Abstract

Discovering ways to increase the LED light extraction efficiency (LEE) should help create the largest performance improvement in the power of UV AlGaN LEDs. Employing surface roughening to increase the LEE of typical AlGaN UV LEDs is challenging and not well understood, yet it can be achieved easily in AlGaN LEDs grown on SiC. We fabricate thin-film UV LEDs (~294-310 nm) grown on SiC—with reflective contacts and roughened emission surface—to study and optimize KOH roughening of N-face AlN on the LEE as a function of roughened AlN pyramid size and KOH solution temperature. The LEE increased the most (2X) when the average AlN pyramid base diagonals (d) were comparable to the electroluminescence (EL) wavelength in the AlN layer (d ~λEL; 42–52 pyramids/µm2), but the LEE enhancement diminished when d was much larger than λEL (d ~5.5λEL; 2–3 pyramids/µm2). The UV LEDs had a 10 nm p-GaN contact layer, and the forward voltage was ~6 V at ~8 A/cm2, with a voltage efficiency (VE) of ~70%. The VE of the LEDs did not change after KOH roughening. This work suggests important implications to increase the LEE of AlGaN LEDs.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Liu, H. Yan, Z. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient GaN-based high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 27(12), A669 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

M. Liu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353 nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

2017 (9)

S. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yun and H. Hirayama, “Investigation of the light-extraction efficiency in 280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes having a highly transparent p-AlGaN layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, R. Jain, T. Saxena, A. Dobrinsky, and M. Shur, “Development of Deep UV LEDs and Current Problems in Material and Device Technology,” Semicond. Semimet. 96, 45–83 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, Y. Liu, M. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Numerical and experimental investigation of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with highly reflective Ag/TiW and ITO/DBR Ohmic contacts,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26615–26627 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

K. Song, M. Mohseni, and F. Taghipour, “Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: A review,” Water Res. 94, 341–349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bahl, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, and R. Scarmozzino, “Accounting for coherent effects in the ray-tracing of light-emitting diodes with interface gratings via mixed-level simulation,” Opt. Eng. 55(1), 015102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Formation mechanism of threading-dislocation array in AlN layers grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates with 3-bilayer-high surface steps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071603 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of Light Extraction Efficiency in AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. David, “Surface-Roughened Light-Emitting Diodes: An Accurate Model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Over-700-nm Critical Thickness of AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(10), 105502 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

2011 (3)

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Reduction of Threading Dislocation Density in 2H-AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Minimizing Unintentional Active-Nitrogen Exposure before Growth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 025502 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

2004 (2)

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

1998 (1)

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction - Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1632–1643 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Addin, B. S.

Adivarahan, V.

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, I.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akyol, F.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Al Yamani, A.

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

Albadri, A.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alif, M. E.

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

Allerman, A. A.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Almogbel, A.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Alyamani, A.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aoshima, H.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, A. M.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Asif, F.

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bader, S.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Bahl, M.

M. Bahl, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, and R. Scarmozzino, “Accounting for coherent effects in the ray-tracing of light-emitting diodes with interface gratings via mixed-level simulation,” Opt. Eng. 55(1), 015102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bajaj, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Benisty, H.

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction - Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1632–1643 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bhattarai, D.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Bryan, I.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bryan, Z.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Casey, H. C.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cassarly, W.

M. Bahl, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, and R. Scarmozzino, “Accounting for coherent effects in the ray-tracing of light-emitting diodes with interface gratings via mixed-level simulation,” Opt. Eng. 55(1), 015102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekaran, R.

R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-C.

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cho, H. K.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.-S.

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of Light Extraction Efficiency in AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, I.-G.

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, H.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of Light Extraction Efficiency in AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cich, M. J.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coleman, A.

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Collazo, R.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Craven, M. D.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

David, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, “Surface-Roughened Light-Emitting Diodes: An Accurate Model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013).
[Crossref]

De Neve, H.

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction - Part II: Selected exact simulations and role of photon recycling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1632–1643 (1998).
[Crossref]

DeLille, R. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Den Baars, S. P.

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S.

DenBaars, S. P.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Ding, X.

M. Liu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353 nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dion, J.

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, R. Jain, T. Saxena, A. Dobrinsky, and M. Shur, “Development of Deep UV LEDs and Current Problems in Material and Device Technology,” Semicond. Semimet. 96, 45–83 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eberhard, F.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Einfeldt, S.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eisert, D.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Ellis, B.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fareed, Q.

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

Foronda, H.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Foronda, H. M.

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

France, R.

R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fujita, T.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fukahori, S.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

M. Liu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353 nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, Y. Liu, M. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Numerical and experimental investigation of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with highly reflective Ag/TiW and ITO/DBR Ohmic contacts,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26615–26627 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Garrett, G. A.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gaynes, S.

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gherasimova, M.

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gibb, S. R.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gilmar, C.

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goetz, W.

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Grandusky, J. R.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grzonka, J.

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gui, C.

Guo, W.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haerle, V.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Hahn, B.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Han, J.

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heidari, A.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heller, E.

M. Bahl, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, and R. Scarmozzino, “Accounting for coherent effects in the ray-tracing of light-emitting diodes with interface gratings via mixed-level simulation,” Opt. Eng. 55(1), 015102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hirano, A.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, H.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Yun and H. Hirayama, “Investigation of the light-extraction efficiency in 280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes having a highly transparent p-AlGaN layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Honda, Y.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hou, M.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, E. L.

Y. Gao, M. D. Craven, J. S. Speck, S. P. Den Baars, and E. L. Hu, “Dislocation- and crystallographic-dependent photoelectrochemical wet etching of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3322–3324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hurni, C. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hussey, L.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D.

Hwang, S.

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Inazu, T.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Inoue, S.

S. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ippommatsu, M.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Islam, M.

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ito, S.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Iwaya, M.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iza, M.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Jain, R.

M. Shatalov, R. Jain, T. Saxena, A. Dobrinsky, and M. Shur, “Development of Deep UV LEDs and Current Problems in Material and Device Technology,” Semicond. Semimet. 96, 45–83 (2017).
[Crossref]

Johnson, N. M.

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, S.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Kamiyama, S.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kao, C.-K.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Keller, B. P.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kesler, A.

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khan, A.

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, M. Islam, S. Hwang, K. Balakrishnan, and A. Khan, “Vertical Injection Thin Film Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with AlGaN Multiple-Quantum Wells Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(9), 092102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, I.

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kimoto, T.

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Formation mechanism of threading-dislocation array in AlN layers grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates with 3-bilayer-high surface steps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071603 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Over-700-nm Critical Thickness of AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(10), 105502 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Reduction of Threading Dislocation Density in 2H-AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Minimizing Unintentional Active-Nitrogen Exposure before Growth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 025502 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kirste, R.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kolbas, R. M.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, T.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Krishnamoorthy, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Krüger, O.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Külberg, A.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lachab, M.

F. Asif, H.-C. Chen, A. Coleman, M. Lachab, I. Ahmad, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Substrate Lifted-off AlGaN/AlGaN Lateral Conduction Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes Operating at 285 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JG14 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lachab, F. Asif, B. Zhang, I. Ahmad, A. Heidari, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in sub-300nm nitride thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 89, 156–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lapeyrade, M.

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lemettinen, J.

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. Ding, “Comparative experimental and simulation studies of high-power AlGaN-based 353 nm ultraviolet flip-chip and top-emitting LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(3), 031001 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, Y. Liu, M. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Numerical and experimental investigation of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with highly reflective Ag/TiW and ITO/DBR Ohmic contacts,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26615–26627 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

McDonnell, B.

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mendrick, M. C.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mino, T.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moe, C. G.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Over 60 mW Continuous Wave Output Power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mogilatenko, A.

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mohseni, M.

K. Song, M. Mohseni, and F. Taghipour, “Application of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for water disinfection: A review,” Water Res. 94, 341–349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moldawer, A.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Morgan, D.

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mori, M.

H. Aoshima, K. Takeda, K. Takehara, S. Ito, M. Mori, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Laser lift-off of AlN/sapphire for UV light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 9(3–4), 753–756 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moseley, M. W.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moustakas, T. D.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

R. France, T. Xu, P. Chen, R. Chandrasekaran, and T. D. Moustakas, “Vanadium-based Ohmic contacts to n-AlGaN in the entire alloy composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 062115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Muhin, A.

M. Lapeyrade, A. Muhin, S. Einfeldt, U. Zeimer, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Electrical properties and microstructure of vanadium-based contacts on ICP plasma etched n-type AlGaN:Si and GaN:Si surfaces,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(12), 125015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Muth, J. F.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2572–2574 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nagasawa, Y.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. M. Foronda, F. Wu, C. Zollner, M. E. Alif, B. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 483, 134–139 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. K. Saifaddin, C. J. Zollner, A. Almogbel, H. Foronda, F. Wu, A. Albadri, A. Al Yamani, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Developments in AlGaN and UV-C LEDs grown on SiC,” Proc. SPIE 10554, 105541E (2018).

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. K. Saifaddin, H. Foronda, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “First demonstration of lateral thin-film flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on SiC (Late News),” in 12th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS 12) (2017).

Nazir, H.

S. Hwang, D. Morgan, A. Kesler, M. Lachab, B. Zhang, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, I. Ahmad, J. Dion, Q. Fareed, V. Adivarahan, M. Islam, and A. Khan, “276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nikiforov, A. Y.

W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C.-K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of AlGaN quantum wells on 6H-SiC substrates with high internal quantum efficiency,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Mater. Process. Meas. Phenom. 30(2), 02B119 (2012).

Noguchi, N.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Okumura, H.

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Formation mechanism of threading-dislocation array in AlN layers grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates with 3-bilayer-high surface steps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071603 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Over-700-nm Critical Thickness of AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(10), 105502 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Okumura, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “Reduction of Threading Dislocation Density in 2H-AlN Grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by Minimizing Unintentional Active-Nitrogen Exposure before Growth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 025502 (2011).
[Crossref]

Palacios, T.

J. Lemettinen, H. Okumura, I. Kim, M. Rudzinski, J. Grzonka, T. Palacios, and S. Suihkonen, “MOVPE growth of nitrogen- and aluminum-polar AlN on 4H-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 487, 50–56 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pegues, D. A.

D. A. Pegues, J. Han, C. Gilmar, B. McDonnell, and S. Gaynes, “Impact of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for No-Touch Terminal Room Disinfection on Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Among Hematology-Oncology Patients,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 38(1), 39–44 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pernot, C.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Plössl, A.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, and D. Eisert, “High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaNTM-Technology,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736–2739 (2004).

Qin, Z.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajan, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, A. A. Allerman, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Enhanced light extraction in tunnel junction-enabled top emitting UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(5), 052102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rass, J.

H. K. Cho, O. Krüger, A. Külberg, J. Rass, U. Zeimer, T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Chip design for thin-film deep ultraviolet LEDs fabricated by laser lift-off of the sapphire substrate,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reddy, P.

W. Guo, R. Kirste, I. Bryan, Z. Bryan, L. Hussey, P. Reddy, J. Tweedie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1−xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ren, Z.

L. Zhou, J. E. Epler, M. R. Krames, W. Goetz, M. Gherasimova, Z. Ren, J. Han, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Vertical injection thin-film AlGaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rodak, L.

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Zhang, Y.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
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B. K. Saifaddin, A. Almogbel, C. J. Zollner, H. Foronda, A. Alyamani, A. Albadri, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Fabrication technology for high light-extraction ultraviolet thin-film flip-chip (UV TFFC) LEDs grown on SiC,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34(3), 035007 (2019).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) AFM of SiC substrate. (b) Epi structure of the UV AlGaN LED (~300 nm) grown on SiC.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 AFM image of the surface p-GaN/AlGaN:Mg shows 3D island growth of 10 nm p-GaN.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic cross-section of TFFC UV LED with surface roughening (not to scale with the actual LED dimensions).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) A micrograph of the LED’s n-contact (0.019 mm2) and p-contact (0.013 mm2) before FC bonding. (b) A micrograph of a thin-film flip-chip (TFFC) TFFC UV LED after substrate removal. (c) SEM image of a packaged UV AlGaN TFFC LED (294-310 nm).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 L-I curves for UV TFFC LEDs shows the impact of KOH (~0.25 mol/L) roughening on TFFC UV LED (~300 nm) light power, before and after roughening. The LEE enhancement after KOH roughening is shown in blue stars on the right ordinate axis. (a) At 3.5 °C KOH temperature, the LEE enhancement after KOH roughening was ~1.8X. (b) At 25 °C KOH temperature, the LEE enhancement after KOH roughening was ~2X. (c) At 75 °C KOH temperature, the LEE enhancement after KOH roughening was ~1.15X.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The effect of KOH temperature on AlN pyramid densities, average diagonal length (d) and the LEE. Surface roughening by KOH increased LEE. The LEE enhancement was ~2X at 25 °C and ~1.15X at 75 °C. The SEM images show that the KOH-etched surface has random hexagonal pyramids bound by { 10 11 ¯ } facets. The relative LEE enhancement was limited to 2X because of: p-contact reflectivity (Ni/Al/Ni/Au; 2/100/100/1000 nm) and p-GaN thickness (10 nm).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) J-V curve of a 294–295 nm TFFC LED under DC operation shows the impact of KOH (at 25 °C) roughening on J-V characteristics. (b) LI curve shows the impact of (0.25 M) KOH roughening (at 25 °C) on TFFC LED light power, before roughening. (c) Voltage efficiency (VE) of a 297 nm LED.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Estimate of series resistance (excess voltage) contribution to TFFC LED (p-contact area is 0.013 mm2). Current spreading in the n-AlGaN layer was uniform.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the structure of the UV LEDs (294-310 nm)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary for TFFC LED LEE enhancement after KOH roughening at different temperature. The LEE enhancement depends on pyramid density, dimensions and AlN/AlGaN etch depth.

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