Abstract

Range-resolved detection of submerged scattering layers was investigated in the Gulf of Mexico based on vertical profiles made with a LiDAR (Light detection and range) system having a green laser (wavelength λ = 532 nm). The backscattering power (Sd) variability was decomposed in principal components (PCs) and related to non-polarized Sd, the Sd ratio between cross- and co-polarized waveforms, the chlorophyll-a fluorescence (Fchl), and the ratio between volume scattering angles of 150° and 100°. The variance of PCs was dominated by non-polarized Sd followed by Fchl. Correlation between PC1 scores and Fchl anomalies suggested that Sd was mainly originated from pigmented particulates.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

G. Mohammadpour, J. P. Gagné, P. Larouche, and M. A. Montes-Hugo, “is Optical properties of size fractions of suspended particulate matter in littoral waters of Québec,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 14(23), 5297–5312 (2017), doi: .
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

areN. Al-Qazzaz, S. Hamid Bin Mohd Ali, S. Ahmad, M. Islam, and J. Escudero, “Selection of Mother Wavelet Functions for Multi-Channel EEG Signal Analysis during a Working Memory Task,” Sensors (Basel) 15(11), 29015–29035 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

D. G. Zawada and C. H. Mazel, “Fluorescence-based classification of Caribbean coral reef organisms and substrates,” PLoS One 9(1), e84570 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, S. F. DiMarco, S. Ingle, L. Belabbassi, and L. H. Al-Kharusi, “Seasonal and annual variability of vertically migrating scattering layers in the northern Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 90, 152–165 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Carr and G. Tuell, “Estimating field-of-view loss in bathymetric lidar: application to large-scale simulations,” Appl. Opt. 53(21), 4716–4721 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

X. Zhang, Y. Huot, D. J. Gray, A. Weidemann, and W. J. Rhea, “Biogeochemical origins of particles obtained from the inversion of the volume scattering function and spectral absorption in coastal waters,” Biogeosc. 10(9), 6029–6043 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. A. Young and M. A. Vaughan, “The retrieval of profiles of particulate extinction of cloud-aerosol Lidar infrared pathfinder satellite observations (CALIPSO) data: Algorithm description,” Amer. Meteor. Soc. 26, 1105–1119 (2013).

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: Consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30(1), 50–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Montes-Hugo, J. H. Churnside, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and R. Foy, “Spatial coherence between remotely sensed ocean color data and vertical distribution of lidar backscattering in coastal stratified waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114(11), 2584–2593 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: Consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30(1), 50–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

J. H. Smart, “How accurately can we predict optical clarity in the littorals?” Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig. 25(2), 112–120 (2004).

2001 (3)

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40(30), 5503–5507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40(24), 4353–4364 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7c7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. McKee, A. Cunningham, and K. Jones, “Simultaneous Measurements of fluorescence and Beam Attenuation: Instrument Characterization and Interpretation of Signals from Stratified Coastal Waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 48(1), 51–58 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. S. Jaffe, P. J. S. Franks, and A. W. Leising, “Simultaneous imaging of phytoplankton and zooplankton distributions,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 11(1), 24–29 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, “Laser diffraction particle sizing in STRESS,” Cont. Shelf Res. 14(10-11), 1101–1121 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

C. Spearman, “The proof and measurement of association between two things. By C. Spearman, 1904,” Am. J. Psychol. 100(3-4), 441–471 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1973 (1)

C. M. R. Platt,“Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30(6), 1191–1204 (1973).
[Crossref]

1901 (1)

K. Pearson, “On Lines and Planes of Closest Fit to Systems of Points in Space,” Philos. Mag. 2(11), 559–572 (1901).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, Y. C.

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, “Laser diffraction particle sizing in STRESS,” Cont. Shelf Res. 14(10-11), 1101–1121 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, S.

areN. Al-Qazzaz, S. Hamid Bin Mohd Ali, S. Ahmad, M. Islam, and J. Escudero, “Selection of Mother Wavelet Functions for Multi-Channel EEG Signal Analysis during a Working Memory Task,” Sensors (Basel) 15(11), 29015–29035 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Kharusi, L. H.

Z. Wang, S. F. DiMarco, S. Ingle, L. Belabbassi, and L. H. Al-Kharusi, “Seasonal and annual variability of vertically migrating scattering layers in the northern Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 90, 152–165 (2014).
[Crossref]

Al-Qazzaz, N.

areN. Al-Qazzaz, S. Hamid Bin Mohd Ali, S. Ahmad, M. Islam, and J. Escudero, “Selection of Mother Wavelet Functions for Multi-Channel EEG Signal Analysis during a Working Memory Task,” Sensors (Basel) 15(11), 29015–29035 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnone, R.

Arnone, R. A.

M. A. Montes-Hugo, J. H. Churnside, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and R. Foy, “Spatial coherence between remotely sensed ocean color data and vertical distribution of lidar backscattering in coastal stratified waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114(11), 2584–2593 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7c7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Belabbassi, L.

Z. Wang, S. F. DiMarco, S. Ingle, L. Belabbassi, and L. H. Al-Kharusi, “Seasonal and annual variability of vertically migrating scattering layers in the northern Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 90, 152–165 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7c7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40(30), 5503–5507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carr, D.

Carswell, A. I.

Churnside, J.

Churnside, J. H.

M. A. Montes-Hugo, J. H. Churnside, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and R. Foy, “Spatial coherence between remotely sensed ocean color data and vertical distribution of lidar backscattering in coastal stratified waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114(11), 2584–2593 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside, “Churnside, Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1196–1207 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, A.

D. McKee, A. Cunningham, and K. Jones, “Simultaneous Measurements of fluorescence and Beam Attenuation: Instrument Characterization and Interpretation of Signals from Stratified Coastal Waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 48(1), 51–58 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dalgleish, F. R.

DiMarco, S. F.

Z. Wang, S. F. DiMarco, S. Ingle, L. Belabbassi, and L. H. Al-Kharusi, “Seasonal and annual variability of vertically migrating scattering layers in the northern Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 90, 152–165 (2014).
[Crossref]

Donaghay, P. L.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: Consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30(1), 50–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: Consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30(1), 50–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44(9), 1667 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Escudero, J.

areN. Al-Qazzaz, S. Hamid Bin Mohd Ali, S. Ahmad, M. Islam, and J. Escudero, “Selection of Mother Wavelet Functions for Multi-Channel EEG Signal Analysis during a Working Memory Task,” Sensors (Basel) 15(11), 29015–29035 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foy, R.

M. A. Montes-Hugo, J. H. Churnside, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and R. Foy, “Spatial coherence between remotely sensed ocean color data and vertical distribution of lidar backscattering in coastal stratified waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114(11), 2584–2593 (2010).
[Crossref]

Franks, P. J. S.

J. S. Jaffe, P. J. S. Franks, and A. W. Leising, “Simultaneous imaging of phytoplankton and zooplankton distributions,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 11(1), 24–29 (1998).
[Crossref]

Freeman, S. A.

Fry, E. S.

Gagné, J. P.

G. Mohammadpour, J. P. Gagné, P. Larouche, and M. A. Montes-Hugo, “is Optical properties of size fractions of suspended particulate matter in littoral waters of Québec,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 14(23), 5297–5312 (2017), doi: .
[Crossref]

Goldin, Y. A.

Gould, R.

Gould, R. W.

M. A. Montes-Hugo, J. H. Churnside, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and R. Foy, “Spatial coherence between remotely sensed ocean color data and vertical distribution of lidar backscattering in coastal stratified waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114(11), 2584–2593 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gray, D. J.

X. Zhang, Y. Huot, D. J. Gray, A. Weidemann, and W. J. Rhea, “Biogeochemical origins of particles obtained from the inversion of the volume scattering function and spectral absorption in coastal waters,” Biogeosc. 10(9), 6029–6043 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gureev, B. A.

Hamid Bin Mohd Ali, S.

areN. Al-Qazzaz, S. Hamid Bin Mohd Ali, S. Ahmad, M. Islam, and J. Escudero, “Selection of Mother Wavelet Functions for Multi-Channel EEG Signal Analysis during a Working Memory Task,” Sensors (Basel) 15(11), 29015–29035 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoge, F. E.

Hostetler, C.

Hostetler, C. A.

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” SPIE Proc. 5575, doi. (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

Hu, Y.

Z. Liu, W. Hunt, M. Vaughan, C. Hostetler, M. McGill, K. Powell, D. Winker, and Y. Hu, “Estimating random errors due to shot noise in backscatter lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 45(18), 4437–4447 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” SPIE Proc. 5575, doi. (2004).
[Crossref]

Hunt, W.

Huot, Y.

X. Zhang, Y. Huot, D. J. Gray, A. Weidemann, and W. J. Rhea, “Biogeochemical origins of particles obtained from the inversion of the volume scattering function and spectral absorption in coastal waters,” Biogeosc. 10(9), 6029–6043 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ingle, S.

Z. Wang, S. F. DiMarco, S. Ingle, L. Belabbassi, and L. H. Al-Kharusi, “Seasonal and annual variability of vertically migrating scattering layers in the northern Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 90, 152–165 (2014).
[Crossref]

Islam, M.

areN. Al-Qazzaz, S. Hamid Bin Mohd Ali, S. Ahmad, M. Islam, and J. Escudero, “Selection of Mother Wavelet Functions for Multi-Channel EEG Signal Analysis during a Working Memory Task,” Sensors (Basel) 15(11), 29015–29035 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaffe, J. S.

J. S. Jaffe, P. J. S. Franks, and A. W. Leising, “Simultaneous imaging of phytoplankton and zooplankton distributions,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 11(1), 24–29 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jones, K.

D. McKee, A. Cunningham, and K. Jones, “Simultaneous Measurements of fluorescence and Beam Attenuation: Instrument Characterization and Interpretation of Signals from Stratified Coastal Waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 48(1), 51–58 (1999).
[Crossref]

Larouche, P.

G. Mohammadpour, J. P. Gagné, P. Larouche, and M. A. Montes-Hugo, “is Optical properties of size fractions of suspended particulate matter in littoral waters of Québec,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 14(23), 5297–5312 (2017), doi: .
[Crossref]

Lee, Z.

Leising, A. W.

J. S. Jaffe, P. J. S. Franks, and A. W. Leising, “Simultaneous imaging of phytoplankton and zooplankton distributions,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 11(1), 24–29 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7c7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mazel, C. H.

D. G. Zawada and C. H. Mazel, “Fluorescence-based classification of Caribbean coral reef organisms and substrates,” PLoS One 9(1), e84570 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGill, M.

McKee, D.

D. McKee, A. Cunningham, and K. Jones, “Simultaneous Measurements of fluorescence and Beam Attenuation: Instrument Characterization and Interpretation of Signals from Stratified Coastal Waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 48(1), 51–58 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mohammadpour, G.

G. Mohammadpour, J. P. Gagné, P. Larouche, and M. A. Montes-Hugo, “is Optical properties of size fractions of suspended particulate matter in littoral waters of Québec,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 14(23), 5297–5312 (2017), doi: .
[Crossref]

Montes, M. A.

Montes-Hugo, M. A.

G. Mohammadpour, J. P. Gagné, P. Larouche, and M. A. Montes-Hugo, “is Optical properties of size fractions of suspended particulate matter in littoral waters of Québec,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 14(23), 5297–5312 (2017), doi: .
[Crossref]

M. A. Montes-Hugo, A. K. Vuorenkoski, F. R. Dalgleish, and B. Ouyang, “Weibull approximation of LiDAR waveforms for estimating the beam attenuation coefficient,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22670–22681 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Montes-Hugo, J. H. Churnside, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and R. Foy, “Spatial coherence between remotely sensed ocean color data and vertical distribution of lidar backscattering in coastal stratified waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114(11), 2584–2593 (2010).
[Crossref]

Omar, A. H.

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” SPIE Proc. 5575, doi. (2004).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, B.

Pal, S. R.

Pearson, K.

K. Pearson, “On Lines and Planes of Closest Fit to Systems of Points in Space,” Philos. Mag. 2(11), 559–572 (1901).
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Pegau, W. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7c7), 14129–14142 (2001).
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E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40(30), 5503–5507 (2001).
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Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt,“Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30(6), 1191–1204 (1973).
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Pottsmith, H. C.

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, “Laser diffraction particle sizing in STRESS,” Cont. Shelf Res. 14(10-11), 1101–1121 (1994).
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Powell, K.

Powell, K. A.

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” SPIE Proc. 5575, doi. (2004).
[Crossref]

Rhea, W. J.

X. Zhang, Y. Huot, D. J. Gray, A. Weidemann, and W. J. Rhea, “Biogeochemical origins of particles obtained from the inversion of the volume scattering function and spectral absorption in coastal waters,” Biogeosc. 10(9), 6029–6043 (2013).
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Rines, J. E. B.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: Consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30(1), 50–65 (2010).
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J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: Consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30(1), 50–65 (2010).
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Smart, J. H.

J. H. Smart, “How accurately can we predict optical clarity in the littorals?” Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig. 25(2), 112–120 (2004).

Spearman, C.

C. Spearman, “The proof and measurement of association between two things. By C. Spearman, 1904,” Am. J. Psychol. 100(3-4), 441–471 (1987).
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Sullivan, J. M.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: Consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30(1), 50–65 (2010).
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J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: Consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30(1), 50–65 (2010).
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J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44(9), 1667 (2005).
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Swift, R. N.

Tuell, G.

Twardowski, M. S.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44(9), 1667 (2005).
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M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7c7), 14129–14142 (2001).
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Vasilkov, A. P.

Vaughan, M.

Vaughan, M. A.

S. A. Young and M. A. Vaughan, “The retrieval of profiles of particulate extinction of cloud-aerosol Lidar infrared pathfinder satellite observations (CALIPSO) data: Algorithm description,” Amer. Meteor. Soc. 26, 1105–1119 (2013).

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” SPIE Proc. 5575, doi. (2004).
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Vuorenkoski, A. K.

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Z. Wang, S. F. DiMarco, S. Ingle, L. Belabbassi, and L. H. Al-Kharusi, “Seasonal and annual variability of vertically migrating scattering layers in the northern Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 90, 152–165 (2014).
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Weidemann, A.

X. Zhang, Y. Huot, D. J. Gray, A. Weidemann, and W. J. Rhea, “Biogeochemical origins of particles obtained from the inversion of the volume scattering function and spectral absorption in coastal waters,” Biogeosc. 10(9), 6029–6043 (2013).
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M. A. Montes, J. Churnside, Z. Lee, R. Gould, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “Relationships between water attenuation coefficients derived from active and passive remote sensing: a case study from two coastal environments,” Appl. Opt. 50(18), 2990–2999 (2011).
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Winker, D.

Winker, D. M.

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” SPIE Proc. 5575, doi. (2004).
[Crossref]

Wright, C. W.

Young, S. A.

S. A. Young and M. A. Vaughan, “The retrieval of profiles of particulate extinction of cloud-aerosol Lidar infrared pathfinder satellite observations (CALIPSO) data: Algorithm description,” Amer. Meteor. Soc. 26, 1105–1119 (2013).

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” SPIE Proc. 5575, doi. (2004).
[Crossref]

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M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7c7), 14129–14142 (2001).
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D. G. Zawada and C. H. Mazel, “Fluorescence-based classification of Caribbean coral reef organisms and substrates,” PLoS One 9(1), e84570 (2014).
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X. Zhang, Y. Huot, D. J. Gray, A. Weidemann, and W. J. Rhea, “Biogeochemical origins of particles obtained from the inversion of the volume scattering function and spectral absorption in coastal waters,” Biogeosc. 10(9), 6029–6043 (2013).
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Am. J. Psychol. (1)

C. Spearman, “The proof and measurement of association between two things. By C. Spearman, 1904,” Am. J. Psychol. 100(3-4), 441–471 (1987).
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Amer. Meteor. Soc. (1)

S. A. Young and M. A. Vaughan, “The retrieval of profiles of particulate extinction of cloud-aerosol Lidar infrared pathfinder satellite observations (CALIPSO) data: Algorithm description,” Amer. Meteor. Soc. 26, 1105–1119 (2013).

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J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44(9), 1667 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40(30), 5503–5507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, W. Hunt, M. Vaughan, C. Hostetler, M. McGill, K. Powell, D. Winker, and Y. Hu, “Estimating random errors due to shot noise in backscatter lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 45(18), 4437–4447 (2006).
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A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40(24), 4353–4364 (2001).
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X. Zhang, Y. Huot, D. J. Gray, A. Weidemann, and W. J. Rhea, “Biogeochemical origins of particles obtained from the inversion of the volume scattering function and spectral absorption in coastal waters,” Biogeosc. 10(9), 6029–6043 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biogeosciences Discuss. (1)

G. Mohammadpour, J. P. Gagné, P. Larouche, and M. A. Montes-Hugo, “is Optical properties of size fractions of suspended particulate matter in littoral waters of Québec,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 14(23), 5297–5312 (2017), doi: .
[Crossref]

Cont. Shelf Res. (3)

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, “Laser diffraction particle sizing in STRESS,” Cont. Shelf Res. 14(10-11), 1101–1121 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: Consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30(1), 50–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: Consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30(1), 50–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (1)

Z. Wang, S. F. DiMarco, S. Ingle, L. Belabbassi, and L. H. Al-Kharusi, “Seasonal and annual variability of vertically migrating scattering layers in the northern Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 90, 152–165 (2014).
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Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. (1)

D. McKee, A. Cunningham, and K. Jones, “Simultaneous Measurements of fluorescence and Beam Attenuation: Instrument Characterization and Interpretation of Signals from Stratified Coastal Waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 48(1), 51–58 (1999).
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J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

C. M. R. Platt,“Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30(6), 1191–1204 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7c7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig. (1)

J. H. Smart, “How accurately can we predict optical clarity in the littorals?” Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig. 25(2), 112–120 (2004).

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PLoS One (1)

D. G. Zawada and C. H. Mazel, “Fluorescence-based classification of Caribbean coral reef organisms and substrates,” PLoS One 9(1), e84570 (2014).
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Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

M. A. Montes-Hugo, J. H. Churnside, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and R. Foy, “Spatial coherence between remotely sensed ocean color data and vertical distribution of lidar backscattering in coastal stratified waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114(11), 2584–2593 (2010).
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M. Misiti, Y. Misiti, G. Oppenheim, J. Poggi, Wavelet toolbox for use with MATLAB, Natick, MA, USA, Ver. 3.1 (MathWorks, Inc, 2006), p. 123.

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” SPIE Proc. 5575, doi. (2004).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 FSUIL system. A) deployment and two shooting configurations (upper and lower cartoon), b) Optical package and LiDAR in operation (lower right picture), and c) 3-D scanning geometry of FSUIL. A matrix of 23 (width) x 20 (height) pulses is laying over the target plane (red dots) and is partially intersected by the common scattering volume of each receiver. ch_1 (blue lines) and ch_4 (green lines). Pulse with the maximum intensity (magenta lines).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Examples of raw and denoised LiDAR waveforms. a) ch_2, b) ch_3. Denoised waveforms (dn), mean noise (dash magenta line). LiDAR power at the receiver (Sd) is in log-scale. Trigger (T) and highly reflective targets (R).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Principal component scores and anomalies of optical parameters as a function of water depth. a) PC1 and Sdch1, b) PC2 and Fchl, c) PC3 and βr and d) PC4 and DRI; scores (left y-axis), anomalies (right y-axis).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Range-resolved variation of PC variance contribution as a function of relative time (tr). a) partial contribution of each PC (PC1-PC3, left axis, PC4, right axis), b) log-transformed denoised LiDAR waveforms for ch _1; data with (solid symbol) and without (empty symbol) scattering layers, c) and d) same as b) but for ch_2 and ch_3, respectively. ZFSUIL is the instrument depth.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PCA scores as a function of range to optical layers. Shallow, mid-depth and deep (left, center and right panels, respectively) PC1-derived layers (vertical dash lines). Far, intermediate and near position of FSUIL with respect to major PC1-derived discontinuities (upper, central and lower panels, respectively). PC1 scores for panels c,f and i (right y-axis).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Vertical profiles of ancillary optical variables. a) bb (left y-axis), Fchl/bb (right y-axis), b) bbpeff (left y-axis), ωo (right y-axis), c) 1-m averaged c and diff(c-Ksys) (left y-axis), f(c-Ksys) (right y-axis). Uncertainty bars represent ± 2 standard errors. PC1-derived layers (vertical dash lines).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Performance of wavelet denoising. a) ch_1, b) ch_2 and c) ch_3. Correlation coefficient between raw and denoised full waveforms (ρs) (left y-axis), depth-interpolated beam attenuation coefficient (c (right y-axis). Wavelets acronyms are defined in section 2.2.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Off-water noise of waveforms obtained at different water turbidities. a) and c) c = 0.26 m−1, b) and d) c = 1.02 m−1; ch_2 (upper panels), ch_3 (lower panels), raw (black line) and denoised (blue line) signal.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Power spectra of noise (W) measured at different water turbidities. Off-water (upper panels), in-water (lower panels), ch_2 (left panels), ch_3 (right panels), W is the spectral density of the Fourier transform. Uncertainty bars are ± 2 standard errors.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 In-water noise of waveforms obtained at different water turbidities. Turbidity cases and symbols as Fig. 8.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Median filter anomalies of Sd as a function of water depth. a) ch_1, b) ch_2, c) ch_3 and d) DRI. Each shot generates 1 waveform.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W(x)= k N2 (1) k c k+1 ϕ(2x+k)
ϕ(s,l)= 2 s/2 ϕ( 2 s x1)
Sd(z)= S t ηρ F p A d cos 2 ( θ )E N 1
E= e 2ς(b, ω o ,θ)Kz
N=2π z 2