Abstract

Phase flickers in the digital liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices employing the pulse width modulation (PWM) driving scheme have a detrimental effect on optical performances, especially in the non-display applications. This paper investigated the relationship between the PWM waveform and the corresponding phase flicker in digital LCOS devices. It has been identified that the magnitude of the phase flicker depends on the pulse patterns in the driving waveform as well as the dynamic response of the liquid crystal molecules at different tilting angles. A simple but generic method has been developed based on these findings, which is able to accurately predict the temporal phase response of the liquid crystal to any PWM waveforms. This method is further used for rapid identifications of low-flicker PWM waveforms, without the need for increasing the complexity of the driving circuitry. The peak-to-peak phase flicker in the LCOS device under our investigation has been reduced by >80% from ∼0.16pi to ∼0.03pi when operating at 30°C.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

H. M. P. Chen, J. P. Yang, H. T. Yen, Z. N. Hsu, Y. Huang, and S. T. Wu, “Pursuing High Quality Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Devices,” Appl. Sci. 8(11), 2323 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

M. Wang, L. Zong, L. Mao, A. Marquez, Y. Ye, H. Zhao, and F. J. V. Caballero, “LCoS SLM Study and Its Application in Wavelength Selective Switch,” Photonics 4(4), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

J. Garcia-Marquez, E. López-Padilla, A. González-Vega, and E. Noé-Arias, “Flicker reduction in an LCoS spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80112S (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Cheng, D. Fung, and K. Guttag, “Digital High Resolution Small Pixel LCOS Technology,” Solid State Phenom. 181-182, 233–236 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, N. Collings, M. Pivnenko, J. Moore, B. Crossland, D. P. Chu, and B. Milne, “High Quality Assembly of Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, “Characterization and analysis of LCoS displays: Application to diffractive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420Y (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 19–24 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. Takano, H. Shigeta, T. Nishihara, M. Yamaguchi, S. Takahashi, N. Ohyama, A. Kobayashi, and F. Iwata, “Full-color holographic 3D printer,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 126 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Bach-Y-Rita, M. E. Tyler, and K. A. Kaczamarek, “Seeing with the brain,” Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Interact. 15(2), 285–295 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1989 (1)

Abakoumov, D.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly Programmable Wavelength Selective Switch Based on Liquid Crystal on Silicon Switching Elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2.

Ayliffe, P. J.

Bach-Y-Rita, P.

P. Bach-Y-Rita, M. E. Tyler, and K. A. Kaczamarek, “Seeing with the brain,” Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Interact. 15(2), 285–295 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bartels, R. A.

Bartos, A.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly Programmable Wavelength Selective Switch Based on Liquid Crystal on Silicon Switching Elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2.

Baxter, G.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly Programmable Wavelength Selective Switch Based on Liquid Crystal on Silicon Switching Elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2.

Bay, C.

Beléndez, A.

Bleha Jr, W. P.

W. P. Bleha Jr and L. A. Lei, “Advances in Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Spatial Light Modulator Technology,” Proc. SPIE 8736, 87360A (2013).
[Crossref]

Caballero, F. J. V.

M. Wang, L. Zong, L. Mao, A. Marquez, Y. Ye, H. Zhao, and F. J. V. Caballero, “LCoS SLM Study and Its Application in Wavelength Selective Switch,” Photonics 4(4), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Campos, J.

Chen, H. M. P.

H. M. P. Chen, J. P. Yang, H. T. Yen, Z. N. Hsu, Y. Huang, and S. T. Wu, “Pursuing High Quality Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Devices,” Appl. Sci. 8(11), 2323 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, D.

D. Cheng, D. Fung, and K. Guttag, “Digital High Resolution Small Pixel LCOS Technology,” Solid State Phenom. 181-182, 233–236 (2011).
[Crossref]

Christmas, J.

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chu, D.

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, B. Robertson, and D. Chu, “Transient Crosstalk in LCOS Based WSS and a Method to Suppress the Crosstalk Levels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OW1C.3.

Chu, D. P.

Z. Zhang, H. Xu, H. Yang, Z. You, and D. P. Chu, “Temperature-dependent optical response of phase-only nematic liquid crystal on silicon devices,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(11), 111601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. P. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(10), e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, B. Robertson, D. Yu, Z. Zhang, and D. P. Chu, “Origin of Transient Crosstalk and Its Reduction in Phase-only LCOS Wavelength Selective Switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3822–3829 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, N. Collings, M. Pivnenko, J. Moore, B. Crossland, D. P. Chu, and B. Milne, “High Quality Assembly of Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Clarke, I.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly Programmable Wavelength Selective Switch Based on Liquid Crystal on Silicon Switching Elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2.

Collings, N.

Z. Zhang, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, N. Collings, M. Pivnenko, J. Moore, B. Crossland, D. P. Chu, and B. Milne, “High Quality Assembly of Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, P. J. Ayliffe, D. G. Vass, and I. Underwood, “Evolutionary development of advanced liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 28(22), 4740–4747 (1989).
[Crossref]

Crossland, B.

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, N. Collings, M. Pivnenko, J. Moore, B. Crossland, D. P. Chu, and B. Milne, “High Quality Assembly of Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Crossland, W. A.

Cuypers, D.

D. Cuypers and H. D. Smet, “Suppression of flicker in analog LCOS panels using Al2O3/SiO2 alignment layers,” IDW: proceedings of the International Display Workshops. 20. (ITE and SID, 2013) pp. 1232–1235.

Davey, T.

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[Crossref]

de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J. L.

Dupont, L.

Fernández, E.

Francés, J.

Freeman, J.

Frisken, S.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly Programmable Wavelength Selective Switch Based on Liquid Crystal on Silicon Switching Elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2.

Fung, D.

D. Cheng, D. Fung, and K. Guttag, “Digital High Resolution Small Pixel LCOS Technology,” Solid State Phenom. 181-182, 233–236 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gallego, S.

Garcia-Marquez, J.

J. Garcia-Marquez, E. López-Padilla, A. González-Vega, and E. Noé-Arias, “Flicker reduction in an LCoS spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80112S (2011).
[Crossref]

García-Márquez, J.

Gauza, S.

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 19–24 (2004).
[Crossref]

González-Vega, A.

J. García-Márquez, V. López, A. González-Vega, and E. Noé, “Flicker minimization in an LCoS spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8431–8441 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Garcia-Marquez, E. López-Padilla, A. González-Vega, and E. Noé-Arias, “Flicker reduction in an LCoS spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80112S (2011).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 4th ed. (W.H. Freeman, 2017).

Guttag, K.

D. Cheng, D. Fung, and K. Guttag, “Digital High Resolution Small Pixel LCOS Technology,” Solid State Phenom. 181-182, 233–236 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hermerschmidt, A.

G. Lazarev, A. Hermerschmidt, S. Krüger, S. Osten, W. Osten, and N. Reingand, “LCOS spatial light modulators: Trends and applications,” in Optical Imaging and Metrology: Advanced Technologies, W. Osten and N. Reingand, eds. (Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, 2012) Chap. 1

Hsu, Z. N.

H. M. P. Chen, J. P. Yang, H. T. Yen, Z. N. Hsu, Y. Huang, and S. T. Wu, “Pursuing High Quality Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Devices,” Appl. Sci. 8(11), 2323 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

H. M. P. Chen, J. P. Yang, H. T. Yen, Z. N. Hsu, Y. Huang, and S. T. Wu, “Pursuing High Quality Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Devices,” Appl. Sci. 8(11), 2323 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hübner, N.

Iemmi, C.

Iwata, F.

M. Takano, H. Shigeta, T. Nishihara, M. Yamaguchi, S. Takahashi, N. Ohyama, A. Kobayashi, and F. Iwata, “Full-color holographic 3D printer,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jeziorska-Chapman, A. M.

Z. Zhang, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, N. Collings, M. Pivnenko, J. Moore, B. Crossland, D. P. Chu, and B. Milne, “High Quality Assembly of Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Johnson, K. M.

Kaczamarek, K. A.

P. Bach-Y-Rita, M. E. Tyler, and K. A. Kaczamarek, “Seeing with the brain,” Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Interact. 15(2), 285–295 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, A.

M. Takano, H. Shigeta, T. Nishihara, M. Yamaguchi, S. Takahashi, N. Ohyama, A. Kobayashi, and F. Iwata, “Full-color holographic 3D printer,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Krüger, S.

G. Lazarev, A. Hermerschmidt, S. Krüger, S. Osten, W. Osten, and N. Reingand, “LCOS spatial light modulators: Trends and applications,” in Optical Imaging and Metrology: Advanced Technologies, W. Osten and N. Reingand, eds. (Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, 2012) Chap. 1

Lazarev, G.

G. Lazarev, A. Hermerschmidt, S. Krüger, S. Osten, W. Osten, and N. Reingand, “LCOS spatial light modulators: Trends and applications,” in Optical Imaging and Metrology: Advanced Technologies, W. Osten and N. Reingand, eds. (Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, 2012) Chap. 1

Lei, L. A.

W. P. Bleha Jr and L. A. Lei, “Advances in Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Spatial Light Modulator Technology,” Proc. SPIE 8736, 87360A (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 19–24 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lizana, A.

López, V.

López-Padilla, E.

J. Garcia-Marquez, E. López-Padilla, A. González-Vega, and E. Noé-Arias, “Flicker reduction in an LCoS spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80112S (2011).
[Crossref]

Mao, L.

M. Wang, L. Zong, L. Mao, A. Marquez, Y. Ye, H. Zhao, and F. J. V. Caballero, “LCoS SLM Study and Its Application in Wavelength Selective Switch,” Photonics 4(4), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Marquez, A.

M. Wang, L. Zong, L. Mao, A. Marquez, Y. Ye, H. Zhao, and F. J. V. Caballero, “LCoS SLM Study and Its Application in Wavelength Selective Switch,” Photonics 4(4), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Márquez, A.

Martínez, F. J.

McKnight, D. J.

Milne, B.

Z. Zhang, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, N. Collings, M. Pivnenko, J. Moore, B. Crossland, D. P. Chu, and B. Milne, “High Quality Assembly of Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moore, J.

Z. Zhang, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, N. Collings, M. Pivnenko, J. Moore, B. Crossland, D. P. Chu, and B. Milne, “High Quality Assembly of Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moreno, I.

Nishihara, T.

M. Takano, H. Shigeta, T. Nishihara, M. Yamaguchi, S. Takahashi, N. Ohyama, A. Kobayashi, and F. Iwata, “Full-color holographic 3D printer,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Noé, E.

Noé-Arias, E.

J. Garcia-Marquez, E. López-Padilla, A. González-Vega, and E. Noé-Arias, “Flicker reduction in an LCoS spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80112S (2011).
[Crossref]

Nyvlt, M.

M. Nyvlt and M. Skeren, “Compact optical tweezers based on SLM for real-time optical trapping and manipulation,” in Frontiers in Optics 2009/Laser Science XXV/Fall 2009 OSA Optics & Photonics Technical Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWC64.

Ohyama, N.

M. Takano, H. Shigeta, T. Nishihara, M. Yamaguchi, S. Takahashi, N. Ohyama, A. Kobayashi, and F. Iwata, “Full-color holographic 3D printer,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ortuño, M.

Osten, S.

G. Lazarev, A. Hermerschmidt, S. Krüger, S. Osten, W. Osten, and N. Reingand, “LCOS spatial light modulators: Trends and applications,” in Optical Imaging and Metrology: Advanced Technologies, W. Osten and N. Reingand, eds. (Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, 2012) Chap. 1

Osten, W.

G. Lazarev, A. Hermerschmidt, S. Krüger, S. Osten, W. Osten, and N. Reingand, “LCOS spatial light modulators: Trends and applications,” in Optical Imaging and Metrology: Advanced Technologies, W. Osten and N. Reingand, eds. (Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, 2012) Chap. 1

Pascual, I.

Pivnenko, M.

Z. Zhang, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, N. Collings, M. Pivnenko, J. Moore, B. Crossland, D. P. Chu, and B. Milne, “High Quality Assembly of Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Poole, S.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly Programmable Wavelength Selective Switch Based on Liquid Crystal on Silicon Switching Elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2.

Reingand, N.

G. Lazarev, A. Hermerschmidt, S. Krüger, S. Osten, W. Osten, and N. Reingand, “LCOS spatial light modulators: Trends and applications,” in Optical Imaging and Metrology: Advanced Technologies, W. Osten and N. Reingand, eds. (Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, 2012) Chap. 1

Robertson, B.

H. Yang, B. Robertson, D. Yu, Z. Zhang, and D. P. Chu, “Origin of Transient Crosstalk and Its Reduction in Phase-only LCOS Wavelength Selective Switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3822–3829 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, B. Robertson, and D. Chu, “Transient Crosstalk in LCOS Based WSS and a Method to Suppress the Crosstalk Levels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OW1C.3.

Roy, M.

M. Roy, W. Zheng, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Rapid Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Using Geometric Phase Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Technology,” in Imaging and Applied Optics 2018 (3D, AO, AIO, COSI, DH, IS, LACSEA, LS&C, MATH, pcAOP), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper IM3B.2.

Schlup, P.

Serati, R. A.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. Roy, W. Zheng, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Rapid Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Using Geometric Phase Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Technology,” in Imaging and Applied Optics 2018 (3D, AO, AIO, COSI, DH, IS, LACSEA, LS&C, MATH, pcAOP), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper IM3B.2.

Shigeta, H.

M. Takano, H. Shigeta, T. Nishihara, M. Yamaguchi, S. Takahashi, N. Ohyama, A. Kobayashi, and F. Iwata, “Full-color holographic 3D printer,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Skeren, M.

M. Nyvlt and M. Skeren, “Compact optical tweezers based on SLM for real-time optical trapping and manipulation,” in Frontiers in Optics 2009/Laser Science XXV/Fall 2009 OSA Optics & Photonics Technical Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWC64.

Smet, H. D.

D. Cuypers and H. D. Smet, “Suppression of flicker in analog LCOS panels using Al2O3/SiO2 alignment layers,” IDW: proceedings of the International Display Workshops. 20. (ITE and SID, 2013) pp. 1232–1235.

Sprünken, D. P.

D. P. Sprünken, “A 2D spatial light modulator for spatio-temporal shaping,” Thesis, University of Twentet, (2008) (available at https://essay.utwente.nl).

Takahashi, S.

M. Takano, H. Shigeta, T. Nishihara, M. Yamaguchi, S. Takahashi, N. Ohyama, A. Kobayashi, and F. Iwata, “Full-color holographic 3D printer,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takano, M.

M. Takano, H. Shigeta, T. Nishihara, M. Yamaguchi, S. Takahashi, N. Ohyama, A. Kobayashi, and F. Iwata, “Full-color holographic 3D printer,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tyler, M. E.

P. Bach-Y-Rita, M. E. Tyler, and K. A. Kaczamarek, “Seeing with the brain,” Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Interact. 15(2), 285–295 (2003).
[Crossref]

Underwood, I.

Vass, D. G.

Vettese, D.

D. Vettese, “Microdisplays: liquid crystal on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 752–754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, L. Zong, L. Mao, A. Marquez, Y. Ye, H. Zhao, and F. J. V. Caballero, “LCoS SLM Study and Its Application in Wavelength Selective Switch,” Photonics 4(4), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, T.

Wilson, J. W.

Wu, S. T.

H. M. P. Chen, J. P. Yang, H. T. Yen, Z. N. Hsu, Y. Huang, and S. T. Wu, “Pursuing High Quality Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Devices,” Appl. Sci. 8(11), 2323 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 19–24 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Takano, H. Shigeta, T. Nishihara, M. Yamaguchi, S. Takahashi, N. Ohyama, A. Kobayashi, and F. Iwata, “Full-color holographic 3D printer,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Z. Zhang, H. Xu, H. Yang, Z. You, and D. P. Chu, “Temperature-dependent optical response of phase-only nematic liquid crystal on silicon devices,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(11), 111601 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, B. Robertson, D. Yu, Z. Zhang, and D. P. Chu, “Origin of Transient Crosstalk and Its Reduction in Phase-only LCOS Wavelength Selective Switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3822–3829 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, B. Robertson, and D. Chu, “Transient Crosstalk in LCOS Based WSS and a Method to Suppress the Crosstalk Levels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OW1C.3.

Yang, J. P.

H. M. P. Chen, J. P. Yang, H. T. Yen, Z. N. Hsu, Y. Huang, and S. T. Wu, “Pursuing High Quality Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Devices,” Appl. Sci. 8(11), 2323 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ye, Y.

M. Wang, L. Zong, L. Mao, A. Marquez, Y. Ye, H. Zhao, and F. J. V. Caballero, “LCoS SLM Study and Its Application in Wavelength Selective Switch,” Photonics 4(4), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yen, H. T.

H. M. P. Chen, J. P. Yang, H. T. Yen, Z. N. Hsu, Y. Huang, and S. T. Wu, “Pursuing High Quality Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Devices,” Appl. Sci. 8(11), 2323 (2018).
[Crossref]

You, Z.

Z. Zhang, H. Xu, H. Yang, Z. You, and D. P. Chu, “Temperature-dependent optical response of phase-only nematic liquid crystal on silicon devices,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(11), 111601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. P. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(10), e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, D.

Yzuel, M.

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, “Characterization and analysis of LCoS displays: Application to diffractive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420Y (2009).
[Crossref]

Yzuel, M. J.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, H. Xu, H. Yang, Z. You, and D. P. Chu, “Temperature-dependent optical response of phase-only nematic liquid crystal on silicon devices,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(11), 111601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. P. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(10), e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, B. Robertson, D. Yu, Z. Zhang, and D. P. Chu, “Origin of Transient Crosstalk and Its Reduction in Phase-only LCOS Wavelength Selective Switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3822–3829 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, N. Collings, M. Pivnenko, J. Moore, B. Crossland, D. P. Chu, and B. Milne, “High Quality Assembly of Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

M. Wang, L. Zong, L. Mao, A. Marquez, Y. Ye, H. Zhao, and F. J. V. Caballero, “LCoS SLM Study and Its Application in Wavelength Selective Switch,” Photonics 4(4), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, W.

M. Roy, W. Zheng, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Rapid Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Using Geometric Phase Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Technology,” in Imaging and Applied Optics 2018 (3D, AO, AIO, COSI, DH, IS, LACSEA, LS&C, MATH, pcAOP), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper IM3B.2.

Zhou, H.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly Programmable Wavelength Selective Switch Based on Liquid Crystal on Silicon Switching Elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2.

Zong, L.

M. Wang, L. Zong, L. Mao, A. Marquez, Y. Ye, H. Zhao, and F. J. V. Caballero, “LCoS SLM Study and Its Application in Wavelength Selective Switch,” Photonics 4(4), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Sci. (1)

H. M. P. Chen, J. P. Yang, H. T. Yen, Z. N. Hsu, Y. Huang, and S. T. Wu, “Pursuing High Quality Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Devices,” Appl. Sci. 8(11), 2323 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Interact. (1)

P. Bach-Y-Rita, M. E. Tyler, and K. A. Kaczamarek, “Seeing with the brain,” Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Interact. 15(2), 285–295 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 19–24 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

N. Collings, T. Davey, J. Christmas, D. Chu, and B. Crossland, “The applications and technology of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 112–119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, N. Collings, M. Pivnenko, J. Moore, B. Crossland, D. P. Chu, and B. Milne, “High Quality Assembly of Phase-Only Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Devices,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(3), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

Z. Zhang, Z. You, and D. P. Chu, “Fundamentals of phase-only liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(10), e213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Vettese, “Microdisplays: liquid crystal on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 752–754 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics (1)

M. Wang, L. Zong, L. Mao, A. Marquez, Y. Ye, H. Zhao, and F. J. V. Caballero, “LCoS SLM Study and Its Application in Wavelength Selective Switch,” Photonics 4(4), 22 (2017).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (4)

J. Garcia-Marquez, E. López-Padilla, A. González-Vega, and E. Noé-Arias, “Flicker reduction in an LCoS spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80112S (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Takano, H. Shigeta, T. Nishihara, M. Yamaguchi, S. Takahashi, N. Ohyama, A. Kobayashi, and F. Iwata, “Full-color holographic 3D printer,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 126 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, “Characterization and analysis of LCoS displays: Application to diffractive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420Y (2009).
[Crossref]

W. P. Bleha Jr and L. A. Lei, “Advances in Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Spatial Light Modulator Technology,” Proc. SPIE 8736, 87360A (2013).
[Crossref]

Solid State Phenom. (1)

D. Cheng, D. Fung, and K. Guttag, “Digital High Resolution Small Pixel LCOS Technology,” Solid State Phenom. 181-182, 233–236 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (13)

https://www.jasperdisplay.com/products/wafer/jd2704-q4k70/

D. P. Sprünken, “A 2D spatial light modulator for spatio-temporal shaping,” Thesis, University of Twentet, (2008) (available at https://essay.utwente.nl).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 4th ed. (W.H. Freeman, 2017).

https://www.jasperdisplay.com/products/wafer/jd2552-sp55/

H. Yang, B. Robertson, and D. Chu, “Transient Crosstalk in LCOS Based WSS and a Method to Suppress the Crosstalk Levels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OW1C.3.

D. Cuypers and H. D. Smet, “Suppression of flicker in analog LCOS panels using Al2O3/SiO2 alignment layers,” IDW: proceedings of the International Display Workshops. 20. (ITE and SID, 2013) pp. 1232–1235.

G. Lazarev, A. Hermerschmidt, S. Krüger, S. Osten, W. Osten, and N. Reingand, “LCOS spatial light modulators: Trends and applications,” in Optical Imaging and Metrology: Advanced Technologies, W. Osten and N. Reingand, eds. (Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, 2012) Chap. 1

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly Programmable Wavelength Selective Switch Based on Liquid Crystal on Silicon Switching Elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2.

M. Roy, W. Zheng, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Rapid Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Using Geometric Phase Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Technology,” in Imaging and Applied Optics 2018 (3D, AO, AIO, COSI, DH, IS, LACSEA, LS&C, MATH, pcAOP), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper IM3B.2.

https://uk.jvc.com/projectors/4k/DLA-Z1/

https://www.sony.com/electronics/projector/vpl-vw995es

https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/hololens

M. Nyvlt and M. Skeren, “Compact optical tweezers based on SLM for real-time optical trapping and manipulation,” in Frontiers in Optics 2009/Laser Science XXV/Fall 2009 OSA Optics & Photonics Technical Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWC64.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Enlarged view

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) a diffractive optical system for measuring the phase flickers in the LCOS device; (b) the cross-section of the binary grating; (c) the power response of the ± 1st diffraction order to the peak-to-valley phase depth in the binary grating.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Phase responses to driving waveforms with a fixed period but variable duty cycles.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The relationship between the duty cycle in the test waveforms and duration (tr) of phase depth increase due to an on-state pulse.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The speed of phase increase in the presence of an on-state pulse and the speed of phase decrease during an off-state pulse when the LCOS device is operating at different phase depth.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a)-(e) the predicted and experimentally measured temporal phase responses under test driving waveforms with different frequencies; (f) comparison between the predicted and experimentally measured phase flicker under test driving waveforms with different frequencies. See enlarged view in Visualization 1.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. 128 bitplanes defined in this work.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The relationship between the phase level and the power of + 1st diffraction order of the test binary grating pattern as well as the LCOS phase response, respectively.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Optimised PWM waveforms and their corresponding temporal phase responses.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The phase flicker comparison between the default PWM waveforms and the optimised waveforms at different phase depths.

Equations (1)

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P + 1 ( t ) = P o sin 2 ( Δ ( t ) 2 )

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