Abstract

Recent developments of photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared band has opened up a new field of attractive applications for group IV photonics. Grating couplers, formed as diffractive structures on the chip surface, are key components for input and output coupling in integrated photonic platforms. While near-infrared optical fibers exhibit large mode field diameters compared to the wavelength, in the long-wave regime commercially available single-mode optical fibers have mode field diameters of the order of the operating wavelength. Consequently, an efficient fiber-chip surface coupler designed for the long-wave infrared range must radiate the power propagating in the waveguide with a higher radiation strength than a conventional grating coupler in the near-infrared range. In this article, we leverage the short electrical length required for long-wave infrared couplers to design a broadband all-dielectric micro-antenna for a suspended germanium platform at 7.67 µm. The design methodology is inspired by fundamental grating coupler equations, which remain valid even when the micro-antenna has only two or three diffractive elements. A simulated coupling efficiency of ~ 40% is achieved with a 1-dB bandwidth broader than 430 nm, which is almost twice the typical fractional bandwidth of a conventional grating coupler. In addition, the proposed design is markedly tolerant to fiber tilt misalignments of ±10°. This all-dielectric micro-antenna design paves the way for efficient fiber-chip coupling in long-wavelength mid-infrared integrated platforms.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

2018 (8)

J. M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler-Penades, Z. Qu, W. Cao, A. Osman, Y. Wu, C. J. Stirling, Y. Qi, Y. X. Cheng, L. Reid, C. G. Littlejohns, J. Kang, Z. Zhao, M. Takenaka, T. Li, Z. Zhou, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Group IV mid-infrared photonics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2276–2286 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1781–1793 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, M. M. Milosevic, S. Stankovic, S. Reynolds, T. D. Bucio, K. Li, D. J. Thomson, F. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “The emergence of silicon photonics as a flexible technology platform,” Proc. IEEE 106(12), 2101–2116 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. S. Penadés, A. Sánchez-Postigo, M. Nedeljkovic, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Y. Xu, R. Halir, Z. Qu, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Osman, W. Cao, C. G. Littlejohns, P. Cheben, I. Molina-Fernández, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon waveguides for long-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 795–798 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Osman, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, Y. Wu, Z. Qu, A. Z. Khokhar, K. Debnath, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended low-loss germanium waveguides for the longwave infrared,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 5997–6000 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Monux, D. Benedikovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, J. G. Wanguemert-Perez, J. H. Schmid, I. Molina-Fernandez, and P. Cheben, “Subwavelength-Grating Metamaterial Structures for Silicon Photonic Devices,” Proc. IEEE 106(12), 2144–2157 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

J. M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, C. Gilles, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, P. Chaisakul, X. L. Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Maisons, L. Vivien, M. Carras, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low-loss Ge-rich Si0.2Ge0.8 waveguides for mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 105–108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kang, Z. Cheng, W. Zhou, T.-H. Xiao, K.-L. Gopalakrisna, M. Takenaka, H. K. Tsang, and K. Goda, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane germanium waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2094–2097 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, C. Gilles, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, P. Chaisakul, X. L. Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Maisons, L. Vivien, M. Carras, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low-loss Ge-rich Si0.2Ge0.8 waveguides for mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 105–108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Passoni, D. Gerace, L. Carroll, and L. C. Andreani, “Grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator: The role of photonic guided resonances on lineshape and bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(4), 041107 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Hu, B. Dong, X. Luo, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, C. Lee, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon photonic platforms for mid-infrared applications [Invited],” Photon. Res. 5(5), 417–430 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431–27441 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

W. Li, P. Anantha, S. Bao, K. H. Lee, X. Guo, T. Hu, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Germanium-on-silicon nitride waveguides for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241101 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Papes, P. Cheben, W. N. Ye, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, D. Benedikovic, C. A. Ramos, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Delâge, and V. Vašinek, “Fiber-chip edge coupler with large mode size for silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(5), 5026–5038 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. S. Penades, A. Ortega-Moñux, M. Nedeljkovic, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, R. Halir, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Alonso-Ramos, Z. Qu, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon mid-infrared waveguide devices with subwavelength grating metamaterial cladding,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22908–22916 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alonso-Ramos, M. Nedeljkovic, D. Benedikovic, J. S. Penadés, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Vivien, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared grating couplers with low-reflectivity inverse taper excitation,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4324–4327 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Caillaud, C. Gilles, L. Provino, L. Brilland, T. Jouan, S. Ferre, M. Carras, M. Brun, D. Mechin, J.-L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Highly birefringent chalcogenide optical fiber for polarization-maintaining in the 3-8.5 µm mid-IR window,” Opt. Express 24(8), 7977–7986 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Fesharaki, N. Hossain, S. Vigne, M. Chaker, and K. Wu, “Accurate theoretical and experimental characterization of optical grating coupler,” Opt. Express 24(18), 21027–21037 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2013 (4)

Z. Xiao, T.-Y. Liow, J. Zhang, P. Shum, and F. Luan, “Bandwidth analysis of waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5688–5700 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Air-clad silicon pedestal structures for broadband mid-infrared microphotonics,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1031–1033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chiles, S. Khan, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “High-contrast, all-silicon waveguiding platform for ultra-broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151106 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, L. Zhang, H. Huang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguide with ultralow dispersion over an octave-spanning mid-infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 126–132 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and Í. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2006 (2)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of the microantenna fiber-chip coupler for the SWG-cladding suspended germanium platform. (a) 3D view, (b) side view, (c) front view and (d) top view. The side view schematics also shows the optical fiber (drawn to scale) and calculated (2D FDTD) propagation of the electric field (TE polarization, λ = 7.67 µm) coupled from the chip into the optical fiber. The microantenna comprises only three radiative elements (length Λ) and an adaptation section (length aad + bad). The total length of the microantenna, L, is comparable to the operating wavelength. While two radiation orders are allowed, most power is coupled to single order, which is clearly visible in the side view. Unlike in conventional grating couplers, most of the input power is radiated by the first radiative element.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated back-reflections (R) as a function of the pitch (Λ) and duty cycle (DC). Areas with R ≤ 30% are delimited with solid lines. Unpractical zones due to fabrication restrictions are demarcated with dashed curves. Regions of interest (feasible gratings, with low back-reflections and operating far enough from Bragg regimes) are labeled with numbers and enclosed in red lines. Final design point is marked with a yellow cross.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated coupling efficiency (CE) and (b), (c) absolute value of the simulated radiation angle (|θ|) as a function of the pitch (Λ) and duty cycle (DC) for designs contained in the ROIs delimited in Fig. 2. The final design point is marked with a yellow cross.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 2D FDTD propagation of the electric field (TE polarization) and far-field radiation pattern (normalized intensity) derived from a field cut at y = 500 nm above the grating surface when (a) HBOX = 3 µm and (b) HBOX → ∞. Only one radiated beam is observable. In these simulations the optical fiber has not yet been included. The input waveguide, micro-antenna with three radiative elements, and output waveguide are outlined in the FDTD propagations. The silicon substrate is also outlined in (a).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated coupling efficiency as a function of distance dfiber of the optical fiber with respect to the chip plane. A standing wave pattern is formed in the air gap between the grating and the fiber, with a distance between consecutive maxima or minima of ~ λ/2. Magnitudes of the electric field (TE polarization) are also included for several points.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Influence of the number of periods N on the radiation of the micro-antenna. 2D FDTD propagations of the electric field (TE polarization) are calculated with the fiber included in the simulation window. Device geometry and optical fiber are outlined.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Simulated coupling efficiency (CE) as a function of the wavelength when dimension errors Δ = 0 (blue line), 150 nm (green line) and −150 nm (red line) affect the length of the germanium strips of the structure. 3D FDTD simulation results are also included (blue dashed line) for the nominal design. The radiation angle is θ = 9° in all cases. (b) Simulated coupling efficiency (CE) as a function of fiber tilt misaligned angle Δϕ.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Final geometry of the designed micro-antenna at λ = 7.67 µm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Simulated coupling efficiency (CE), back-reflections (R) and transmitted power to the output waveguide (T) for the designed micro-antenna as a function of the number of diffractive elements (N)

Equations (2)

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n a sin θ m = n B +m λ Λ ,
Λ< λ n a .

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