Abstract

A nonpolar edge emitting thin film InGaN laser diode has been separated from its native substrate by mechanical tearing with adhesive tape, combining the benefits of Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELO) and cleavability of nonpolar GaN crystal. The essence of ELO is mainly to weakening strength between native substrate and the fabricated laser device on top of it. We report a 3 mm long laser bar removed from its native GaN substrate. We confirmed edge emitting lasing operation after cleaving facets on a separated thin bar. Threshold current density of the laser was measured to be as low as 2.15 kA/cm2.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).
  2. L. Zhan, F. Xia, Q. Ye, X. Xiang, and B. Xie, “Novel recycle technology for recovering rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes,” J. Hazard. Mater. 299, 388–394 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Bergamos and R. Höltig, “Recycling options for LEDs and LED products,” 2012 Electronics Goes Green 2012+ conference paper (2012).
  4. J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. W. Bedell, C. Bayram, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, J. Kiser, J. Ott, Y. Zhu, and D. Sadana, “Vertical Light-Emitting Diode Fabrication by Controlled Spalling,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112301 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, W. Grieshaber, K. S. Boutros, and J. M. Redwing, “Facet roughness analysis for InGaN/GaN lasers with cleaved facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1925–1927 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. I. Mahaboob, J. Marini, K. Hogan, E. Rocco, R. P. Tompkins, N. Lazarus, and F. S. Sandvik, “Selective Area Epitaxial Growth of Stretchable Geometry AlGaN-GaN Heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 47(11), 6625–6634 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

I. Mahaboob, J. Marini, K. Hogan, E. Rocco, R. P. Tompkins, N. Lazarus, and F. S. Sandvik, “Selective Area Epitaxial Growth of Stretchable Geometry AlGaN-GaN Heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 47(11), 6625–6634 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

L. Zhan, F. Xia, Q. Ye, X. Xiang, and B. Xie, “Novel recycle technology for recovering rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes,” J. Hazard. Mater. 299, 388–394 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. W. Bedell, C. Bayram, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, J. Kiser, J. Ott, Y. Zhu, and D. Sadana, “Vertical Light-Emitting Diode Fabrication by Controlled Spalling,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112301 (2013).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, W. Grieshaber, K. S. Boutros, and J. M. Redwing, “Facet roughness analysis for InGaN/GaN lasers with cleaved facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1925–1927 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Bayram, C.

S. W. Bedell, C. Bayram, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, J. Kiser, J. Ott, Y. Zhu, and D. Sadana, “Vertical Light-Emitting Diode Fabrication by Controlled Spalling,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beam, E.

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bedell, S. W.

S. W. Bedell, C. Bayram, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, J. Kiser, J. Ott, Y. Zhu, and D. Sadana, “Vertical Light-Emitting Diode Fabrication by Controlled Spalling,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boutros, K. S.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, W. Grieshaber, K. S. Boutros, and J. M. Redwing, “Facet roughness analysis for InGaN/GaN lasers with cleaved facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1925–1927 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlson, E.

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ciarkowski, T.

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cohen, D. A.

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fay, P.

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D. F.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fogel, K.

S. W. Bedell, C. Bayram, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, J. Kiser, J. Ott, Y. Zhu, and D. Sadana, “Vertical Light-Emitting Diode Fabrication by Controlled Spalling,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Forghani, K.

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fujito, K.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grahn, H. T.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grieshaber, W.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, W. Grieshaber, K. S. Boutros, and J. M. Redwing, “Facet roughness analysis for InGaN/GaN lasers with cleaved facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1925–1927 (1998).
[Crossref]

Guido, L.

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hogan, K.

I. Mahaboob, J. Marini, K. Hogan, E. Rocco, R. P. Tompkins, N. Lazarus, and F. S. Sandvik, “Selective Area Epitaxial Growth of Stretchable Geometry AlGaN-GaN Heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 47(11), 6625–6634 (2018).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Kim, K. C.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kiser, J.

S. W. Bedell, C. Bayram, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, J. Kiser, J. Ott, Y. Zhu, and D. Sadana, “Vertical Light-Emitting Diode Fabrication by Controlled Spalling,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Lauro, P.

S. W. Bedell, C. Bayram, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, J. Kiser, J. Ott, Y. Zhu, and D. Sadana, “Vertical Light-Emitting Diode Fabrication by Controlled Spalling,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lazarus, N.

I. Mahaboob, J. Marini, K. Hogan, E. Rocco, R. P. Tompkins, N. Lazarus, and F. S. Sandvik, “Selective Area Epitaxial Growth of Stretchable Geometry AlGaN-GaN Heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 47(11), 6625–6634 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leonard, J. T.

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mahaboob, I.

I. Mahaboob, J. Marini, K. Hogan, E. Rocco, R. P. Tompkins, N. Lazarus, and F. S. Sandvik, “Selective Area Epitaxial Growth of Stretchable Geometry AlGaN-GaN Heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 47(11), 6625–6634 (2018).
[Crossref]

Margalith, T.

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Marini, J.

I. Mahaboob, J. Marini, K. Hogan, E. Rocco, R. P. Tompkins, N. Lazarus, and F. S. Sandvik, “Selective Area Epitaxial Growth of Stretchable Geometry AlGaN-GaN Heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 47(11), 6625–6634 (2018).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

McCarthy, R.

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Nakamura, S.

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Ott, J.

S. W. Bedell, C. Bayram, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, J. Kiser, J. Ott, Y. Zhu, and D. Sadana, “Vertical Light-Emitting Diode Fabrication by Controlled Spalling,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramsteiner, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reddy, R.

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Redwing, J. M.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, W. Grieshaber, K. S. Boutros, and J. M. Redwing, “Facet roughness analysis for InGaN/GaN lasers with cleaved facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1925–1927 (1998).
[Crossref]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rocco, E.

I. Mahaboob, J. Marini, K. Hogan, E. Rocco, R. P. Tompkins, N. Lazarus, and F. S. Sandvik, “Selective Area Epitaxial Growth of Stretchable Geometry AlGaN-GaN Heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 47(11), 6625–6634 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sadana, D.

S. W. Bedell, C. Bayram, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, J. Kiser, J. Ott, Y. Zhu, and D. Sadana, “Vertical Light-Emitting Diode Fabrication by Controlled Spalling,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saito, M.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sandvik, F. S.

I. Mahaboob, J. Marini, K. Hogan, E. Rocco, R. P. Tompkins, N. Lazarus, and F. S. Sandvik, “Selective Area Epitaxial Growth of Stretchable Geometry AlGaN-GaN Heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 47(11), 6625–6634 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. C.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, W. Grieshaber, K. S. Boutros, and J. M. Redwing, “Facet roughness analysis for InGaN/GaN lasers with cleaved facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1925–1927 (1998).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Speck, J. S.

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stocker, D. A.

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, W. Grieshaber, K. S. Boutros, and J. M. Redwing, “Facet roughness analysis for InGaN/GaN lasers with cleaved facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1925–1927 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Tompkins, R. P.

I. Mahaboob, J. Marini, K. Hogan, E. Rocco, R. P. Tompkins, N. Lazarus, and F. S. Sandvik, “Selective Area Epitaxial Growth of Stretchable Geometry AlGaN-GaN Heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 47(11), 6625–6634 (2018).
[Crossref]

Trampert, A.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waltereit, P.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

L. Zhan, F. Xia, Q. Ye, X. Xiang, and B. Xie, “Novel recycle technology for recovering rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes,” J. Hazard. Mater. 299, 388–394 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, X.

L. Zhan, F. Xia, Q. Ye, X. Xiang, and B. Xie, “Novel recycle technology for recovering rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes,” J. Hazard. Mater. 299, 388–394 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, A.

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, B.

L. Zhan, F. Xia, Q. Ye, X. Xiang, and B. Xie, “Novel recycle technology for recovering rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes,” J. Hazard. Mater. 299, 388–394 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Ye, Q.

L. Zhan, F. Xia, Q. Ye, X. Xiang, and B. Xie, “Novel recycle technology for recovering rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes,” J. Hazard. Mater. 299, 388–394 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yonkee, B. P.

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Youtsey, C.

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhan, L.

L. Zhan, F. Xia, Q. Ye, X. Xiang, and B. Xie, “Novel recycle technology for recovering rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes,” J. Hazard. Mater. 299, 388–394 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

S. W. Bedell, C. Bayram, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, J. Kiser, J. Ott, Y. Zhu, and D. Sadana, “Vertical Light-Emitting Diode Fabrication by Controlled Spalling,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. W. Bedell, C. Bayram, K. Fogel, P. Lauro, J. Kiser, J. Ott, Y. Zhu, and D. Sadana, “Vertical Light-Emitting Diode Fabrication by Controlled Spalling,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. A. Stocker, E. F. Schubert, W. Grieshaber, K. S. Boutros, and J. M. Redwing, “Facet roughness analysis for InGaN/GaN lasers with cleaved facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1925–1927 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, B. P. Yonkee, R. M. Farrell, T. Margalith, S. Lee, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(1), 011102 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

I. Mahaboob, J. Marini, K. Hogan, E. Rocco, R. P. Tompkins, N. Lazarus, and F. S. Sandvik, “Selective Area Epitaxial Growth of Stretchable Geometry AlGaN-GaN Heterostructures,” J. Electron. Mater. 47(11), 6625–6634 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hazard. Mater. (1)

L. Zhan, F. Xia, Q. Ye, X. Xiang, and B. Xie, “Novel recycle technology for recovering rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes,” J. Hazard. Mater. 299, 388–394 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. C. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

C. Youtsey, R. McCarthy, R. Reddy, K. Forghani, A. Xie, E. Beam, J. Wang, P. Fay, T. Ciarkowski, E. Carlson, and L. Guido, “Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of GaN using bandgap-selective photo enhanced wet etching,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 254(8), 1600774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Bergamos and R. Höltig, “Recycling options for LEDs and LED products,” 2012 Electronics Goes Green 2012+ conference paper (2012).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Bird view SEM image showing the laser bar before the removal.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic illustration of the removal of a laser die from its free standing m-plane GaN substrate using the polymer adhesive tape.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Cathodoluminescence (CL) image at 7 kV of m-plane GaN substrate, (b) CL image of ELO layer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Bird view SEM image showing overlook of the laser bar after removal, (b) Optical microscope image showing the backside of the laser bar after removal.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Surface profilometry data showing the characteristic roughness associated with the removed substrate surface after removing of the laser bar.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Cross-sectional HAADF-STEM image showing the laser structure layers at the center of the laser bar in the window region
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a)Voltage and output power versus current density for the LD device after removal, with uncoated facets. (b) Emission spectrum above lasing threshold.

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