Abstract

Optical rogue waves emerge in nonlinear optical systems with extremely large amplitudes, and leave without a trace. In this work, we reveal the emergence of optical polarization rogue waves in supercontinuum generation from a zero-dispersion fiber, pumped by a dissipative soliton laser. Flat spectral broadening is achieved by modulation instability, followed by cascaded four-wave-mixing. In this process, we identify the emergence of optical polarization rogue waves, based on the probability density function of the relative distance among polarization states. Experimental results show that optical polarization rogue waves originate from vector multi-wave-mixing. Besides, we observe double peaks, and even triple peaks in the histogram of the state of polarization. This is a new and intriguing property, never observed so far in optical rogue waves, for example those emerging in the statistics of pulse intensities. Our polarization domain statistical analysis provides a new insight into the still debated topic of the mechanism for rogue wave generation in optical supercontinuum.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. C. Kharif and E. Pelinovsky, “Physical mechanisms of the rogue wave phenomenon,” Eur. J. Mech. BFluids 22(6), 603–634 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528(2), 47–89 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. J.-P. Eckmann, “Roads to turbulence in dissipative dynamical systems,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 53(4), 643–654 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Brée, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243903 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 755–764 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Liu, S. Zhang, and F. W. Wise, “Rogue waves in a normal-dispersion fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1366–1369 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. Gao, T. Zhu, S. Wabnitz, M. Liu, and W. Huang, “Coherence loss of partially mode-locked fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24995 (2016).
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  10. D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7004 (2015).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J. M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13675 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  17. K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, and P. Grelu, “Vector dynamics of incoherent dissipative optical solitons,” Optica 4(10), 1239–1244 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, P. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20785 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

2016 (5)

B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, P. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Suret, R. E. Koussaifi, A. Tikan, C. Evain, S. Randoux, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Single-shot observation of optical rogue waves in integrable turbulence using time microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13136 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J. M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13675 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gao, T. Zhu, S. Wabnitz, M. Liu, and W. Huang, “Coherence loss of partially mode-locked fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24995 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Kolpakov, H. Kbashi, and S. V. Sergeyev, “Dynamics of vector rogue waves in a fiber laser with a ring cavity,” Optica 3(8), 870–875 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Zhang, and F. W. Wise, “Rogue waves in a normal-dispersion fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1366–1369 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 755–764 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528(2), 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Brée, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

R. Höhmann, U. Kuhl, H. J. Stöckmann, L. Kaplan, and E. J. Heller, “Freak waves in the linear regime: a microwave study,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(9), 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Rare frustration of optical supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Kharif and E. Pelinovsky, “Physical mechanisms of the rogue wave phenomenon,” Eur. J. Mech. BFluids 22(6), 603–634 (2003).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, and A. Tomita, “Observation of modulational instability in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(2), 135–138 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

J.-P. Eckmann, “Roads to turbulence in dissipative dynamical systems,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 53(4), 643–654 (1981).
[Crossref]

Akhmediev, N.

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arecchi, F. T.

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528(2), 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baronio, F.

B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, P. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bielawski, S.

P. Suret, R. E. Koussaifi, A. Tikan, C. Evain, S. Randoux, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Single-shot observation of optical rogue waves in integrable turbulence using time microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13136 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Billet, C.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J. M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13675 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birkholz, S.

S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Brée, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bortolozzo, U.

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528(2), 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brée, C.

S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Brée, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y. L.

Churkin, D. V.

D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conforti, M.

B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, P. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demircan, A.

S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Brée, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dias, F.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J. M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13675 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 755–764 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dudley, J. M.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J. M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13675 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 755–764 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3644–3651 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckmann, J.-P.

J.-P. Eckmann, “Roads to turbulence in dissipative dynamical systems,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 53(4), 643–654 (1981).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

Erkintalo, M.

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 755–764 (2014).
[Crossref]

Evain, C.

P. Suret, R. E. Koussaifi, A. Tikan, C. Evain, S. Randoux, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Single-shot observation of optical rogue waves in integrable turbulence using time microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13136 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frisquet, B.

B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, P. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

Genty, G.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J. M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13675 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 755–764 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Brée, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3644–3651 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grelu, P.

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, and P. Grelu, “Vector dynamics of incoherent dissipative optical solitons,” Optica 4(10), 1239–1244 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, A.

K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, and A. Tomita, “Observation of modulational instability in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(2), 135–138 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heller, E. J.

R. Höhmann, U. Kuhl, H. J. Stöckmann, L. Kaplan, and E. J. Heller, “Freak waves in the linear regime: a microwave study,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(9), 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Höhmann, R.

R. Höhmann, U. Kuhl, H. J. Stöckmann, L. Kaplan, and E. J. Heller, “Freak waves in the linear regime: a microwave study,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(9), 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, W.

L. Gao, T. Zhu, S. Wabnitz, M. Liu, and W. Huang, “Coherence loss of partially mode-locked fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24995 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Rare frustration of optical supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaplan, L.

R. Höhmann, U. Kuhl, H. J. Stöckmann, L. Kaplan, and E. J. Heller, “Freak waves in the linear regime: a microwave study,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(9), 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kbashi, H.

Kharif, C.

C. Kharif and E. Pelinovsky, “Physical mechanisms of the rogue wave phenomenon,” Eur. J. Mech. BFluids 22(6), 603–634 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khorev, S.

D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kibler, B.

B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, P. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobtsev, S. M.

D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolpakov, S. A.

Koonath, P.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koussaifi, R. E.

P. Suret, R. E. Koussaifi, A. Tikan, C. Evain, S. Randoux, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Single-shot observation of optical rogue waves in integrable turbulence using time microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13136 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krupa, K.

Kuhl, U.

R. Höhmann, U. Kuhl, H. J. Stöckmann, L. Kaplan, and E. J. Heller, “Freak waves in the linear regime: a microwave study,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(9), 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lecaplain, C.

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Liu, M.

L. Gao, T. Zhu, S. Wabnitz, M. Liu, and W. Huang, “Coherence loss of partially mode-locked fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24995 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Merolla, J. M.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J. M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13675 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Millot, G.

B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, P. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Montina, A.

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528(2), 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J. M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13675 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morin, P.

B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, P. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Närhi, M.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J. M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13675 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Brée, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nithyanandan, K.

Onorato, M.

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528(2), 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pelinovsky, E.

C. Kharif and E. Pelinovsky, “Physical mechanisms of the rogue wave phenomenon,” Eur. J. Mech. BFluids 22(6), 603–634 (2003).
[Crossref]

Randoux, S.

P. Suret, R. E. Koussaifi, A. Tikan, C. Evain, S. Randoux, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Single-shot observation of optical rogue waves in integrable turbulence using time microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13136 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Residori, S.

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528(2), 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ropers, C.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Rare frustration of optical supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sergeyev, S. V.

Skupin, S.

S. Birkholz, E. T. J. Nibbering, C. Brée, S. Skupin, A. Demircan, G. Genty, and G. Steinmeyer, “Spatiotemporal rogue events in optical multiple filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smirnov, S. V.

D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Rare frustration of optical supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

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B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, P. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the experimental setup and measurement. (b) Optical spectrum of the DS. (c) SOPs of DS after a tunable thin-film filter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SCG for different pump powers of the amplified DS. (b) Superimposed optical spectra from (a) for a pump power of 15 mW, 40 mW, and 100 mW, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(b) SOPs of SC in the range between1562 nm and 1572 nm, for a pump power of 5 mW and 20 mW, respectively. Wavelengths in (a) are represented by the same colors in (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)-(f) SOPs for various wavelengths and pump powers from 30 mW to 100 mW. Pump powers in (a), and (c)-(f) are represented by the same colors as in (b). Specifically, cross-shaped lines of SOPs in (c) indicate the presence of vector FWM [9].
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Histograms for the filtered SC wavelength of 1570 nm, where the pump power is 40 mW (a), 70 mW (b), and 100 mW (c), respectively. They are fitted by Gaussian function.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Histograms for the filtered SC wavelength of 1540 nm ((a)-(c)) and 1580 nm ((d)-(f)), where the pump power is 40 mW, 70 mW, and 100 mW, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) SOPs for wavelengths between 1541 nm and 1557 nm at the pump power of 100 mW. (b)-(f) Histograms for wavelengths between 1543 nm and 1547 nm for pump power at 100 mW.

Equations (2)

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r=| S m S n |=2 sin 1 ( ( S m1 S n1 ) 2 + ( S m2 S n2 ) 2 + ( S m3 S n3 ) 2 /2)
g(Ω)=| β 2 W | ( 4γP | β 2 | Ω 2 )

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