Abstract

We design and demonstrate a two-dimensional grating coupler with an elliptical-like etching pattern on the silicon-on-insulator platform. The polarization-dependent loss of the fabricated device is measured to be 0.2 dB at the C-band, lower than that of most conventional 2D GCs. The etching unit can be easily fabricated with a large tolerance of ± 10 nm and a large feature size of 310nm, which is beneficial to its manufacturing process and wide application.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (3)

T. Yang, H. Lin, and B. Jia, “Two-dimensional material functional devices enabled by direct laser fabrication,” Front Optoelectron. 11(1), 2–22 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, Z. Nong, S. Gao, H. Huang, Y. Zhu, L. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Xu, L. Liu, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Low-loss two-dimensional silicon photonic grating coupler with a backside metal mirror,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 474–477 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sobu, S.-H. Jeong, and Y. Tanaka, “Si-wire two-dimensional grating coupler with polarization-dependent loss of lower than 0.3 dB over a 60-nm-wide spectral range,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(11), 112501 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

J. Xu, X. Jin, and Y. Zhao, “Apodized fully-etched surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure for standard silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(4), 158 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, D. J. Thomson, L. Crudginton, A. Z. Khokhar, and G. T. Reed, “Dual-etch apodised grating couplers for efficient fibre-chip coupling near 1310 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17864–17871 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

J. Zou, Y. Yu, and X. Zhang, “Two-dimensional grating coupler with a low polarization dependent loss of 0.25 dB covering the C-band,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4206–4209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lacava, L. Carrol, A. Bozzola, R. Marchetti, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, “Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520V (2016).

2015 (3)

2013 (3)

2011 (3)

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon Photonic Circuits: On-CMOS Integration, Fiber Optical Coupling, and Packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Device engineering for silicon photonics,” NPG Asia Mater. 3(1), 34–40 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Bi-wavelength two dimensional chirped grating couplers for low cost WDM PON transceivers,” Opt. Commun. 284(8), 2242–2244 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, “Reducing Polarization-Dependent Loss of Silicon-on-Insulator Fiber to Chip Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Two dimensional silicon waveguide chirped grating couplers for vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 283(10), 2146–2149 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

R. Soref, “The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Andreani, L. C.

C. Lacava, L. Carrol, A. Bozzola, R. Marchetti, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, “Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520V (2016).

L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, S. Menezo, and L. C. Andreani, “Broad parameter optimization of polarization-diversity 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21556–21568 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lacava, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, M. Fournier, S. Messaoudene, N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, P. A. O. Brien, S. Menezo, and I. Cristiani, “Performance of 2D-Grating couplers designed through full 3D-FDTD numerical simulations,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 203–204.
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Bakir, B. B.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon Photonic Circuits: On-CMOS Integration, Fiber Optical Coupling, and Packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Benedikovic, D.

Bernabe, S.

C. Lacava, L. Carrol, A. Bozzola, R. Marchetti, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, “Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520V (2016).

Bernabé, S.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon Photonic Circuits: On-CMOS Integration, Fiber Optical Coupling, and Packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Bozzola, A.

C. Lacava, L. Carrol, A. Bozzola, R. Marchetti, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, “Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520V (2016).

Brien, P. A. O.

C. Lacava, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, M. Fournier, S. Messaoudene, N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, P. A. O. Brien, S. Menezo, and I. Cristiani, “Performance of 2D-Grating couplers designed through full 3D-FDTD numerical simulations,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 203–204.
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

Carrol, L.

C. Lacava, L. Carrol, A. Bozzola, R. Marchetti, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, “Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520V (2016).

Carroll, L.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, L. Carroll, K. Gradkowski, and P. Minzioni, “Coupling strategies for silicon photonics integrated chips [Invited],” Photon. Res. 7(2), 201–239 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, S. Menezo, and L. C. Andreani, “Broad parameter optimization of polarization-diversity 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21556–21568 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lacava, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, M. Fournier, S. Messaoudene, N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, P. A. O. Brien, S. Menezo, and I. Cristiani, “Performance of 2D-Grating couplers designed through full 3D-FDTD numerical simulations,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 203–204.
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, D. J. Thomson, L. Crudginton, A. Z. Khokhar, and G. T. Reed, “Dual-etch apodised grating couplers for efficient fibre-chip coupling near 1310 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17864–17871 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xu, X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Bi-wavelength two dimensional chirped grating couplers for low cost WDM PON transceivers,” Opt. Commun. 284(8), 2242–2244 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Device engineering for silicon photonics,” NPG Asia Mater. 3(1), 34–40 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Two dimensional silicon waveguide chirped grating couplers for vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 283(10), 2146–2149 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Cher, R. T.

Cristiani, I.

C. Lacava, L. Carrol, A. Bozzola, R. Marchetti, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, “Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520V (2016).

L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, S. Menezo, and L. C. Andreani, “Broad parameter optimization of polarization-diversity 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21556–21568 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lacava, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, M. Fournier, S. Messaoudene, N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, P. A. O. Brien, S. Menezo, and I. Cristiani, “Performance of 2D-Grating couplers designed through full 3D-FDTD numerical simulations,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 203–204.
[Crossref]

Crudginton, L.

Dado, M.

Dai, M.

de Leon, N. P.

Ding, Y.

Dumon, P.

Fedeli, J.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon Photonic Circuits: On-CMOS Integration, Fiber Optical Coupling, and Packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J. M.

Fournier, M.

C. Lacava, L. Carrol, A. Bozzola, R. Marchetti, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, “Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520V (2016).

C. Lacava, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, M. Fournier, S. Messaoudene, N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, P. A. O. Brien, S. Menezo, and I. Cristiani, “Performance of 2D-Grating couplers designed through full 3D-FDTD numerical simulations,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 203–204.
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

Gerace, D.

C. Lacava, L. Carrol, A. Bozzola, R. Marchetti, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, “Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520V (2016).

L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, S. Menezo, and L. C. Andreani, “Broad parameter optimization of polarization-diversity 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21556–21568 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lacava, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, M. Fournier, S. Messaoudene, N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, P. A. O. Brien, S. Menezo, and I. Cristiani, “Performance of 2D-Grating couplers designed through full 3D-FDTD numerical simulations,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 203–204.
[Crossref]

Gradkowski, K.

Halir, R.

Hochberg, M.

Huang, H.

Janz, S.

Jeong, S.-H.

Y. Sobu, S.-H. Jeong, and Y. Tanaka, “Si-wire two-dimensional grating coupler with polarization-dependent loss of lower than 0.3 dB over a 60-nm-wide spectral range,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(11), 112501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jia, B.

T. Yang, H. Lin, and B. Jia, “Two-dimensional material functional devices enabled by direct laser fabrication,” Front Optoelectron. 11(1), 2–22 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jin, X.

J. Xu, X. Jin, and Y. Zhao, “Apodized fully-etched surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure for standard silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(4), 158 (2017).
[Crossref]

Khokhar, A. Z.

Kopp, C.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon Photonic Circuits: On-CMOS Integration, Fiber Optical Coupling, and Packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lacava, C.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, L. Carroll, K. Gradkowski, and P. Minzioni, “Coupling strategies for silicon photonics integrated chips [Invited],” Photon. Res. 7(2), 201–239 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Lacava, L. Carrol, A. Bozzola, R. Marchetti, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, “Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520V (2016).

C. Lacava, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, M. Fournier, S. Messaoudene, N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, P. A. O. Brien, S. Menezo, and I. Cristiani, “Performance of 2D-Grating couplers designed through full 3D-FDTD numerical simulations,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 203–204.
[Crossref]

Lapointe, J.

Lee, J. S.

C. Lacava, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, L. C. Andreani, M. Fournier, S. Messaoudene, N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, P. A. O. Brien, S. Menezo, and I. Cristiani, “Performance of 2D-Grating couplers designed through full 3D-FDTD numerical simulations,” in 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 203–204.
[Crossref]

Lepage, G.

Li, C.

L. Xu, X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Bi-wavelength two dimensional chirped grating couplers for low cost WDM PON transceivers,” Opt. Commun. 284(8), 2242–2244 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Device engineering for silicon photonics,” NPG Asia Mater. 3(1), 34–40 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Two dimensional silicon waveguide chirped grating couplers for vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 283(10), 2146–2149 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.

Lin, H.

T. Yang, H. Lin, and B. Jia, “Two-dimensional material functional devices enabled by direct laser fabrication,” Front Optoelectron. 11(1), 2–22 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

Lo, P. G.

Lu, M.

Lukin, M. D.

Luo, Y.

Ma, L.

Marchetti, R.

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, L. Carroll, K. Gradkowski, and P. Minzioni, “Coupling strategies for silicon photonics integrated chips [Invited],” Photon. Res. 7(2), 201–239 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Lacava, L. Carrol, A. Bozzola, R. Marchetti, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, “Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520V (2016).

Menezo, S.

L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, S. Menezo, and L. C. Andreani, “Broad parameter optimization of polarization-diversity 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21556–21568 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic structure of conventional 2D GC. (b) Top view of our proposed 2D GC.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Simulated efficiency with different radius and etching depths at 1535nm. (b) The field intensity distribution for the optimum conventional 2D GC.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated coupling efficiency and PDLs of the proposed and conventional 2D GCs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulations of fabrication tolerance. (a) Impact of the variations of E. (b) Impact of the variations of dL. (c) Impact of the variations of R2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) SEM pictures of the proposed 2D GC. (b) Optical micrograph of back-to-back cascaded 2D GCs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental set-up scheme. BBS: Broadband Source, PBS: Polarization Beam Splitter, PC: Polarization Controller, DUT: Device Under Test, OSA: Optical Spectrum Analyzer.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured coupling efficiency and PDLs of the proposed and conventional 2D GCs. (b) Measured PDLs of 2D GCs with different cell parameters.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Representative Results of Low-PDL 2D GCs in Recent Years

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