Abstract

Recent advancements of mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum light sources have opened up new possibilities in laser-based trace gas sensing. While the supercontinuum sources inherently support wide spectral coverage, the detection of broadband absorption signals with high speed and low cost is traditionally limited by the MIR detector arrays. In this work, we demonstrate that this limitation can be circumvented by upconverting the MIR signal into the near-infrared (NIR) region, where cost-effective silicon-based detector arrays can be utilized to measure broadband absorption. We also show that, by combining a MIR supercontinuum source with a MIR-to-NIR upconverter and an astigmatic multipass cell, fast detection (~20 ms) of ethane with sub-ppmv sensitivity can be achieved at room temperature. For multi-species detection, a least-square global fitting method is presented, showing a promising potential for applications such as environmental monitoring and biomedical research.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (3)

W. Wojnowski, T. Dymerski, J. Gębicki, and J. Namieśnik, “Electronic Noses in Medical Diagnostics,” Curr. Med. Chem. 26(1), 197–215 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Eslami Jahromi, Q. Pan, A. Khodabakhsh, C. Sikkens, P. Assman, S. M. Cristescu, P. M. Moselund, M. Janssens, B. E. Verlinden, and F. J. M. Harren, “A broadband mid-infrared trace gas sensor using supercontinuum light source: applications for real-time quality control for fruit storage,” Sensors (Basel) 19(10), 2234 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Iwakuni, T. Q. Bui, J. F. Niedermeyer, T. Sukegawa, and J. Ye, “Comb-resolved spectroscopy with immersion grating in long-wave infrared,” Opt. Express 27(3), 1911–1921 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (7)

T. Tomberg, M. Vainio, T. Hieta, and L. Halonen, “Sub-parts-per-trillion level sensitivity in trace gas detection by cantilever-enhanced photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1848 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Cropper, D. J. Eatough, D. K. Overson, J. C. Hansen, F. Caka, and R. A. Cary, “Use of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry organic aerosol monitor for in-field detection of fine particulate organic compounds in source apportionment,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 68(5), 390–402 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Graydon, “Interband cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 12, 568 (2018).

A. Barh, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, and C. Pedersen, “Thermal noise in mid-infrared broadband upconversion detectors,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3249–3259 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wu, P. Wang, J. Song, J. Ye, J. Xu, X. Li, and P. Zhou, “High power tunable mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator enabled by random fiber laser,” Opt. Express 26(5), 6446–6455 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, T. Martynkien, P. G. Schunemann, P. Mergo, L. Rutkowski, and G. Soboń, “All-fiber mid-infrared source tunable from 6 to 9 mu m based on difference frequency generation in OP-GaP crystal,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11756–11763 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Timmers, A. Kowligy, A. Lind, F. C. Cruz, N. Nader, M. Silfies, G. Ycas, T. K. Allison, P. G. Schunemann, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Molecular fingerprinting with bright, broadband infrared frequency combs,” Optica 5(6), 727–732 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (5)

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, X. Gai, T. Wang, P. Ma, R. P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in chalcogenides,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1075–1086 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

F. Adler, P. Masłowski, A. Foltynowicz, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Mid-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy with a broadband frequency comb,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21861–21872 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Johnson, L. T. M. Profeta, R. L. Sams, D. W. T. Griffith, and R. L. Yokelson, “An infrared spectral database for detection of gases emitted by biomass burning,” Vib. Spectrosc. 53(1), 97–102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mücke, and B. Jänker, “Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(2-3), 101–114 (2002).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Moneim, N.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adler, F.

Agger, C.

Allison, T. K.

Andersen, H. V.

Arslanov, D. D.

Assman, P.

K. Eslami Jahromi, Q. Pan, A. Khodabakhsh, C. Sikkens, P. Assman, S. M. Cristescu, P. M. Moselund, M. Janssens, B. E. Verlinden, and F. J. M. Harren, “A broadband mid-infrared trace gas sensor using supercontinuum light source: applications for real-time quality control for fruit storage,” Sensors (Basel) 19(10), 2234 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

C. R. Petersen, P. M. Moselund, C. Petersen, U. Møller, and O. Bang, “Spectral-temporal composition matters when cascading supercontinua into the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 24(2), 749–758 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Agger, S. T. Sørensen, C. L. Thomsen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Nonlinear soliton matching between optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2596–2598 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barh, A.

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Benson, T.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Muller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Optica (2)

Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Tomberg, M. Vainio, T. Hieta, and L. Halonen, “Sub-parts-per-trillion level sensitivity in trace gas detection by cantilever-enhanced photo-acoustic spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1848 (2018).
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Sensors (Basel) (1)

K. Eslami Jahromi, Q. Pan, A. Khodabakhsh, C. Sikkens, P. Assman, S. M. Cristescu, P. M. Moselund, M. Janssens, B. E. Verlinden, and F. J. M. Harren, “A broadband mid-infrared trace gas sensor using supercontinuum light source: applications for real-time quality control for fruit storage,” Sensors (Basel) 19(10), 2234 (2019).
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T. J. Johnson, L. T. M. Profeta, R. L. Sams, D. W. T. Griffith, and R. L. Yokelson, “An infrared spectral database for detection of gases emitted by biomass burning,” Vib. Spectrosc. 53(1), 97–102 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Spectral power density of the SC light source integrated into the gas sensor.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simplified schematic representation of the trace gas sensor (F1: 2.4 μm long-pass filter; M1 – M5: mirrors; L1 and L2: 50 cm focal lenses; L3: 35 mm focal lens; L4: lens system of an effective focal length of 20 cm; L5: lens system of an effective focal length of 10 cm; DM1 – DM3: dichroic mirrors; DL: diode laser; F2: 1000 nm short-pass filter; F3: 750 nm long-pass filter).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorbance spectra of a gas mixture of 50 ± 1.2 ppmv N2O and 50 ± 1.2 ppmv C2H4 at 900 mbar obtained by utilizing the PPLN crystal (A) and the CPLN crystal (B). The simulated spectra are inverted as the red (N2O) and pink (C2H4) curves.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorbance spectra of CH4 (50 ppmv, 900 mbar) obtained by utilizing the PPLN crystal (A) and the CPLN crystal (B). The simulated spectra are inverted as the red curves.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (A) An overlay of two absorbance spectra of 10 ppmv ethane at 900 mbar, each measured for 20 ms. (B) Projection of the second ethane absorbance measurement with respect to the first measurement. A linear fit is included as the red line.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (A) Noise-equivalent ethane concentration obtained by fitting a theoretical model to the normalized background signal. (B) Allan-Werle plot of the retrieved concentration (black curve) and a fitted τ-1/2 dependency representing the white noise contribution (red dashed line).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (A) Absorbance spectra of ethane at 900 mbar diluted from 100 ppmv, each measured for 1 second. An enlarged spectrum of 1 ppmv ethane is inserted as the red curve. (B) System linearity plot. The uncertainty is based on the ± 3σ values derived from 60 measurements for each concentration.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (A) Measured absorbance spectrum (black curve) of a gas mixture averaged for 1 second. The underlying curves represent the contributions from acetaldehyde (red), ethane (blue) and ethylene (green) obtained by simulation based on the PNNL database [34]. (B) Calculated concentration values by using the non-negative least square curve fitting method. The associated interquartile ranges are included based on the statistics of 60 measurements. The targeted concentration of 33.33 ± 1.30 ppmv is highlighted as the dashed blue line, including the dilution uncertainty represented by the grey area.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Calculated NIR output wavelength versus the MIR input wavelength at different phase-matched external angle relative to the PPLN crystal longitudinal axis.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Spectral coverage of the upconverted spectra recorded by a CCD array by using the PPLN (green) and the CPLN (orange) crystals.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Normalized instrumental broadening function centered at 813.1 nm.

Equations (3)

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ω NIR =  ω MIR + ω pump
Δk= k NIR - k MIR - k pump - G0
M n×1 = R n×k C k×1 + E n×1

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