Abstract

Terahertz (THz) near-field microscopy has wide and unprecedented application potential for nanoscale materials and photonic-device characterization. Here, we introduce hyperspectral THz nano-imaging by combining scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) with THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). We describe the technical implementations that enabled this achievement and demonstrate its performance with a heterogeneously doped Si semiconductor sample. Specifically, we recorded a hyperspectral image of 40 by 20 pixels in 180 minutes and with a spatial resolution of about ~170 nm by measuring at each pixel with a time domain spectrum covering the range from 0.4 to 1.8 THz. Fitting the spectra with a Drude model allows for measuring—noninvasively and without the need for Ohmic contacts—the local mobile carrier concentration of the differently doped Si areas. We envision wide application potential for THz hyperspectral nano-imaging, including nanoscale carrier profiling of industrial semiconductor structures or characterizing complex and correlated electron matter, as well as low dimensional (1D or 2D) materials.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Compressed sensing FTIR nano-spectroscopy and nano-imaging

Bernd Kästner, Franko Schmähling, Andrea Hornemann, Georg Ulrich, Arne Hoehl, Mattias Kruskopf, Klaus Pierz, Markus B. Raschke, Gerd Wübbeler, and Clemens Elster
Opt. Express 26(14) 18115-18124 (2018)

Toward real-time terahertz imaging

Hichem Guerboukha, Kathirvel Nallappan, and Maksim Skorobogatiy
Adv. Opt. Photon. 10(4) 843-938 (2018)

All-electronic terahertz nanoscopy

Clemens Liewald, Stefan Mastel, Jeffrey Hesler, Andreas J. Huber, Rainer Hillenbrand, and Fritz Keilmann
Optica 5(2) 159-163 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Lloyd-Hughes and T. I. Jeon, “A Review of the Terahertz Conductivity of Bulk and Nano-Materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Keilmann, A. J. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Conductivity Contrast by Scattering-Type Near-Field Optical Microscopy in the Visible, Infrared and THz Domains,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30, 1255–1268 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. C. Giordano, S. Mastel, C. Liewald, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, L. Viti, A. Politano, K. Zhang, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, G. Scamarcio, and M. S. Vitiello, “Phase-resolved terahertz self-detection near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18423–18435 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. Kuschewski, H.-G. Ribbeck, J. Döring, S. Winnerl, L. M. Eng, and S. C. Kehr, “Narrow-band near-field nanoscopy in the spectral range from 1.3 to 8.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113102 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Liewald, S. Mastel, J. Hesler, A. J. Huber, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “All-electronic terahertz nanoscopy,” Optica 5(2), 159–163 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface Nanoimaging by Broadband Terahertz Pulse Near-Field Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. M. Smith and M. A. Arnold, “Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Solid Samples: Principles, Applications, and Challenges,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 46(8), 636–679 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. Maissen, S. Chen, E. Nikulina, A. Govyadinov, and R. Hillenbrand, “Probes for Ultrasensitive THz Nanoscopy,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1279–1288 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Mastel, A. A. Govyadinov, C. Maissen, A. Chuvilin, A. Berger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Understanding the Image Contrast of Material Boundaries in IR Nanoscopy Reaching 5 nm Spatial Resolution,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3372–3378 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy of Molecular Fingerprints at 20 nm Spatial Resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. Amarie, T. Ganz, and F. Keilmann, “Mid-infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21794–21801 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, Near-Field Nanoscopy by Elastic Light Scattering from a Tip (Artech House, 2009).
  21. A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(7), 075419 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. A. Govyadinov, I. Amenabar, F. Huth, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Quantitative Measurement of Local Infrared Absorption and Dielectric Function with Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(9), 1526–1531 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Free-Carrier Profiling of Individual Semiconductor Nanowires by Infrared Near-Field Nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Infrared conductivity mapping for nanoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3980–3982 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

C. Maissen, S. Chen, E. Nikulina, A. Govyadinov, and R. Hillenbrand, “Probes for Ultrasensitive THz Nanoscopy,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1279–1288 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

S. Mastel, A. A. Govyadinov, C. Maissen, A. Chuvilin, A. Berger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Understanding the Image Contrast of Material Boundaries in IR Nanoscopy Reaching 5 nm Spatial Resolution,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3372–3378 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. C. Giordano, S. Mastel, C. Liewald, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, L. Viti, A. Politano, K. Zhang, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, G. Scamarcio, and M. S. Vitiello, “Phase-resolved terahertz self-detection near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18423–18435 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liewald, S. Mastel, J. Hesler, A. J. Huber, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “All-electronic terahertz nanoscopy,” Optica 5(2), 159–163 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

F. Kuschewski, H.-G. Ribbeck, J. Döring, S. Winnerl, L. M. Eng, and S. C. Kehr, “Narrow-band near-field nanoscopy in the spectral range from 1.3 to 8.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface Nanoimaging by Broadband Terahertz Pulse Near-Field Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

A. A. Govyadinov, I. Amenabar, F. Huth, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Quantitative Measurement of Local Infrared Absorption and Dielectric Function with Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(9), 1526–1531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Lloyd-Hughes and T. I. Jeon, “A Review of the Terahertz Conductivity of Bulk and Nano-Materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy of Molecular Fingerprints at 20 nm Spatial Resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. M. Smith and M. A. Arnold, “Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Solid Samples: Principles, Applications, and Challenges,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 46(8), 636–679 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Free-Carrier Profiling of Individual Semiconductor Nanowires by Infrared Near-Field Nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. Amarie, T. Ganz, and F. Keilmann, “Mid-infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21794–21801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Keilmann, A. J. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Conductivity Contrast by Scattering-Type Near-Field Optical Microscopy in the Visible, Infrared and THz Domains,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30, 1255–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Infrared conductivity mapping for nanoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3980–3982 (2000).
[Crossref]

Aizpurua, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Algra, R. E.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Free-Carrier Profiling of Individual Semiconductor Nanowires by Infrared Near-Field Nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amarie, S.

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy of Molecular Fingerprints at 20 nm Spatial Resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Amarie, T. Ganz, and F. Keilmann, “Mid-infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21794–21801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amenabar, I.

A. A. Govyadinov, I. Amenabar, F. Huth, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Quantitative Measurement of Local Infrared Absorption and Dielectric Function with Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(9), 1526–1531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderegg, L.

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appleby, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arnold, M. A.

R. M. Smith and M. A. Arnold, “Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Solid Samples: Principles, Applications, and Challenges,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 46(8), 636–679 (2011).
[Crossref]

Axel Zeitler, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bakkers, E. P.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Free-Carrier Profiling of Individual Semiconductor Nanowires by Infrared Near-Field Nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berger, A.

S. Mastel, A. A. Govyadinov, C. Maissen, A. Chuvilin, A. Berger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Understanding the Image Contrast of Material Boundaries in IR Nanoscopy Reaching 5 nm Spatial Resolution,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3372–3378 (2018).
[Crossref]

Booske, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, M.

Brehm, M.

Carney, P. S.

A. A. Govyadinov, I. Amenabar, F. Huth, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Quantitative Measurement of Local Infrared Absorption and Dielectric Function with Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(9), 1526–1531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro-Camus, E.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Castro-Neto, A. H.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

C. Maissen, S. Chen, E. Nikulina, A. Govyadinov, and R. Hillenbrand, “Probes for Ultrasensitive THz Nanoscopy,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1279–1288 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cho, G. C.

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chuvilin, A.

S. Mastel, A. A. Govyadinov, C. Maissen, A. Chuvilin, A. Berger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Understanding the Image Contrast of Material Boundaries in IR Nanoscopy Reaching 5 nm Spatial Resolution,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3372–3378 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ciavatti, T.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Clarke, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cocker, T. L.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Columbo, L. L.

Cooper, K. B.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cumming, D. R. S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cvitkovic, A.

Dai, Q.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

M. C. Giordano, S. Mastel, C. Liewald, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, L. Viti, A. Politano, K. Zhang, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, G. Scamarcio, and M. S. Vitiello, “Phase-resolved terahertz self-detection near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18423–18435 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dhillon, S. S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Diedenhofen, S. L.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Free-Carrier Profiling of Individual Semiconductor Nanowires by Infrared Near-Field Nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Do, Y.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface Nanoimaging by Broadband Terahertz Pulse Near-Field Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dominguez, G.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Döring, J.

F. Kuschewski, H.-G. Ribbeck, J. Döring, S. Winnerl, L. M. Eng, and S. C. Kehr, “Narrow-band near-field nanoscopy in the spectral range from 1.3 to 8.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Drachenko, O.

Du, X.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ellison, B.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eng, L. M.

F. Kuschewski, H.-G. Ribbeck, J. Döring, S. Winnerl, L. M. Eng, and S. C. Kehr, “Narrow-band near-field nanoscopy in the spectral range from 1.3 to 8.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Escorcia-Carranza, I.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fei, Z.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fice, M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fogler, M. M.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ganz, T.

Gensch, M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Giordano, M. C.

Goldsmith, P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Govyadinov, A.

C. Maissen, S. Chen, E. Nikulina, A. Govyadinov, and R. Hillenbrand, “Probes for Ultrasensitive THz Nanoscopy,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1279–1288 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy of Molecular Fingerprints at 20 nm Spatial Resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Govyadinov, A. A.

S. Mastel, A. A. Govyadinov, C. Maissen, A. Chuvilin, A. Berger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Understanding the Image Contrast of Material Boundaries in IR Nanoscopy Reaching 5 nm Spatial Resolution,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3372–3378 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. A. Govyadinov, I. Amenabar, F. Huth, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Quantitative Measurement of Local Infrared Absorption and Dielectric Function with Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(9), 1526–1531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grant, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Han, H.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface Nanoimaging by Broadband Terahertz Pulse Near-Field Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helm, M.

Hesler, J.

Hillenbrand, R.

C. Maissen, S. Chen, E. Nikulina, A. Govyadinov, and R. Hillenbrand, “Probes for Ultrasensitive THz Nanoscopy,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1279–1288 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Mastel, A. A. Govyadinov, C. Maissen, A. Chuvilin, A. Berger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Understanding the Image Contrast of Material Boundaries in IR Nanoscopy Reaching 5 nm Spatial Resolution,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3372–3378 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Liewald, S. Mastel, J. Hesler, A. J. Huber, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “All-electronic terahertz nanoscopy,” Optica 5(2), 159–163 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. C. Giordano, S. Mastel, C. Liewald, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, L. Viti, A. Politano, K. Zhang, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, G. Scamarcio, and M. S. Vitiello, “Phase-resolved terahertz self-detection near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18423–18435 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Govyadinov, I. Amenabar, F. Huth, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Quantitative Measurement of Local Infrared Absorption and Dielectric Function with Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(9), 1526–1531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy of Molecular Fingerprints at 20 nm Spatial Resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Free-Carrier Profiling of Individual Semiconductor Nanowires by Infrared Near-Field Nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Keilmann, A. J. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Conductivity Contrast by Scattering-Type Near-Field Optical Microscopy in the Visible, Infrared and THz Domains,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30, 1255–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, M. C.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huber, A.

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huber, A. J.

C. Liewald, S. Mastel, J. Hesler, A. J. Huber, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “All-electronic terahertz nanoscopy,” Optica 5(2), 159–163 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Free-Carrier Profiling of Individual Semiconductor Nanowires by Infrared Near-Field Nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Keilmann, A. J. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Conductivity Contrast by Scattering-Type Near-Field Optical Microscopy in the Visible, Infrared and THz Domains,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30, 1255–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huber, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huggard, P. G.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huth, F.

A. A. Govyadinov, I. Amenabar, F. Huth, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Quantitative Measurement of Local Infrared Absorption and Dielectric Function with Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(9), 1526–1531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy of Molecular Fingerprints at 20 nm Spatial Resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, T. I.

J. Lloyd-Hughes and T. I. Jeon, “A Review of the Terahertz Conductivity of Bulk and Nano-Materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jing, R.

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnston, M. B.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kampfrath, T.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, H.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface Nanoimaging by Broadband Terahertz Pulse Near-Field Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kazantsev, D.

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kehr, S. C.

F. Kuschewski, H.-G. Ribbeck, J. Döring, S. Winnerl, L. M. Eng, and S. C. Kehr, “Narrow-band near-field nanoscopy in the spectral range from 1.3 to 8.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Keilmann, F.

C. Liewald, S. Mastel, J. Hesler, A. J. Huber, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “All-electronic terahertz nanoscopy,” Optica 5(2), 159–163 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. C. Giordano, S. Mastel, C. Liewald, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, L. Viti, A. Politano, K. Zhang, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, G. Scamarcio, and M. S. Vitiello, “Phase-resolved terahertz self-detection near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18423–18435 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy of Molecular Fingerprints at 20 nm Spatial Resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Amarie, T. Ganz, and F. Keilmann, “Mid-infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21794–21801 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Keilmann, A. J. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Conductivity Contrast by Scattering-Type Near-Field Optical Microscopy in the Visible, Infrared and THz Domains,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30, 1255–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Infrared conductivity mapping for nanoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3980–3982 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kersting, R.

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. T.

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface Nanoimaging by Broadband Terahertz Pulse Near-Field Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knoll, B.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Infrared conductivity mapping for nanoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3980–3982 (2000).
[Crossref]

Koch, M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Konishi, K.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Korter, T. M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krozer, V.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kuschewski, F.

F. Kuschewski, H.-G. Ribbeck, J. Döring, S. Winnerl, L. M. Eng, and S. C. Kehr, “Narrow-band near-field nanoscopy in the spectral range from 1.3 to 8.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, G.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface Nanoimaging by Broadband Terahertz Pulse Near-Field Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface Nanoimaging by Broadband Terahertz Pulse Near-Field Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Liewald, C.

Linfield, E. H.

M. C. Giordano, S. Mastel, C. Liewald, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, L. Viti, A. Politano, K. Zhang, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, G. Scamarcio, and M. S. Vitiello, “Phase-resolved terahertz self-detection near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18423–18435 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lloyd-Hughes, J.

J. Lloyd-Hughes and T. I. Jeon, “A Review of the Terahertz Conductivity of Bulk and Nano-Materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lucyszyn, S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Maissen, C.

C. Maissen, S. Chen, E. Nikulina, A. Govyadinov, and R. Hillenbrand, “Probes for Ultrasensitive THz Nanoscopy,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1279–1288 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Mastel, A. A. Govyadinov, C. Maissen, A. Chuvilin, A. Berger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Understanding the Image Contrast of Material Boundaries in IR Nanoscopy Reaching 5 nm Spatial Resolution,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3372–3378 (2018).
[Crossref]

Markelz, A. G.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mastel, S.

Mcleod, A. S.

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mescall, R.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mills, S.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Moon, K.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface Nanoimaging by Broadband Terahertz Pulse Near-Field Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mueller, A.

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naftaly, M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Najera, O.

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, K. A.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nikulina, E.

C. Maissen, S. Chen, E. Nikulina, A. Govyadinov, and R. Hillenbrand, “Probes for Ultrasensitive THz Nanoscopy,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1279–1288 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nuansing, W.

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy of Molecular Fingerprints at 20 nm Spatial Resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ocelic, N.

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Paoloni, C.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pardo, D.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface Nanoimaging by Broadband Terahertz Pulse Near-Field Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perebeinos, V.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Politano, A.

Rea, S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Renaud, C.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ribbeck, H.-G.

F. Kuschewski, H.-G. Ribbeck, J. Döring, S. Winnerl, L. M. Eng, and S. C. Kehr, “Narrow-band near-field nanoscopy in the spectral range from 1.3 to 8.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ridler, N.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rivas, J. G.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Free-Carrier Profiling of Individual Semiconductor Nanowires by Infrared Near-Field Nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rozenberg, M.

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scamarcio, G.

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Seeds, A.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Semenenko, V.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shams, H.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sibik, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Simoens, F.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Slusar, T. V.

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, R. M.

R. M. Smith and M. A. Arnold, “Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Solid Samples: Principles, Applications, and Challenges,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 46(8), 636–679 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sternbach, A.

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiegler, J. M.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Free-Carrier Profiling of Individual Semiconductor Nanowires by Infrared Near-Field Nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, H. T.

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stöhr, A.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tao, H.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Taylor, Z. D.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thiemens, M.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

van der Weide, D. W.

Viti, L.

Vitiello, M. S.

M. C. Giordano, S. Mastel, C. Liewald, L. L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, L. Viti, A. Politano, K. Zhang, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, G. Scamarcio, and M. S. Vitiello, “Phase-resolved terahertz self-detection near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18423–18435 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

von Ribbeck, H. G.

Wallace, V. P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weightman, P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Williams, G. P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Winnerl, S.

F. Kuschewski, H.-G. Ribbeck, J. Döring, S. Winnerl, L. M. Eng, and S. C. Kehr, “Narrow-band near-field nanoscopy in the spectral range from 1.3 to 8.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wittborn, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yao, Z.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

Zhang, L. M.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (3)

J. Zhang, X. Chen, S. Mills, T. Ciavatti, Z. Yao, R. Mescall, H. Hu, V. Semenenko, Z. Fei, H. Li, V. Perebeinos, H. Tao, Q. Dai, X. Du, and M. Liu, “Terahertz Nanoimaging of Graphene,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2645–2651 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Maissen, S. Chen, E. Nikulina, A. Govyadinov, and R. Hillenbrand, “Probes for Ultrasensitive THz Nanoscopy,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1279–1288 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Mastel, A. A. Govyadinov, C. Maissen, A. Chuvilin, A. Berger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Understanding the Image Contrast of Material Boundaries in IR Nanoscopy Reaching 5 nm Spatial Resolution,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3372–3378 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Infrared conductivity mapping for nanoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3980–3982 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Kuschewski, H.-G. Ribbeck, J. Döring, S. Winnerl, L. M. Eng, and S. C. Kehr, “Narrow-band near-field nanoscopy in the spectral range from 1.3 to 8.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

R. M. Smith and M. A. Arnold, “Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Solid Samples: Principles, Applications, and Challenges,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 46(8), 636–679 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (2)

J. Lloyd-Hughes and T. I. Jeon, “A Review of the Terahertz Conductivity of Bulk and Nano-Materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Keilmann, A. J. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Conductivity Contrast by Scattering-Type Near-Field Optical Microscopy in the Visible, Infrared and THz Domains,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30, 1255–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

A. A. Govyadinov, I. Amenabar, F. Huth, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Quantitative Measurement of Local Infrared Absorption and Dielectric Function with Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(9), 1526–1531 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface Nanoimaging by Broadband Terahertz Pulse Near-Field Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy of Molecular Fingerprints at 20 nm Spatial Resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale Free-Carrier Profiling of Individual Semiconductor Nanowires by Infrared Near-Field Nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. T. Stinson, A. Sternbach, O. Najera, R. Jing, A. S. Mcleod, T. V. Slusar, A. Mueller, L. Anderegg, H. T. Kim, M. Rozenberg, and D. N. Basov, “Imaging the nanoscale phase separation in vanadium dioxide thin films at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3604 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, Near-Field Nanoscopy by Elastic Light Scattering from a Tip (Artech House, 2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup and THz near field signal. (a) Schematic of THz-TDNS setup, (b) THz approach curve obtained with a commercial THz probe from Rocky mountain Tech taken on a Au surface, (c) far-field (s0) and near-field spectra sn obtained by detector signal demodulation the n-th harmonic of the tip tapping frequency.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 THz TDS nanospectroscopy and broadband nanoimaging. (a) Topography image of SRAM sample described in main text, (b) broadband THz near-field amplitude image s2, revealing different doping regions; D is the homogeneously p-doped substrate with nominal hole density of 2 × 1016 cm−3; A, B & C are ion implanted with values: A p-type with hole density 4 × 1019 cm−3, B and C n-type with electron densities of 1 × 1017 cm−3 and 2 × 1017 cm−3, respectively, (c) THz-TDNS amplitude s2 and (e) phase φ2 spectra at points A, B, C and D, (d) & (f) calculated THz amplitude s2 and phase φ2 spectra of near-field contrast in 0.4-1.8 THz, (g) & (h) calculated THz amplitude s2 and phase φ2 spectra of near-field contras in an extended spectral range. Finite dipole model was used for the calculation resulting in p-doped Si fitted values 1 × 1019, 3 × 1017, 4 × 1017, and 4 × 1016 cm−3 for A, B, C and D, respectively, see Table. 1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Hyperspectral Nano-Imaging. (a) Topography, (b) second harmonic broadband THz near-field amplitude s2 images of SRAM sample, regions C and D are indicated, (c) 3D hyperspectral THz Amplitude s2 and (d) Phase φ2 data cube at transition regions covering C and D with different doping level in the range of 0.5-1.8 THz, (e) second harmonic amplitude s2 and (f) phase φ2 at transition regions covering C and D at 0.6 THz extracted from part c, (g) and (h) second harmonic amplitude s2 and (f) phase φ2 at transition regions covering C and D at 1.6 THz extracted from part d.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Picture of THz-TDNS setup in a nitrogen purge box, (b) topography and (c) second harmonic broadband near field amplitude s2 image of SRAM sample, (d) THz TDNS amplitude s2 spectra measured at marked position of reference marked in (b) & (c) in (d) dry nitrogen environment and (e) in ambient.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Topography and (b) second harmonic monochromatic near field amplitude s2 image extended from region C to region D taken at 0.6 THz (extracted from hyperspectral image), (c) topography line profile extended along dash line in (a), (d) amplitude s2 line profile extended along avergae of several dash lines in (b), (e) derivate of lines profile of part (d) (dots) with symmetric Lorentzian fit (red line) and FWHM (blues arrows).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Second harmonic near field amplitude s2 image taken at mid IR wavelength, λ = 10.5 µm (28 THz), (b) forth harmonic near field amplitude s4 image taken at visible wavelength, λ = 632 nm (474 THz).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Simulated THz amplitude s2 and (b) phase φ2 spectra of near-field contrast for regions A,B, C and D. Finite dipole model was used for the calculation resulting in p-doped Si fitted values 1 × 1019, 3 × 1017, 4 × 1017, and 4 × 1016 cm−3 for A, B, C and D respectively, dash lines are simulated spectra without considering of reflection coefficient ( r p = 0 ) .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SRAM specification and fitted values for doping concentrations

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r p ( q , ω ) ε * ε 0 ε * + ε 0
ε * ε 1 ε 2 + ε 1 tan h ( q d 1 ) ε 1 + ε 2 tan h ( q d 1 ) ; q 1 R t
α e f f = C ( 1 + f 0 ( H ) β ( ε ) 2 ( 1 f ( H ) β ( ε ) ) )
f 0 ( H ) = ( g 2 H + W 0 + R t 2 L ) ln ( 4 L 4 H + 2 W 0 + R t ) ln ( 4 L R t )
f ( H ) = ( g 2 H + W i + R t 2 L ) ln ( 4 L 4 H + 2 R t ) ln ( 4 L R t )
C = L Q 0 | E 0 |
β = ε d o p e d ( s i ) 1 ε d o p e d ( s i ) + 1
W 0 1.31 R t L ( L + 2 R t )
W i R t 2
ε d o p e d ( s i ) ( ω , n d ) = ε ( 1 ω p 2 ω 2 + i ω γ )
ω p = ( ( n d × e 2 × 10 6 ε 0 ε m * ) 1 / 2 × 1 200 π c 0 )
γ = 100 e 2 π c 0 m * ( ( μ 0 exp ( p c / n d ) ) + ( μ max 1 + ( n d C r ) α ) ( μ 1 1 + ( C s n d ) β ) )

Metrics