Abstract

The recently commercialized LISST-VSF instrument measures the volume scattering function (VSF) from 0.1° to 15° with a traditional laser diffraction unit (LISST) and from 15° to 155° with an eyeball component. Between these two optical components, only the LISST unit is calibrated. The eyeball measurements are scaled using the VSFs at 15° that are measured by both components. As this relative calibration relies on a valid measurement at 15° by the LISST, it might fail in clear oceanic waters, where the forward scattering is relative weak either due to a lack of large particles or an overall low concentration of all particles. In this study, we calibrated the LISST-VSF eyeball component through a series of lab experiments using standard polystyrene beads. Validation with the beads of two different sizes showed a median difference of 11.1% between theoretical and calibrated values. Further evaluations with in situ data collected by the LISST-VSF and an ECO-BB3 meter indicated that the new calibration worked well in both turbid and clear waters, while the relative calibration method tended to overestimate VSFs in clear waters.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Calibrated near-forward volume scattering function obtained from the LISST particle sizer

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Determination of the volume scattering function of aqueous particle suspensions with a laboratory multi-angle light scattering instrument

Marcel Babin, Dariusz Stramski, Rick A. Reynolds, Vanessa M. Wright, and Edouard Leymarie
Appl. Opt. 51(17) 3853-3873 (2012)

References

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2019 (2)

2018 (1)

D. Koestner, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Measurements of the Volume Scattering Function and the Degree of Linear Polarization of Light Scattered by Contrasting Natural Assemblages of Marine Particles,” Appl. Sci. 8(12), 2690 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

X. Zhang and D. J. Gray, “Backscattering by very small particles in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 120(10), 6914–6926 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, L. Guidi, M. J. Richardson, L. Stemmann, W. Gardner, J. K. B. Bishop, R. F. Anderson, and R. M. Sherrell, “Optical techniques for remote and in-situ characterization of particles pertinent to GEOTRACES,” Prog. Oceanogr. 133, 43–54 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

M. Twardowski, X. Zhang, S. Vagle, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, H. Czerski, Y. You, L. Bi, and G. Kattawar, “The optical volume scattering function in a surf zone inverted to derive sediment and bubble particle subpopulations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 117(C7), 7347 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, V. M. Wright, and E. Leymarie, “Determination of the volume scattering function of aqueous particle suspensions with a laboratory multi-angle light scattering instrument,” Appl. Opt. 51(17), 3853–3873 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Li, W. Cao, J. Yu, T. Ke, G. Lu, Y. Yang, and C. Guo, “An Instrument for In Situ Measuring the Volume Scattering Function of Water: Design, Calibration and Primary Experiments,” Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) 12(4), 4514–4533 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

2007 (4)

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4(6), 1041–1058 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Freeland, “A short history of Ocean Station Papa and Line P,” Prog. Oceanogr. 75(2), 120–125 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. K. Lotsberg, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, S. R. Erga, K. Aursland, and C. Olseng, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 5(1), 34–40 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Berthon, E. Shybanov, M. E. G. Lee, and G. Zibordi, “Measurements and modeling of the volume scattering function in the coastal northern Adriatic Sea,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5189–5203 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

Y. C. Agrawal, “The optical volume scattering function: Temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50(6), 1787–1794 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski and S. B. Woźniak, “On the role of colloidal particles in light scattering in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50(5), 1581–1591 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

X. Ma, Q. J. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. E. Lee and M. R. Lewis, “A New Method for the Measurement of the Optical Volume Scattering Function in the Upper Ocean,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20(4), 563–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 1035–1050 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. S. Wong, Z. Yu, N. A. D. Waser, F. A. Whitney, and W. K. Johnson, “Seasonal changes in the distribution of dissolved organic nitrogen in coastal and open-ocean waters in the North East Pacific: sources and sinks,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 49(24-25), 5759–5773 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. Quirantes, F. Arroyo, and J. Quirantes-Ros, “Multiple Light Scattering by Spherical Particle Systems and Its Dependence on Concentration: A T-Matrix Study,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 240(1), 78–82 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (4)

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Shallow Waters. I. A Semianalytical Model,” Appl. Opt. 37(27), 6329–6338 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(6), 1180–1197 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, and K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 870–876 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Witkowski, T. Król, A. Zielirińki, and E. Kuteń, “A light-scattering matrix for unicellular marine phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 859–869 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1993 (2)

S.-K. Chae and H. S. Lee, “Determination of Radiative Transport Properties of Particle Suspensions by a Single-Scattering Experiment,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 18(4), 389–402 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. W. Chen, “Simple formula for light scattering by a large spherical dielectric,” Appl. Opt. 32(36), 7568–7571 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1587–1600 (1989).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton1,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30(6), 1322–1326 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1977 (1)

P. W. Holland and R. E. Welsch, “Robust regression using iteratively reweighted least-squares,” Commun. Stat. Theor. M. 6(9), 813–827 (1977).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of light by Sargasso Sea water,” Deep-Sea Res. Oceanogr. Abstr. 15(4), 423–432 (1968).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

Agrawal, Y. C.

Y. C. Agrawal and O. A. Mikkelsen, “Empirical forward scattering phase functions from 0.08 to 16 deg. for randomly shaped terrigenous 1–21 µm sediment grains,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8805–8814 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Agrawal, “The optical volume scattering function: Temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50(6), 1787–1794 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. H. Slade, Y. C. Agrawal, and O. A. Mikkelsen, “Comparison of measured and theoretical scattering and polarization properties of narrow size range irregular sediment particles,” in OCEANS - San Diego, (IEEE, 2013), 1-6.

Anderson, R. F.

E. Boss, L. Guidi, M. J. Richardson, L. Stemmann, W. Gardner, J. K. B. Bishop, R. F. Anderson, and R. M. Sherrell, “Optical techniques for remote and in-situ characterization of particles pertinent to GEOTRACES,” Prog. Oceanogr. 133, 43–54 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arroyo, F.

A. Quirantes, F. Arroyo, and J. Quirantes-Ros, “Multiple Light Scattering by Spherical Particle Systems and Its Dependence on Concentration: A T-Matrix Study,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 240(1), 78–82 (2001).
[Crossref]

Aursland, K.

J. K. Lotsberg, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, S. R. Erga, K. Aursland, and C. Olseng, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 5(1), 34–40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Babin, M.

Bailey, S.

P. Werdell and S. Bailey, “The SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS): Current Architecture and Implementation,” Technical Report, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center (2002).

Balch, W. M.

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, and K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 870–876 (1998).
[Crossref]

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans109 (2004).

Behrenfeld, M. J.

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. A. Siegel, K. O. Buesseler, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. R. Benitez-Nelson, E. Boss, M. A. Brzezinski, A. Burd, C. A. Carlson, E. A. D’Asaro, S. C. Doney, M. J. Perry, R. H. R. Stanley, and D. K. Steinberg, “Prediction of the Export and Fate of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The EXPORTS Science Plan,” Front. Mar. Sci.3 (2016).
[Crossref]

Benitez-Nelson, C. R.

D. A. Siegel, K. O. Buesseler, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. R. Benitez-Nelson, E. Boss, M. A. Brzezinski, A. Burd, C. A. Carlson, E. A. D’Asaro, S. C. Doney, M. J. Perry, R. H. R. Stanley, and D. K. Steinberg, “Prediction of the Export and Fate of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The EXPORTS Science Plan,” Front. Mar. Sci.3 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berthon, J.-F.

Bi, L.

M. Twardowski, X. Zhang, S. Vagle, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, H. Czerski, Y. You, L. Bi, and G. Kattawar, “The optical volume scattering function in a surf zone inverted to derive sediment and bubble particle subpopulations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 117(C7), 7347 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bishop, J. K. B.

E. Boss, L. Guidi, M. J. Richardson, L. Stemmann, W. Gardner, J. K. B. Bishop, R. F. Anderson, and R. M. Sherrell, “Optical techniques for remote and in-situ characterization of particles pertinent to GEOTRACES,” Prog. Oceanogr. 133, 43–54 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blocker, E. R.

Bogucki, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley, New York, 1983).

Boss, E.

E. Boss, L. Guidi, M. J. Richardson, L. Stemmann, W. Gardner, J. K. B. Bishop, R. F. Anderson, and R. M. Sherrell, “Optical techniques for remote and in-situ characterization of particles pertinent to GEOTRACES,” Prog. Oceanogr. 133, 43–54 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

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W. H. Slade, Y. C. Agrawal, and O. A. Mikkelsen, “Comparison of measured and theoretical scattering and polarization properties of narrow size range irregular sediment particles,” in OCEANS - San Diego, (IEEE, 2013), 1-6.

Stamnes, J. J.

J. K. Lotsberg, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, S. R. Erga, K. Aursland, and C. Olseng, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 5(1), 34–40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stanley, R. H. R.

D. A. Siegel, K. O. Buesseler, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. R. Benitez-Nelson, E. Boss, M. A. Brzezinski, A. Burd, C. A. Carlson, E. A. D’Asaro, S. C. Doney, M. J. Perry, R. H. R. Stanley, and D. K. Steinberg, “Prediction of the Export and Fate of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The EXPORTS Science Plan,” Front. Mar. Sci.3 (2016).
[Crossref]

Steinberg, D. K.

D. A. Siegel, K. O. Buesseler, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. R. Benitez-Nelson, E. Boss, M. A. Brzezinski, A. Burd, C. A. Carlson, E. A. D’Asaro, S. C. Doney, M. J. Perry, R. H. R. Stanley, and D. K. Steinberg, “Prediction of the Export and Fate of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The EXPORTS Science Plan,” Front. Mar. Sci.3 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stemmann, L.

E. Boss, L. Guidi, M. J. Richardson, L. Stemmann, W. Gardner, J. K. B. Bishop, R. F. Anderson, and R. M. Sherrell, “Optical techniques for remote and in-situ characterization of particles pertinent to GEOTRACES,” Prog. Oceanogr. 133, 43–54 (2015).
[Crossref]

Steward, R. G.

Stramska, M.

J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, M. C. R., S. Pegau, Z. J. R. V., B. G. Mitchell, K. Mati, J. Wieland, and M. Stramska, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, revision 4, volume IV: inherent optical properties: instruments, characterizations, field measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA Tech. Memo NASA/TM-2003-211621/Rev4-Vol.IV (2003).

Stramski, D.

X. Zhang, D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, and E. R. Blocker, “Light scattering by pure water and seawater: the depolarization ratio and its variation with salinity,” Appl. Opt. 58(4), 991–1004 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Koestner, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Measurements of the Volume Scattering Function and the Degree of Linear Polarization of Light Scattered by Contrasting Natural Assemblages of Marine Particles,” Appl. Sci. 8(12), 2690 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, V. M. Wright, and E. Leymarie, “Determination of the volume scattering function of aqueous particle suspensions with a laboratory multi-angle light scattering instrument,” Appl. Opt. 51(17), 3853–3873 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4(6), 1041–1058 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski and S. B. Woźniak, “On the role of colloidal particles in light scattering in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50(5), 1581–1591 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, J.

M. Twardowski, X. Zhang, S. Vagle, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, H. Czerski, Y. You, L. Bi, and G. Kattawar, “The optical volume scattering function in a surf zone inverted to derive sediment and bubble particle subpopulations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 117(C7), 7347 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, J. M.

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6811–6819 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. Ronald, V. Zaneveld, and C. C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” in Light Scattering Reviews 7: Radiative Transfer and Optical Properties of Atmosphere and Underlying Surface, A. A. Kokhanovsky, ed. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013), pp. 189-224.

Sundman, L. K.

Tan, H.

Tanaka, A.

Thirouard, A.

Twardowski, M.

M. Twardowski, X. Zhang, S. Vagle, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, H. Czerski, Y. You, L. Bi, and G. Kattawar, “The optical volume scattering function in a surf zone inverted to derive sediment and bubble particle subpopulations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 117(C7), 7347 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans109 (2004).

Twardowski, M. S.

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6811–6819 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4(6), 1041–1058 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. Ronald, V. Zaneveld, and C. C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” in Light Scattering Reviews 7: Radiative Transfer and Optical Properties of Atmosphere and Underlying Surface, A. A. Kokhanovsky, ed. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013), pp. 189-224.

Tyler, J. E.

Vagle, S.

M. Twardowski, X. Zhang, S. Vagle, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, H. Czerski, Y. You, L. Bi, and G. Kattawar, “The optical volume scattering function in a surf zone inverted to derive sediment and bubble particle subpopulations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 117(C7), 7347 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(6), 1180–1197 (1998).
[Crossref]

Volten, H.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(6), 1180–1197 (1998).
[Crossref]

Voss, K. J.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, and K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 870–876 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton1,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30(6), 1322–1326 (1985).
[Crossref]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23(23), 4427–4439 (1984).
[Crossref]

Waser, N. A. D.

C. S. Wong, Z. Yu, N. A. D. Waser, F. A. Whitney, and W. K. Johnson, “Seasonal changes in the distribution of dissolved organic nitrogen in coastal and open-ocean waters in the North East Pacific: sources and sinks,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 49(24-25), 5759–5773 (2002).
[Crossref]

Welsch, R. E.

P. W. Holland and R. E. Welsch, “Robust regression using iteratively reweighted least-squares,” Commun. Stat. Theor. M. 6(9), 813–827 (1977).
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P. Werdell and S. Bailey, “The SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS): Current Architecture and Implementation,” Technical Report, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center (2002).

Westberry, T. K.

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[Crossref]

Whitney, F. A.

C. S. Wong, Z. Yu, N. A. D. Waser, F. A. Whitney, and W. K. Johnson, “Seasonal changes in the distribution of dissolved organic nitrogen in coastal and open-ocean waters in the North East Pacific: sources and sinks,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 49(24-25), 5759–5773 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wieland, J.

J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, M. C. R., S. Pegau, Z. J. R. V., B. G. Mitchell, K. Mati, J. Wieland, and M. Stramska, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, revision 4, volume IV: inherent optical properties: instruments, characterizations, field measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA Tech. Memo NASA/TM-2003-211621/Rev4-Vol.IV (2003).

Witkowski, K.

K. Witkowski, T. Król, A. Zielirińki, and E. Kuteń, “A light-scattering matrix for unicellular marine phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 859–869 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wong, C. S.

C. S. Wong, Z. Yu, N. A. D. Waser, F. A. Whitney, and W. K. Johnson, “Seasonal changes in the distribution of dissolved organic nitrogen in coastal and open-ocean waters in the North East Pacific: sources and sinks,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 49(24-25), 5759–5773 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wouts, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(6), 1180–1197 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wozniak, S. B.

D. Stramski and S. B. Woźniak, “On the role of colloidal particles in light scattering in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50(5), 1581–1591 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wright, V. M.

Yang, P.

X. Ma, Q. J. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

C. Li, W. Cao, J. Yu, T. Ke, G. Lu, Y. Yang, and C. Guo, “An Instrument for In Situ Measuring the Volume Scattering Function of Water: Design, Calibration and Primary Experiments,” Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) 12(4), 4514–4533 (2012).
[Crossref]

You, Y.

M. Twardowski, X. Zhang, S. Vagle, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, H. Czerski, Y. You, L. Bi, and G. Kattawar, “The optical volume scattering function in a surf zone inverted to derive sediment and bubble particle subpopulations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 117(C7), 7347 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

C. Li, W. Cao, J. Yu, T. Ke, G. Lu, Y. Yang, and C. Guo, “An Instrument for In Situ Measuring the Volume Scattering Function of Water: Design, Calibration and Primary Experiments,” Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) 12(4), 4514–4533 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

C. S. Wong, Z. Yu, N. A. D. Waser, F. A. Whitney, and W. K. Johnson, “Seasonal changes in the distribution of dissolved organic nitrogen in coastal and open-ocean waters in the North East Pacific: sources and sinks,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 49(24-25), 5759–5773 (2002).
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Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, A. Bricaud, and C. C. Moore, “Analysis of in-situ spectral absorption meter data,” in San Diego ‘92, (SPIE, 1992), 14.

Zaneveld, V.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. Ronald, V. Zaneveld, and C. C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” in Light Scattering Reviews 7: Radiative Transfer and Optical Properties of Atmosphere and Underlying Surface, A. A. Kokhanovsky, ed. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013), pp. 189-224.

Zhang, X.

L. Hu, X. Zhang, and M. J. Perry, “Light scattering by pure seawater: Effect of pressure,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 146, 103–109 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, and E. R. Blocker, “Light scattering by pure water and seawater: the depolarization ratio and its variation with salinity,” Appl. Opt. 58(4), 991–1004 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, G. R. Fournier, and D. J. Gray, “Interpretation of scattering by oceanic particles around 120 degrees and its implication in ocean color studies,” Opt. Express 25(4), A191–A199 (2017).
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X. Zhang and D. J. Gray, “Backscattering by very small particles in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 120(10), 6914–6926 (2015).
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M. Twardowski, X. Zhang, S. Vagle, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, H. Czerski, Y. You, L. Bi, and G. Kattawar, “The optical volume scattering function in a surf zone inverted to derive sediment and bubble particle subpopulations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 117(C7), 7347 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang and L. Hu, “Estimating scattering of pure water from densityfluctuation of the refractive index,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1671–1678 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, L. Hu, and M.-X. He, “Scattering by pure seawater: Effect of salinity,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5698–5710 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zibordi, G.

Zielirinki, A.

K. Witkowski, T. Król, A. Zielirińki, and E. Kuteń, “A light-scattering matrix for unicellular marine phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 859–869 (1998).
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X. Zhang, D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, and E. R. Blocker, “Light scattering by pure water and seawater: the depolarization ratio and its variation with salinity,” Appl. Opt. 58(4), 991–1004 (2019).
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C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 1035–1050 (2002).
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J.-F. Berthon, E. Shybanov, M. E. G. Lee, and G. Zibordi, “Measurements and modeling of the volume scattering function in the coastal northern Adriatic Sea,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5189–5203 (2007).
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J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6811–6819 (2009).
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M. Babin, D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, V. M. Wright, and E. Leymarie, “Determination of the volume scattering function of aqueous particle suspensions with a laboratory multi-angle light scattering instrument,” Appl. Opt. 51(17), 3853–3873 (2012).
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Appl. Sci. (1)

D. Koestner, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Measurements of the Volume Scattering Function and the Degree of Linear Polarization of Light Scattered by Contrasting Natural Assemblages of Marine Particles,” Appl. Sci. 8(12), 2690 (2018).
[Crossref]

Biogeosciences (2)

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4(6), 1041–1058 (2007).
[Crossref]

Commun. Stat. Theor. M. (1)

P. W. Holland and R. E. Welsch, “Robust regression using iteratively reweighted least-squares,” Commun. Stat. Theor. M. 6(9), 813–827 (1977).
[Crossref]

Deep Sea Res., Part I (1)

L. Hu, X. Zhang, and M. J. Perry, “Light scattering by pure seawater: Effect of pressure,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 146, 103–109 (2019).
[Crossref]

Deep Sea Res., Part II (1)

C. S. Wong, Z. Yu, N. A. D. Waser, F. A. Whitney, and W. K. Johnson, “Seasonal changes in the distribution of dissolved organic nitrogen in coastal and open-ocean waters in the North East Pacific: sources and sinks,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 49(24-25), 5759–5773 (2002).
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M. E. Lee and M. R. Lewis, “A New Method for the Measurement of the Optical Volume Scattering Function in the Upper Ocean,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20(4), 563–571 (2003).
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A. Quirantes, F. Arroyo, and J. Quirantes-Ros, “Multiple Light Scattering by Spherical Particle Systems and Its Dependence on Concentration: A T-Matrix Study,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 240(1), 78–82 (2001).
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M. Twardowski, X. Zhang, S. Vagle, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, H. Czerski, Y. You, L. Bi, and G. Kattawar, “The optical volume scattering function in a surf zone inverted to derive sediment and bubble particle subpopulations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 117(C7), 7347 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang and D. J. Gray, “Backscattering by very small particles in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 120(10), 6914–6926 (2015).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Limnol. Oceanogr. (7)

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(6), 1180–1197 (1998).
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E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton1,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30(6), 1322–1326 (1985).
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[Crossref]

K. Witkowski, T. Król, A. Zielirińki, and E. Kuteń, “A light-scattering matrix for unicellular marine phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 859–869 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski and S. B. Woźniak, “On the role of colloidal particles in light scattering in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50(5), 1581–1591 (2005).
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Y. C. Agrawal, “The optical volume scattering function: Temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50(6), 1787–1794 (2005).
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Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods (1)

J. K. Lotsberg, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, S. R. Erga, K. Aursland, and C. Olseng, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering from marine particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 5(1), 34–40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

X. Zhang and L. Hu, “Estimating scattering of pure water from densityfluctuation of the refractive index,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1671–1678 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, L. Hu, and M.-X. He, “Scattering by pure seawater: Effect of salinity,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5698–5710 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Agrawal and O. A. Mikkelsen, “Empirical forward scattering phase functions from 0.08 to 16 deg. for randomly shaped terrigenous 1–21 µm sediment grains,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8805–8814 (2009).
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H. Tan, R. Doerffer, T. Oishi, and A. Tanaka, “A new approach to measure the volume scattering function,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18697–18711 (2013).
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M. Chami, A. Thirouard, and T. Harmel, “POLVSM (Polarized Volume Scattering Meter) instrument: an innovative device to measure the directional and polarized scattering properties of hydrosols,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26403–26428 (2014).
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W. H. Slade and E. S. Boss, “Calibrated near-forward volume scattering function obtained from the LISST particle sizer,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3602–3615 (2006).
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T. Harmel, M. Hieronymi, W. Slade, R. Röttgers, F. Roullier, and M. Chami, “Laboratory experiments for inter-comparison of three volume scattering meters to measure angular scattering properties of hydrosols,” Opt. Express 24(2), A234–A256 (2016).
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X. Zhang, G. R. Fournier, and D. J. Gray, “Interpretation of scattering by oceanic particles around 120 degrees and its implication in ocean color studies,” Opt. Express 25(4), A191–A199 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

X. Ma, Q. J. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
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H. Freeland, “A short history of Ocean Station Papa and Line P,” Prog. Oceanogr. 75(2), 120–125 (2007).
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E. Boss, L. Guidi, M. J. Richardson, L. Stemmann, W. Gardner, J. K. B. Bishop, R. F. Anderson, and R. M. Sherrell, “Optical techniques for remote and in-situ characterization of particles pertinent to GEOTRACES,” Prog. Oceanogr. 133, 43–54 (2015).
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D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
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D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
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C. Li, W. Cao, J. Yu, T. Ke, G. Lu, Y. Yang, and C. Guo, “An Instrument for In Situ Measuring the Volume Scattering Function of Water: Design, Calibration and Primary Experiments,” Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) 12(4), 4514–4533 (2012).
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J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, A. Bricaud, and C. C. Moore, “Analysis of in-situ spectral absorption meter data,” in San Diego ‘92, (SPIE, 1992), 14.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Report (Scripps Institution of Oceanography), 72–78 (1972).

D. A. Siegel, K. O. Buesseler, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. R. Benitez-Nelson, E. Boss, M. A. Brzezinski, A. Burd, C. A. Carlson, E. A. D’Asaro, S. C. Doney, M. J. Perry, R. H. R. Stanley, and D. K. Steinberg, “Prediction of the Export and Fate of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The EXPORTS Science Plan,” Front. Mar. Sci.3 (2016).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Variations of the VSF (βMie) calculated for the three polystyrene beads listed in Table 1 with perturbations in their mean diameter (a) and their imaginary part of the refractive index (b). To ease comparison, the βMie values are normalized by the total scattering intergraded from 15° to 155°.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Stations of Line P Program (red dots) and boundary of the EXPORTS 2018 experiment (black rectangle around P26). The background is bathymetry of the study area.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Scatter plot between $P_{11}^{\textrm{uncal}}({60^\circ ,645\textrm{mV}} )$ measured by the LISST-VSF eyeball component and βMie(60°) calculated for polystyrene beads (µND = 0.2 µm) at 10 concentrations. Horizontal and vertical error bars represent standard deviations estimated, respectively, from the 30 measurements of $P_{11}^{\textrm{uncal}}({60^\circ ,645\textrm{mV}} )$ at each concentration and from βMie(60°) calculated by accounting for uncertainties in the mean diameter of the beads. The uncertainties associated with the imaginary part of the refractive index of the 0.2 µm beads are negligible and hence ignored. Blue, green, and red colors correspond to three different PMT supply voltages that were automatically selected during the measurements. (b) Calibration coefficients κ(θ,645 mV) estimated as the linear slope between $P_{11}^{\textrm{uncal}}({\theta ,645\textrm{mV}} )$ and βMie(θ) at each scattering angle. The solid line represents the median values and two dash lines indicate the 95% confidence interval. The dotted blue line represents κ(θ,645 mV) between 15° and 50° derived from 0.5 µm beads .
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Comparison of non-blank VSFs (βnb­) at 517 nm measured by the LISST-VSF with Mie-simulated values for the 0.5 µm bead sample with bbp = 5.8×10−4 m-1. Measured βnb­ include βnb­,abs(θ≥15°) (blue dots) obtained with the LISST-VSF eyeball component using the absolute calibration developed in this study, βnb­,rel(θ≥15°) (black dots) obtained with the eyeball component using the relative calibration, and βnb­(θ<15°) obtained with the LISST-VSF ring detectors (green dots). The shaded area represents the perturbations of simulated VSF due to uncertainties associated with mean diameter and imaginary part of the refractive index of beads. The particulate backscattering coefficient (bbp) is calculated from Mie. (b) Same as (a) but for the 11 µm bead sample with bbp = 0.012 m-1. (c) Angular evaluation of the absolute calibration in terms of relative percentage difference (RPD) between measured βnb,abs and Mie-simulated values. (d) Scatter plot of βnb,abs and Mie-simulated values at all scattering angles from 15° to 150° for both 0.5 µm and 11 µm beads, each at 10 concentrations. The overall RPD is 11.1% and the correlation coefficient (r) is 0.998. (e) Comparison of P12 measured by the LISST-VSF using the absolute calibration (blue dots) with Mie-simulated values (red line) for the 0.5 µm bead sample. (f) Same as (e) but for the 11 µm bead sample.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Comparison of particulate VSF at 15° calculated using the absolute calibration (βp,abs(15°)) and the relative calibration (βp,rel(15°)) for the three experiments of LP-2017 (red), LP-2018 (blue), and EX-2018 (black). The error bars represent standard deviations of βp (15°) estimated from 30 repeated measurements by the LISST-VSF for each sample.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Histogram distributions of particulate VSF at 124° (βp(124°)) calculated from the LISST-VSF (left y-axis) using absolute calibration method developed in this study (red color) and the relative method (blue color) and ECO-BB3 (right y-axis, gray color) in the EX-2018 experiment.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Comparison of particulate backscattering coefficients (bbp, bottom x-axis) calculated using the absolute calibration method (bbp,abs, triangle) and the relative calibration method (bbp,rel, circle) at various depths in CDT cast 16 (red lines) and cast 60 (blue lines). The concurrent chlorophyll concentration profile (top x-axis) acquired by a Sea-Bird/WETLab ECO-AFL/FL Fluorometer in two CTD casts overlaid.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Measured bulk VSFs (β) by LISST-VSF eyeball component calculated using the absolute calibration for unfiltered (blue lines) and 0.2 µm-filtered (red lines) seawater samples collected in the EX-2018 experiment. The VSF of pure seawater (βsw, black line) calculated from the theoretical model (λ=517 nm, T = 15°, S = 33 PSU) [3] is overlaid. (b) Same as (a) but for particulate VSFs (βp).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The specification of polystyrene beads used in this study. Beads of a nominal diameter µND are assumed to be normally distributed with an actual mean diameter of µD and a standard deviation of σD. δD represents the uncertainty in determining µD at 95% confidence level. The complex refractive index (n) and the original concentration (N0) calculated at 517 nm for different bead suspensions are also listed.

Tables Icon

Table 2. The duration of, the number of stations of, and number of seawater samples collected in, each of the three field experiments. The range (median) values of particulate backscattering coefficient (bbp) were calculated for each experiment using the LISST-VSF data with the absolute calibration method and Eq. (19).

Equations (20)

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β ( θ ) = lim v 0 I ( θ ) E v
I i j ( θ , V ) = [ I i j on ( θ , V ) I i j off ( θ , V ) ] e c L ( θ ) T v sin ( θ ) f ( θ 1 5 o 5 0 o ) , i = h,v j = h,v
κ ( θ , V ) I hh ( θ , V ) / I 0 = P 11 ( θ ) + P 12 ( θ ) + cos ( 2 θ ) [ P 12 ( θ ) + P 22 ( θ ) ] , κ ( θ , V ) I hv ( θ , V ) / I 0 = α { P 11 ( θ ) + P 12 ( θ ) cos ( 2 θ ) [ P 12 ( θ ) + P 22 ( θ ) ] } , κ ( θ , V ) I vh ( θ , V ) / I 0 = P 11 ( θ ) P 12 ( θ ) + cos ( 2 θ ) [ P 12 ( θ ) P 22 ( θ ) ] , κ ( θ , V ) I vv ( θ , V ) / I 0 = α { P 11 ( θ ) P 12 ( θ ) cos ( 2 θ ) [ P 12 ( θ ) P 22 ( θ ) ] } ,
P 11 ( θ ) = β ( θ ) = κ ( θ , V ) P 11 uncal ( θ , V ) ,
P 11 uncal ( θ , V ) = [ I hh ( θ , V ) + I hv ( θ , V ) / α + I vh ( θ , V ) + I vv ( θ , V ) / α ] / 4 I 0 ,
P 12 ( θ ) = κ ( θ , V ) P 12 uncal ( θ , V ) ,
P 12 uncal ( θ , V ) = [ I hh ( θ , V ) I vh ( θ , V ) + I hv ( θ , V ) / α I vv ( θ , V ) / α ] / 4 I 0 ,
β LISST ( 15 ) = 1.29 β LISST ( 14.4 ) 0.29 β LISST ( 12.3 ) ,
S F ( V ) = β LISST ( 15 ) / P 11 uncal ( 15 , V ) ,
β eyeball ( θ ) = S F ( V ) P 11 uncal ( θ , V ) ,
G 2 / G 1 = ( V 2 / V 1 ) γ ,
P 11 uncal ( θ , V 0 ) = P 11 uncal ( θ , V ) ( V 0 / V ) γ .
β eyeball ( θ ) = κ ( θ , 645 mV ) P 11 uncal ( θ , 645 mV ) .
I i j nb ( θ , V ) = I i j ( θ , V ) I i j b ( θ , V ) .
β p ( θ ) = β ( θ ) β sw ( θ ) .
n r ( λ ) = 1.5663 + 0.00785 / λ 2 + 0.000334 / λ 4 ,
N 0 = 6 ρ w / π / ( μ D 3 + σ D 3 ) / ( ρ w ρ p + ρ p / C p ) ,
β Mie ( θ ) = N μ D 3 σ D μ D + 3 σ D S Mie ( θ , D ) φ ( D ) d D ,
b bp = 2 π 90 150 β p ( θ ) sin ( θ ) d θ + 2 π 150 180 β p ( θ ) sin ( θ ) d θ
( Δ β β ) 2 = γ 2 ( Δ V V ) 2 + ( ln V V 0 ) 2 ( Δ γ ) 2 .

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