Abstract

In this article, we present the first demonstration of an optical communications downlink from a low-earth orbiting free-flying CubeSat. Two 1.5U vehicles, AC7-B&C, built under NASA’s Optical Communications and Sensors Demonstration (OCSD) program were launched in November 2017 and subsequently placed into a 450-km, 51.6° inc. circular orbit. Pseudorandom data streams using on-off key (OOK) modulation were transmitted from AC-7B to a 40 cm aperture telescope located at sea level in El Segundo, CA. At 200 Mbps, without forward error correction (FEC), we achieved a 115-second link that was ~78% error free, with the remaining portion exhibiting an error rate below 1E-5. At the time of the engagement, the 1064-nm laser transmitter was operating at 2 W (half capacity) with a full width half maximum (FWHM) beam divergence of ~1 mrad, which was approximately double the anticipated pointing accuracy of the vehicle.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. T. S. Rose, S. W. Janson, S. LaLumondiere, N. Werner, D. H. Hinkley, D. W. Rowen, R. A. Fields, and R. P. Welle, “LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform,” Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540I (2015).
  2. S. Janson, R. Welle, T. Rose, D. Rowen, B. Hardy, R. Dolphus, P. Doyle, A. Faler, D. Chien, A. Chin, G. Maul, C. Coffman, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, D. Hinkley, "The NASA Optical Communications and Sensor Demonstration Program: Initial Flight Results," in Proceedings of the 30th Annual AIAA/USU SmallSat Conference (AIAA, 2016), paper SSC16-III-03.
  3. T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).
  4. R. Fields, D. Kozlowski, H. Yura, R. Wong, J. Wicker, C. Lunde, M. Gregory, B. Wandernoth, and F. Heine, “5.625 Gbps Bidirectional Laser Communications Measurements Between the NFIRE Satellite and an Optical Ground Station,” in International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2011), pp.44–53.
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2017 (1)

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

T. S. Rose, S. W. Janson, S. LaLumondiere, N. Werner, D. H. Hinkley, D. W. Rowen, R. A. Fields, and R. P. Welle, “LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform,” Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540I (2015).

Abrahamson, M.

O. Sindiy, M. Abrahamson, A. Biswas, M. W. Wright, J. H. Padams, and A. Konyha, “Lessons Learned from Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Mission Operations,” in AIAA 2015–4657 (AIAA, 2015), https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2015-4657 .
[Crossref]

Akioka, M.

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

Biswas, A.

O. Sindiy, M. Abrahamson, A. Biswas, M. W. Wright, J. H. Padams, and A. Konyha, “Lessons Learned from Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Mission Operations,” in AIAA 2015–4657 (AIAA, 2015), https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2015-4657 .
[Crossref]

Brechtelsbauer, M.

C. Schmidt, M. Brechtelsbauer, F. Rein, and C. Fuchs, “OSIRIS Payload for DLR’s BiROS Satellite,” International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2014).

Carrasco-Casado, A.

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chien, D. H.

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

Coffman, C. M.

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

Faler, A.

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

Fields, R.

R. Fields, D. Kozlowski, H. Yura, R. Wong, J. Wicker, C. Lunde, M. Gregory, B. Wandernoth, and F. Heine, “5.625 Gbps Bidirectional Laser Communications Measurements Between the NFIRE Satellite and an Optical Ground Station,” in International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2011), pp.44–53.

Fields, R. A.

T. S. Rose, S. W. Janson, S. LaLumondiere, N. Werner, D. H. Hinkley, D. W. Rowen, R. A. Fields, and R. P. Welle, “LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform,” Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540I (2015).

Fuchs, C.

C. Schmidt, M. Brechtelsbauer, F. Rein, and C. Fuchs, “OSIRIS Payload for DLR’s BiROS Satellite,” International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2014).

Fuse, T.

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gregory, M.

R. Fields, D. Kozlowski, H. Yura, R. Wong, J. Wicker, C. Lunde, M. Gregory, B. Wandernoth, and F. Heine, “5.625 Gbps Bidirectional Laser Communications Measurements Between the NFIRE Satellite and an Optical Ground Station,” in International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2011), pp.44–53.

Heine, F.

R. Fields, D. Kozlowski, H. Yura, R. Wong, J. Wicker, C. Lunde, M. Gregory, B. Wandernoth, and F. Heine, “5.625 Gbps Bidirectional Laser Communications Measurements Between the NFIRE Satellite and an Optical Ground Station,” in International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2011), pp.44–53.

Hinkley, D. H.

T. S. Rose, S. W. Janson, S. LaLumondiere, N. Werner, D. H. Hinkley, D. W. Rowen, R. A. Fields, and R. P. Welle, “LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform,” Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540I (2015).

Janson, S. W.

T. S. Rose, S. W. Janson, S. LaLumondiere, N. Werner, D. H. Hinkley, D. W. Rowen, R. A. Fields, and R. P. Welle, “LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform,” Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540I (2015).

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

S. W. Janson and R. P. Welle, “The NASA Optical Communication and Sensor Demonstration Program: An Update,” in 28th Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2014), paper SSC14-VI-1.

Kolev, D.

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

Konyha, A.

O. Sindiy, M. Abrahamson, A. Biswas, M. W. Wright, J. H. Padams, and A. Konyha, “Lessons Learned from Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Mission Operations,” in AIAA 2015–4657 (AIAA, 2015), https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2015-4657 .
[Crossref]

Koyama, Y.

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kozlowski, D.

R. Fields, D. Kozlowski, H. Yura, R. Wong, J. Wicker, C. Lunde, M. Gregory, B. Wandernoth, and F. Heine, “5.625 Gbps Bidirectional Laser Communications Measurements Between the NFIRE Satellite and an Optical Ground Station,” in International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2011), pp.44–53.

Kubo-oka, T.

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kunimori, H.

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

LaLumondiere, S.

T. S. Rose, S. W. Janson, S. LaLumondiere, N. Werner, D. H. Hinkley, D. W. Rowen, R. A. Fields, and R. P. Welle, “LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform,” Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540I (2015).

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

Linares, R.

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

Lunde, C.

R. Fields, D. Kozlowski, H. Yura, R. Wong, J. Wicker, C. Lunde, M. Gregory, B. Wandernoth, and F. Heine, “5.625 Gbps Bidirectional Laser Communications Measurements Between the NFIRE Satellite and an Optical Ground Station,” in International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2011), pp.44–53.

Maul, G. A.

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

Munemasa, Y.

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

Padams, J. H.

O. Sindiy, M. Abrahamson, A. Biswas, M. W. Wright, J. H. Padams, and A. Konyha, “Lessons Learned from Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Mission Operations,” in AIAA 2015–4657 (AIAA, 2015), https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2015-4657 .
[Crossref]

Rein, F.

C. Schmidt, M. Brechtelsbauer, F. Rein, and C. Fuchs, “OSIRIS Payload for DLR’s BiROS Satellite,” International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2014).

Rose, T. S.

T. S. Rose, S. W. Janson, S. LaLumondiere, N. Werner, D. H. Hinkley, D. W. Rowen, R. A. Fields, and R. P. Welle, “LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform,” Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540I (2015).

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

Rowen, D. W.

T. S. Rose, S. W. Janson, S. LaLumondiere, N. Werner, D. H. Hinkley, D. W. Rowen, R. A. Fields, and R. P. Welle, “LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform,” Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540I (2015).

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

Schmidt, C.

C. Schmidt, M. Brechtelsbauer, F. Rein, and C. Fuchs, “OSIRIS Payload for DLR’s BiROS Satellite,” International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2014).

Sindiy, O.

O. Sindiy, M. Abrahamson, A. Biswas, M. W. Wright, J. H. Padams, and A. Konyha, “Lessons Learned from Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Mission Operations,” in AIAA 2015–4657 (AIAA, 2015), https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2015-4657 .
[Crossref]

Suzuki, K.

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

Takenaka, H.

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

Toyoshima, M.

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

Utter, A.

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

Wandernoth, B.

R. Fields, D. Kozlowski, H. Yura, R. Wong, J. Wicker, C. Lunde, M. Gregory, B. Wandernoth, and F. Heine, “5.625 Gbps Bidirectional Laser Communications Measurements Between the NFIRE Satellite and an Optical Ground Station,” in International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2011), pp.44–53.

Welle, R. P.

T. S. Rose, S. W. Janson, S. LaLumondiere, N. Werner, D. H. Hinkley, D. W. Rowen, R. A. Fields, and R. P. Welle, “LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform,” Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540I (2015).

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

S. W. Janson and R. P. Welle, “The NASA Optical Communication and Sensor Demonstration Program: An Update,” in 28th Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2014), paper SSC14-VI-1.

Werner, N.

T. S. Rose, S. W. Janson, S. LaLumondiere, N. Werner, D. H. Hinkley, D. W. Rowen, R. A. Fields, and R. P. Welle, “LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform,” Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540I (2015).

Werner, N. I.

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

Wicker, J.

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

R. Fields, D. Kozlowski, H. Yura, R. Wong, J. Wicker, C. Lunde, M. Gregory, B. Wandernoth, and F. Heine, “5.625 Gbps Bidirectional Laser Communications Measurements Between the NFIRE Satellite and an Optical Ground Station,” in International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2011), pp.44–53.

Wong, R.

R. Fields, D. Kozlowski, H. Yura, R. Wong, J. Wicker, C. Lunde, M. Gregory, B. Wandernoth, and F. Heine, “5.625 Gbps Bidirectional Laser Communications Measurements Between the NFIRE Satellite and an Optical Ground Station,” in International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2011), pp.44–53.

Wright, M. W.

O. Sindiy, M. Abrahamson, A. Biswas, M. W. Wright, J. H. Padams, and A. Konyha, “Lessons Learned from Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Mission Operations,” in AIAA 2015–4657 (AIAA, 2015), https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2015-4657 .
[Crossref]

Yura, H.

R. Fields, D. Kozlowski, H. Yura, R. Wong, J. Wicker, C. Lunde, M. Gregory, B. Wandernoth, and F. Heine, “5.625 Gbps Bidirectional Laser Communications Measurements Between the NFIRE Satellite and an Optical Ground Station,” in International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2011), pp.44–53.

Acta Astronaut. (1)

A. Carrasco-Casado, H. Takenaka, D. Kolev, Y. Munemasa, H. Kunimori, K. Suzuki, T. Fuse, T. Kubo-oka, M. Akioka, Y. Koyama, and M. Toyoshima, “LEO-to-Ground Optical Communications using SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) –Payload Verification Results and Experiments on Space Quantum Communications–,” Acta Astronaut. 139, 377–384 (2017).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. S. Rose, S. W. Janson, S. LaLumondiere, N. Werner, D. H. Hinkley, D. W. Rowen, R. A. Fields, and R. P. Welle, “LEO to ground optical communications from a small satellite platform,” Proc. SPIE 9354, 93540I (2015).

Other (9)

S. Janson, R. Welle, T. Rose, D. Rowen, B. Hardy, R. Dolphus, P. Doyle, A. Faler, D. Chien, A. Chin, G. Maul, C. Coffman, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, D. Hinkley, "The NASA Optical Communications and Sensor Demonstration Program: Initial Flight Results," in Proceedings of the 30th Annual AIAA/USU SmallSat Conference (AIAA, 2016), paper SSC16-III-03.

T. S. Rose, D. W. Rowen, S. LaLumondiere, N. I. Werner, R. Linares, A. Faler, J. Wicker, C. M. Coffman, G. A. Maul, D. H. Chien, A. Utter, R. P. Welle, and S. W. Janson, "Optical communications downlink from a 1.5U cubesat: OCSD program," Proc. SPIE10610, 109100T (2019).

R. Fields, D. Kozlowski, H. Yura, R. Wong, J. Wicker, C. Lunde, M. Gregory, B. Wandernoth, and F. Heine, “5.625 Gbps Bidirectional Laser Communications Measurements Between the NFIRE Satellite and an Optical Ground Station,” in International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2011), pp.44–53.

C. Schmidt, M. Brechtelsbauer, F. Rein, and C. Fuchs, “OSIRIS Payload for DLR’s BiROS Satellite,” International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2014).

O. Sindiy, M. Abrahamson, A. Biswas, M. W. Wright, J. H. Padams, and A. Konyha, “Lessons Learned from Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Mission Operations,” in AIAA 2015–4657 (AIAA, 2015), https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2015-4657 .
[Crossref]

http://www.molicel.com/ca/pdf/Certificates/High%20Power%20Cells/IBR18650BC/DM_IBR18650BC/DM_IBR1865BC.pdf .

http://www.houseofbatteries.com/documents/ICR18650H.pdf .

S. W. Janson and R. P. Welle, “The NASA Optical Communication and Sensor Demonstration Program: An Update,” in 28th Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites (2014), paper SSC14-VI-1.

A. S. Sensonor, “Butterfly Gyro STIM210 Multi-Axis Gyro Module datasheet,” http://www.sensonor.com/media/90317/datasheet%20stim210%20ts1545.r10.pdf .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Breakout of AC-7B&C spacecraft.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photo of AC-7B and -7C as delivered.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reaction wheel cluster. The size of the cluster is ~3 x 3 x 3 cm3.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Root mean square (RMS) errors of star locations w.r.t. catalog geometry for four to eight matched stars. Note that time intervals with fewer than four star matches are mapped to a zero RMS error in this plot.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Example attitude control error telemetry observed during a laser downlink.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic drawing of the laser downlink transmitter.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Photos of the laser transmitter module during build: (a) initial layout of components, (b) integration of laser control electronics and (c) output lens visible on module underside, which holds the fiber amplifier.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Optical ground station in El Segundo: (a) 40-cm telescope and (b) dome.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Example results of a 1° diameter spiral scan with 0.04 o steps taken during the early phase of the AC-7B pointing alignment. The image sequence shows five successive “hits” on the NFOV camera that are spaced roughly 11 seconds apart, which corresponds to the angular scan rate of the spiral. The relative magnitudes of the five largest hits are shown in the plot below. The plot on the right (b) illustrates the angular scan pattern calculated from the spacecraft telemetry displayed as small black dots. Scan positions corresponding to hits on the ground station detector are shown as green, yellow, and orange dots, with the strongest hit denoted by the large red dot. Note that the center of this scan appears at an offset of ~0.8°, which is referenced to the initial alignment assumption prior to the overall scanning process.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Example results of a 0.2° spiral scan with 0.02° steps taken during the alignment of AC-7B. The figure on the left (a) shows the temporal variation of the intensity captured by the NFOV tracking camera on the telescope recorded at 200 ms intervals. The figure on the right (b) displays the projected ground positions in angular space (solid blue line), NFOV camera detects (small blue dots) and positions of error-free signals at 200 Mbps (large red dots) recorded during the spiral. The five spiral segments exhibiting error free data points correspond to the five sharp intensity peaks in the NFOV camera data (a). The broader intensity NFOV peak corresponds to the central part of the spiral, which appears offset from the pre-calibration pointing solution to the ground station designated as 0 deg in X and Y. BERs recorded in the center of the scan were on the order of 1E-4.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 BER collects at 200 Mbps with vehicle pointing optimized. Bit errors were recorded over 125 ms intervals. The inset shows an eye diagram of the received waveform recovered by the ground station modem.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Pointing Budget Allocations

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