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kolthammer, W. S.

W. R. Clements, P. C. Humphreys, B. J. Metcalf, W. S. Kolthammer, and I. A. Walmsley, “Optimal design for universal multiport interferometers,” Optica 3(12), 1460–1465 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koshino, K.

Kundys, D.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lahini, Y.

N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, M. Prabhu, Y. Lahini, J. Mower, D. Bunandar, C. Chen, F. N. C. Wong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Lloyd, and D. Englund, “Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 447–452 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Mower, N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, Y. Lahini, and D. Englund, “High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits,” Phys. Rev. A 92(3), 032322 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laing, A.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Langford, N. K.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Larochelle, H.

Y. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljačić, “Deep learning with coherent nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 441–446 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. Wang, W. Li, X. Jiang, Y.-M. He, Y.-H. Li, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, W.-J. Zhang, H. Li, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, J. P. Dowling, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Toward scalable boson sampling with photon loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 230502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

H. Wang, W. Li, X. Jiang, Y.-M. He, Y.-H. Li, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, W.-J. Zhang, H. Li, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, J. P. Dowling, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Toward scalable boson sampling with photon loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 230502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-H.

H. Wang, W. Li, X. Jiang, Y.-M. He, Y.-H. Li, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, W.-J. Zhang, H. Li, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, J. P. Dowling, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Toward scalable boson sampling with photon loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 230502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lloyd, S.

N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, M. Prabhu, Y. Lahini, J. Mower, D. Bunandar, C. Chen, F. N. C. Wong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Lloyd, and D. Englund, “Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 447–452 (2017).
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Lobino, M.

P. J. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 45–49 (2012).
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Loke, T.

X. Qiang, X. Zhou, J. Wang, C. M. Wilkes, T. Loke, S. O’Gara, L. Kling, G. D. Marshall, R. Santagati, T. C. Ralph, J. B. Wang, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “Large-scale silicon quantum photonics implementing arbitrary two-qubit processing,” Nat. Photonics 12(9), 534–539 (2018).
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Lowery, A. J.

Lu, C.-Y.

H. Wang, W. Li, X. Jiang, Y.-M. He, Y.-H. Li, X. Ding, M.-C. Chen, J. Qin, C.-Z. Peng, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, W.-J. Zhang, H. Li, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, J. P. Dowling, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Toward scalable boson sampling with photon loss,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(23), 230502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Maegami, Y.

G. Cong, N. Yamamoto, T. Inoue, M. Okano, Y. Maegami, M. Ohno, and K. Yamada, “High-efficient black-box calibration of large-scale silicon photonics switches by bacterial foraging algorithm,” OFC2019, M3B.3, San Diego, USA, March, 2019.

Maiorino, E.

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Integrated multimode interferometers with arbitrary designs for photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 545–549 (2013).
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Mancinska, L.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

X. Qiang, X. Zhou, J. Wang, C. M. Wilkes, T. Loke, S. O’Gara, L. Kling, G. D. Marshall, R. Santagati, T. C. Ralph, J. B. Wang, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “Large-scale silicon quantum photonics implementing arbitrary two-qubit processing,” Nat. Photonics 12(9), 534–539 (2018).
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J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
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Martín-López, E.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
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Masahara, M.

Mataloni, P.

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Integrated multimode interferometers with arbitrary designs for photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 545–549 (2013).
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Matsuda, N.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matsukawa, T.

Matsumaro, K.

Matthew Smith, A.

Matthews, J. C. F.

X. Qiang, X. Zhou, J. Wang, C. M. Wilkes, T. Loke, S. O’Gara, L. Kling, G. D. Marshall, R. Santagati, T. C. Ralph, J. B. Wang, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “Large-scale silicon quantum photonics implementing arbitrary two-qubit processing,” Nat. Photonics 12(9), 534–539 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 45–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Metcalf, B. J.

W. R. Clements, P. C. Humphreys, B. J. Metcalf, W. S. Kolthammer, and I. A. Walmsley, “Optimal design for universal multiport interferometers,” Optica 3(12), 1460–1465 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

Mower, J.

N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, M. Prabhu, Y. Lahini, J. Mower, D. Bunandar, C. Chen, F. N. C. Wong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Lloyd, and D. Englund, “Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 447–452 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Mower, N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, Y. Lahini, and D. Englund, “High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits,” Phys. Rev. A 92(3), 032322 (2015).
[Crossref]

Namiki, S.

O’Brien, J. L.

X. Qiang, X. Zhou, J. Wang, C. M. Wilkes, T. Loke, S. O’Gara, L. Kling, G. D. Marshall, R. Santagati, T. C. Ralph, J. B. Wang, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “Large-scale silicon quantum photonics implementing arbitrary two-qubit processing,” Nat. Photonics 12(9), 534–539 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
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P. J. Shadbolt, M. R. Verde, A. Peruzzo, A. Politi, A. Laing, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 45–49 (2012).
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O’Gara, S.

X. Qiang, X. Zhou, J. Wang, C. M. Wilkes, T. Loke, S. O’Gara, L. Kling, G. D. Marshall, R. Santagati, T. C. Ralph, J. B. Wang, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “Large-scale silicon quantum photonics implementing arbitrary two-qubit processing,” Nat. Photonics 12(9), 534–539 (2018).
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Oguma, M.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
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Ohno, M.

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, T. Matsukawa, G. Cong, S. H. Kim, S. Suda, M. Ohno, T. Chiba, H. Tadokoro, M. Yanagihara, Y. Igarashi, M. Masahara, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultra-compact 8 × 8 strictly-non-blocking Si-wire PILOSS switch,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3887–3894 (2014).
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G. Cong, N. Yamamoto, T. Inoue, M. Okano, Y. Maegami, M. Ohno, and K. Yamada, “High-efficient black-box calibration of large-scale silicon photonics switches by bacterial foraging algorithm,” OFC2019, M3B.3, San Diego, USA, March, 2019.

Ohtsuka, M.

Okano, M.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of algorithm implementation for a universal photonic interferometer chip. ϕ1:M: M-phase elements. ϕe: phase error. PD: photodetector. TIA: transimpedance amplifiers. BFA: bacteria-foraging algorithm. (b) Pseudo-code of BFA.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Proposal of a 6-bit reconfigurable PDAC consisting of two universal photonic circuits and a column of phase biases (ϕb) and bit input devices.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. DAC waveforms (red line) from the input port 1 to output port 6 (1→6) at various resolutions of (a) 2 bit, (b) 3 bit, (c) 4 bit, and (d) 6 bit. Blue line: initial state with random phase errors before optimization.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. 6-bit DAC waveforms (red lines) reconfigured to the port setup of (a) 1-input-2-output (1→2) and (b) 1-input-4-output (1→4). Blue lines: initial state with random phase errors before optimization.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Phase distributions of two interferometers (ϕn,m and ϕ′n,m) and phase biases (ϕb) in the PDAC topology shown in Fig. 2 for 6-bit DAC operation under different port setups: (a) 1-input-2-output (1→2), (b) 1-input-4-output (1→4), and (c) 1-input-6-output (1→6). n: row number (=0,1,2). m: column number (=0, 1, …, 10). The position of (n = 0, m = 0) is the left-top MZI in Fig. 2.

Equations (3)

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U = ( m = N 1 1 U m c U m p U m c ) U 0 c U 0 p U 0 c ,
U m c = [ U 0 , m c U 1 , m c U N 1 , m c ] 2 N × 2 N , U n , m c = [ 1 / 2 i / 2 i / 2 1 / 2 ] ,
U m p = [ U 0 , m p U 1 , m p U N 1 , m p ] 2 N × 2 N , U n , m p = [ 1 0 0 e i ϕ ] ,

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