Abstract

We present a low-complexity fully pilot-based digital signal processing (DSP) chain designed for high spectral efficiency optical transmission systems. We study the performance of the individual pilot algorithms in simulations before demonstrating transmission of a 51×24 Gbaud PM-64QAM superchannel over distances reaching 1000 km. We present an overhead optimization technique using the system achievable information rate to find the optimal balance between increased performance and throughput reduction from adding additional DSP pilots. Using the optimal overhead of 2.4%, we report 9.3 (8.3) bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency, or equivalently 11.9 (10.6) Tb/s superchannel throughput, after 480 (960) km of transmission over 80 km spans with EDFA-only amplification. Moreover, we show that the optimum overhead depends only weakly on transmission distance, concluding that back-to-back optimization is sufficient for all studied distances. Our results show that pilot-based DSP combined with overhead optimization can increase the robustness and performance of systems using advanced modulation formats while still maintaining state-of-the-art spectral efficiency and multi-Tb/s throughput.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

G. Bosco, “Advanced modulation techniques for flexible optical transceivers: The rate/reach tradeoff,” J. Light. Technol. 37, 36–49 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

P. J. Winzer, D. T. Neilson, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber-optic transmission and networking: the previous 20 and the next 20 years [invited],” Opt. Express 26, 24190–24239 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Varughese, J. Langston, V. A. Thomas, S. Tibuleac, and S. E. Ralph, “Frequency dependent ENoB requirements for M-QAM optical links: An analysis using an improved digital to analog converter model,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 4082–4089 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, M. P. Yankov, F. D. Ros, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, M. Galili, S. Forchhammer, L. K. Oxenlowe, and T. Morioka, “Ultrahigh-spectral-efficiency WDM/SDM transmission using PDM-1024-QAM probabilistic shaping with adaptive rate,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 1304–1308 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-X. Cai, H. G. Batshon, M. V. Mazurczyk, O. V. Sinkin, D. Wang, M. Paskov, W. W. Patterson, C. R. Davidson, P. C. Corbett, G. M. Wolter, T. E. Hammon, M. A. Bolshtyansky, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “70.46 Tb/s over 7,600 km and 71.65Tb/s over 6,970 km transmission in C+L band using coded modulation with hybrid constellation shaping and nonlinearity compensation,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 114–121 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, K. Zhang, R. Zhang, R. Proietti, H. Lu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of a carrier frequency offset estimator for 16-/32-QAM coherent receivers: a hardware perspective,” Opt. Express 26, 4853–4862 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mazur, A. Lorences-Riesgo, J. Schroder, P. A. Andrekson, and M. Karlsson, “High spectral efficiency PM-128qam comb-based superchannel transmission enabled by a single shared optical pilot tone,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 1318–1325 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. S. Faruk and S. J. Savory, “Digital signal processing for coherent transceivers employing multilevel formats,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 1125–1141 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. P. Guiomar, A. Carena, G. Bosco, L. Bertignono, A. Nespola, and P. Poggiolini, “Nonlinear mitigation on subcarrier-multiplexed PM-16QAM optical systems,” Opt. Express 25, 4298–4311 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

T. Fehenberger, A. Alvarado, G. Böcherer, and N. Hanik, “On probabilistic shaping of quadrature amplitude modulation for the nonlinear fiber channel,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 5063–5073 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Napoli, M. Mezghanni, T. Rahman, D. Rafique, R. Palmer, B. Spinnler, S. Calabro, C. Carlos, M. Kuschnerov, and M. Bohn, “Digital compensation of bandwidth limitations for high-speed DACs and ADCs,” J. Light. Technol. 6, 1 (2016).

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. J. Richardson, P. M. Krummrich, P. Winzer, K. Roberts, J. K. Fischer, S. J. Savory, B. J. Eggleton, M. Secondini, F. R. Kschischang, A. Lord, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, J. E. Bowers, S. Srinivasan, M. Brandt-Pearce, and N. Gisin, “Roadmap of optical communications,” J. Opt. 18, 063002 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Alvarado, E. Agrell, D. Lavery, R. Maher, and P. Bayvel, “Replacing the soft-decision FEC limit paradigm in the design of optical communication systems,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 707–721 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. M. Krummrich, D. Ronnenberg, W. Schairer, D. Wienold, F. Jenau, and M. Herrmann, “Demanding response time requirements on coherent receivers due to fast polarization rotations caused by lightning events,” Opt. Express 24, 12442–12457 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Alfredsson, R. Krishnan, and E. Agrell, “Joint-polarization phase-noise estimation and symbol detection for optical coherent receivers,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4394–4405 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Millar, R. Maher, D. Lavery, T. Koike-Akino, M. Pajovic, A. Alvarado, M. Paskov, K. Kojima, K. Parsons, B. C. Thomsen, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Design of a 1 Tb/s superchannel coherent receiver,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 1453–1463 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Rahman, D. Rafique, B. Spinnler, S. Calabr, E. D. Man, A. Napoli, M. Bohn, G. Khanna, N. Hanik, S. Member, E. Pincemin, C. L. Bou, S. Bordais, C. Andr, C. Dourthe, and B. Ragu, “Long-haul transmission of PM-16QAM, PM-32QAM and PM-64QAM based terabit superchannels over a field deployed legacy fiber,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3071–3079 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

S. Yao, T. A. Eriksson, S. Fu, P. Johannisson, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, T. Ming, and D. Liu, “Fast and robust chromatic dispersion estimation based on temporal auto-correlation after digital spectrum superposition,” Opt. Express 23, 15418 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghazisaeidi, L. Schmalen, I. F. de Jauregui Ruiz, P. Tran, C. Simonneau, P. Brindel, and G. Charlet, “Transoceanic transmission systems using adaptive multirate FECs,” J. Light. Technol. 33, 1479–1487 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

A. Leven and L. Schmalen, “Status and recent advances on forward error correction technologies for lightwave systems,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2735–2750 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Laperle and M. Osullivan, “Advances in high-speed DACs, ADCs, and DSP for optical coherent transceivers,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 629–643 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, Y. Jiang, and F. Forghieri, “The GN-model of fiber non-linear propagation and its applications,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 694–721 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, and P. J. Winzer, “Digital signal processing techniques enabling multi-Tb/s superchannel transmission: An overview of recent advances in DSP-enabled superchannels,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 31, 16–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Rafique, A. Napoli, S. Calabro, and B. Spinnler, “Digital preemphasis in optical communication systems: On the DAC requirements for terabit transmission applications,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 3247–3256 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. E. Crivelli, M. R. Hueda, H. S. Carrer, M. del Barco, R. R. Lopez, P. Gianni, J. Finochietto, N. Swenson, P. Voois, and O. E. Agazzi, “Architecture of a single-chip 50 Gb/s DP-QPSK/BPSK transceiver with electronic dispersion compensation for coherent optical channels,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits Syst. I: Regul. Pap. 61, 1012–1025 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

R. Dar, M. Feder, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Properties of nonlinear noise in long, dispersion-uncompensated fiber links,” Opt. Express 21, 25685–25699 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “High-power broadly tunable electrooptic frequency comb generator,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 231–236 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

R. Elschner, F. Frey, C. Meuer, J. K. Fischer, S. Alreesh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, L. Molle, T. Tanimura, and C. Schubert, “Experimental demonstration of a format-flexible single-carrier coherent receiver using data-aided digital signal processing, ” Opt. Express 20, 6 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Wymeersch and P. Johannisson, “Maximum-likelihood-based blind dispersion estimation for coherent optical communication,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 2976–2982 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Magarini, L. Barletta, A. Spalvieri, F. Vacondio, T. Pfau, M. Pepe, M. Bertolini, and G. Gavioli, “Pilot-symbols-aided carrier-phase Recovery for 100-G PM-QPSK digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 739–741 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Spalvieri and L. Barletta, “Pilot-aided carrier recovery in the presence of phase noise,” IEEE Transactions on Commun. 59, 1966–1974 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 387–403 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations,” J. Light. Technol. 27, 989–999 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. Savory, “Blind Equalization and Carrier Phase Recovery in a 16-QAM Optical Coherent System,” J. Light. Technol. 27, 3042–3049 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications,” J. Light. Technol. 25, 2675–2692 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. Noe, “Phase noise-tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery,” J. Light. Technol. 23, 802–808 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, and P. Andrekson, “Long-term measurement of PMD and polarization drift in installed fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 18, 941–951 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A.-J. van der Veen and A. Paulraj, “An analytical constant modulus algorithm,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Process. 44, 1136–1155 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

L. B. Mercer, “1/f frequency noise effects on self-heterodyne linewidth measurements,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 485–493 (1991).
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1983 (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic over the frame structured used to implement the pilot-based DSP. The frame consists of an initial sequence of pilots followed by the payload with periodically inserted, individual, pilot symbols for continuous phase tracking. The pilot symbols are PM-QPSK and the payload can be any arbitrary modulation format. The constellation diagrams show pilots and payload (PM-64QAM) for an SNR of 16.7 dB, corresponding to a payload BER of about 4⋅10−2. (b) The order of the various DSP algorithms used to process the frame and extract the information carried by the payload symbols.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Blind vs. pilot-aided (a) frequency offset and (b) SNR estimation for different estimation block lengths. The algorithmic implementations are described in Section 2.3 and Section 2.4, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulation of sensitivity to polarization rotations caused by dynamic environmental fluctuations in the fiber. (a) GMI reduction (penalty) for a rotation of Θ degrees. (b) AIR optimization considering a pilot sequence of2048 symbols. The rotation Θ here occurs over a total time corresponding to 218 symbols. As such, a rotation angle Θ = 10° corresponds to a rotation speed of about about 16krad/s considering a 24 Gbaud signal.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Performance of pilot-based CPE using simple linear interpolation for 16QAM, 64QAM and 256QAM at a target BER of 4⋅10−2. The overall simulated linewidth is a factor of two larger, accounting for equivalent laser performance in both the transmitter and the receiver. The AIR is calculated by deducting the CPE pilot OH from the measured GMI and each curve is normalized to its maximum value.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental setup used for pilot-DSP evaluation in transmission of the 51×24 Gbaud PM-64QAM superchannel. (b) Measured superchannel spectrum after 480 km and 960 km of transmission, respectively. (c) Launchpower sweepfor 5 selected evenly spaced test channels after 480 km. (d) Launch power sweep at varying distance for center channel at 1545.3 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Pilot overhead optimization using AIR. (a) Measured GMI and corresponding AIR for varying the pilot sequence length from 16384 to 768 symbols. (b) Corresponding results for varying the CPE pilot block length from 32 to 2048 symbols. (c) and (d) Distance dependence for the found optima for pilot sequence and CPE block length, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured GMI for all 51 channels in B2B and after 480 and 960 km of transmission. (b) - (d), corresponding constellation diagrams for the center channel at 1545.3 nm.

Equations (4)

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y k = x k exp  ( j 2 π k Δ f T 0 ) + n k ,
y k = 2 π k f 0 x k + ϵ k ,
L i = log  x χ i 1 exp  ( ρ | y x | 2 ) x χ i 0 exp  ( ρ | y x | 2 ) ,
( x ^ k x x ^ k y ) = ( cos  ( Θ ) sin  ( Θ ) sin  ( Θ ) cos  ( Θ ) ) ) ( x k x x k y , )

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