Abstract

Open-path remote sensing is critical for monitoring fugitive emissions from industrial sites, where a variety of volatile organic compounds may be released. At ranges of only a few tens of metres, spatially coherent broadband mid-infrared sources can access sufficiently large absorption cross-sections to quantify hydrocarbon gas fluctuations above ambient background levels at high signal:noise ratios. Here we report path-integrated simultaneous concentration measurements of water, methane and ethane implemented in the 3.1–3.5-µm range using 0.05-cm−1-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy with an ultrafast optical parametric oscillator and a simple, non-compliant target. Real-time concentration changes were observed at a range of 70 m by simulating a fugitive emission with a weak localized release of 2% methane in air. Spectral averaging yielded a methane detection sensitivity of 595 ppb·m, implying a system capability to resolve few-ppb concentrations of many volatile organic compounds at observation ranges of 50–100 m.

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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (4)

2016 (2)

2015 (1)

L. Nugent-Glandorf, F. R. Giorgetta, and S. A. Diddams, “Open-air, broad-bandwidth trace gas sensing with a mid-infrared optical frequency comb,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 119(2), 327–338 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290–298 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

C. Schütze, S. Lau, N. Reiche, U. Sauer, H. Borsdorf, and P. Dietrich, “Ground-based remote sensing with open-path fourier- transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy for large-scale monitoring of greenhouse gases,” Energy Procedia 37, 4276–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. A. Macleod, R. Rose, and D. Weidmann, “Middle infrared active coherent laser spectrometer for standoff detection of chemicals,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3708–3711 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Numata, H. Riris, S. Li, S. Wu, S. R. Kawa, M. Krainak, and J. Abshire, “Ground demonstration of trace gas lidar based on optical parametric amplifier,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063561 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

T. E. L. Smith, M. J. Wooster, M. Tattaris, and D. W. T. Griffith, “Absolute accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over concentrations representative of ‘clean air’ and ‘polluted plumes’,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(1), 97–116 (2011).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75(2-3), 165–172 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. J. Milton, T. Gardiner, F. Molero, and J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142(1-3), 153–160 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

T. L. Marshall, C. T. Chaffin, R. M. Hammaker, and W. G. Fateley, “An introduction to open-path FT-IR atmospheric monitoring,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 28(5), 224A–232A (1994).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1974 (1)

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, and R. L. Byer, “Remote detection of CO by parametric tunable laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(5), 242–244 (1974).
[Crossref]

Abshire, J.

K. Numata, H. Riris, S. Li, S. Wu, S. R. Kawa, M. Krainak, and J. Abshire, “Ground demonstration of trace gas lidar based on optical parametric amplifier,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Assion, A.

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75(2-3), 165–172 (2002).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barrientos Barria, J.

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blake, G. A.

Borsdorf, H.

C. Schütze, S. Lau, N. Reiche, U. Sauer, H. Borsdorf, and P. Dietrich, “Ground-based remote sensing with open-path fourier- transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy for large-scale monitoring of greenhouse gases,” Energy Procedia 37, 4276–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brassington, D. J.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brumfield, B. E.

M. C. Phillips and B. E. Brumfield, “Standoff detection of turbulent chemical mixture plumes using a swept external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Eng. 57(1), 011003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

M. Endemann and R. L. Byer, “Simultaneous remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and humidity using a continuously tunable IR lidar,” Appl. Opt. 20(18), 3211–3217 (1981).
[Crossref]

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, and R. L. Byer, “Remote detection of CO by parametric tunable laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(5), 242–244 (1974).
[Crossref]

Cadiou, E.

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cézard, N.

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chaffin, C. T.

T. L. Marshall, C. T. Chaffin, R. M. Hammaker, and W. G. Fateley, “An introduction to open-path FT-IR atmospheric monitoring,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 28(5), 224A–232A (1994).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Childers, J. W.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Chu, P. M.

Coddington, I.

Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Cossel, K. C.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Coudert-Alteirac, H.

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
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Cromer, C.

Crotwell, A.M.

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Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Dherbecourt, J.-B.

E. Cadiou, D. Mammez, J.-B. Dherbecourt, G. Gorju, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Raybaut, “Atmospheric boundary layer CO2 remote sensing with a direct detection LIDAR instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 42(20), 4044–4047 (2017).
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J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
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Diddams, S. A.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, F. R. Giorgetta, and S. A. Diddams, “Open-air, broad-bandwidth trace gas sensing with a mid-infrared optical frequency comb,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 119(2), 327–338 (2015).
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Dietrich, P.

C. Schütze, S. Lau, N. Reiche, U. Sauer, H. Borsdorf, and P. Dietrich, “Ground-based remote sensing with open-path fourier- transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy for large-scale monitoring of greenhouse gases,” Energy Procedia 37, 4276–4282 (2013).
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Dlugokencky, E. J.

E. J. Dlugokencky, A.M. Crotwell, P.M. Lang, J.W. Mund, and M.E. Rhodes, “Atmospheric methane dry air mole fractions from quasi-continuous measurements at Barrow, Alaska and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 1986-2017,” Version: 2018-03-19, Path: ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/ch4/in-situ/surface/ (2018).

Dobroc, A.

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
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Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Edner, H.

Ehret, G.

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75(2-3), 165–172 (2002).
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Endemann, M.

Fateley, W. G.

T. L. Marshall, C. T. Chaffin, R. M. Hammaker, and W. G. Fateley, “An introduction to open-path FT-IR atmospheric monitoring,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 28(5), 224A–232A (1994).
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Faure, B.

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
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Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Finneran, I. A.

Fix, A.

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75(2-3), 165–172 (2002).
[Crossref]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Galech, J.

M. J. Milton, T. Gardiner, F. Molero, and J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142(1-3), 153–160 (1997).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Garbuny, M.

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, and R. L. Byer, “Remote detection of CO by parametric tunable laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(5), 242–244 (1974).
[Crossref]

Gardiner, T.

O. Kara, L. Maidment, T. Gardiner, P. G. Schunemann, and D. T. Reid, “Dual-comb spectroscopy in the spectral fingerprint region using OPGaP optical parametric oscillators,” Opt. Express 25(26), 32713–32721 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. Milton, T. Gardiner, F. Molero, and J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142(1-3), 153–160 (1997).
[Crossref]

Giorgetta, F. R.

Godard, A.

E. Cadiou, D. Mammez, J.-B. Dherbecourt, G. Gorju, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Raybaut, “Atmospheric boundary layer CO2 remote sensing with a direct detection LIDAR instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 42(20), 4044–4047 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Gorju, G.

Griffith, D. W. T.

T. E. L. Smith, M. J. Wooster, M. Tattaris, and D. W. T. Griffith, “Absolute accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over concentrations representative of ‘clean air’ and ‘polluted plumes’,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(1), 97–116 (2011).
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Hammaker, R. M.

T. L. Marshall, C. T. Chaffin, R. M. Hammaker, and W. G. Fateley, “An introduction to open-path FT-IR atmospheric monitoring,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 28(5), 224A–232A (1994).
[Crossref]

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Henningsen, T.

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, and R. L. Byer, “Remote detection of CO by parametric tunable laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(5), 242–244 (1974).
[Crossref]

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Howle, C. R.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. A.

Johnson, T. J.

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kara, O.

Kawa, S. R.

K. Numata, H. Riris, S. Li, S. Wu, S. R. Kawa, M. Krainak, and J. Abshire, “Ground demonstration of trace gas lidar based on optical parametric amplifier,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kiemle, C.

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75(2-3), 165–172 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kofler, J.

Krainak, M.

K. Numata, H. Riris, S. Li, S. Wu, S. R. Kawa, M. Krainak, and J. Abshire, “Ground demonstration of trace gas lidar based on optical parametric amplifier,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lang, P.M.

E. J. Dlugokencky, A.M. Crotwell, P.M. Lang, J.W. Mund, and M.E. Rhodes, “Atmospheric methane dry air mole fractions from quasi-continuous measurements at Barrow, Alaska and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 1986-2017,” Version: 2018-03-19, Path: ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/ch4/in-situ/surface/ (2018).

Lau, S.

C. Schütze, S. Lau, N. Reiche, U. Sauer, H. Borsdorf, and P. Dietrich, “Ground-based remote sensing with open-path fourier- transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy for large-scale monitoring of greenhouse gases,” Energy Procedia 37, 4276–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Le Roy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lefebvre, M.

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

K. Numata, H. Riris, S. Li, S. Wu, S. R. Kawa, M. Krainak, and J. Abshire, “Ground demonstration of trace gas lidar based on optical parametric amplifier,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Long, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lyulin, O. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mackie, C. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Macleod, N. A.

Maidment, L.

Mammez, D.

Marshall, T. L.

T. L. Marshall, C. T. Chaffin, R. M. Hammaker, and W. G. Fateley, “An introduction to open-path FT-IR atmospheric monitoring,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 28(5), 224A–232A (1994).
[Crossref]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Melkonian, J.-M.

E. Cadiou, D. Mammez, J.-B. Dherbecourt, G. Gorju, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Raybaut, “Atmospheric boundary layer CO2 remote sensing with a direct detection LIDAR instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 42(20), 4044–4047 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Milton, M. J.

M. J. Milton, T. Gardiner, F. Molero, and J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142(1-3), 153–160 (1997).
[Crossref]

Molero, F.

M. J. Milton, T. Gardiner, F. Molero, and J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142(1-3), 153–160 (1997).
[Crossref]

Müller, H. S. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mund, J.W.

E. J. Dlugokencky, A.M. Crotwell, P.M. Lang, J.W. Mund, and M.E. Rhodes, “Atmospheric methane dry air mole fractions from quasi-continuous measurements at Barrow, Alaska and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 1986-2017,” Version: 2018-03-19, Path: ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/ch4/in-situ/surface/ (2018).

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N. R.

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nugent-Glandorf, L.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, F. R. Giorgetta, and S. A. Diddams, “Open-air, broad-bandwidth trace gas sensing with a mid-infrared optical frequency comb,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 119(2), 327–338 (2015).
[Crossref]

Numata, K.

K. Numata, H. Riris, S. Li, S. Wu, S. R. Kawa, M. Krainak, and J. Abshire, “Ground demonstration of trace gas lidar based on optical parametric amplifier,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pelon, J.

E. Cadiou, D. Mammez, J.-B. Dherbecourt, G. Gorju, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Raybaut, “Atmospheric boundary layer CO2 remote sensing with a direct detection LIDAR instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 42(20), 4044–4047 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Petron, G.

Phillips, M. C.

M. C. Phillips and B. E. Brumfield, “Standoff detection of turbulent chemical mixture plumes using a swept external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Eng. 57(1), 011003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Plusquellic, D. F.

Poberaj, G.

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75(2-3), 165–172 (2002).
[Crossref]

Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Raybaut, M.

E. Cadiou, D. Mammez, J.-B. Dherbecourt, G. Gorju, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Raybaut, “Atmospheric boundary layer CO2 remote sensing with a direct detection LIDAR instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 42(20), 4044–4047 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reiche, N.

C. Schütze, S. Lau, N. Reiche, U. Sauer, H. Borsdorf, and P. Dietrich, “Ground-based remote sensing with open-path fourier- transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy for large-scale monitoring of greenhouse gases,” Energy Procedia 37, 4276–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reid, D. T.

Rhoderick, G. C.

Rhodes, M.E.

E. J. Dlugokencky, A.M. Crotwell, P.M. Lang, J.W. Mund, and M.E. Rhodes, “Atmospheric methane dry air mole fractions from quasi-continuous measurements at Barrow, Alaska and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 1986-2017,” Version: 2018-03-19, Path: ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/ch4/in-situ/surface/ (2018).

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rieker, G. B.

Riris, H.

K. Numata, H. Riris, S. Li, S. Wu, S. R. Kawa, M. Krainak, and J. Abshire, “Ground demonstration of trace gas lidar based on optical parametric amplifier,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rose, R.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Russwurm, G. M.

G. M. Russwurm and J. W. Childers, FT-IR open-path monitoring guidance document (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, 1999).

Sams, R. L.

Sauer, U.

C. Schütze, S. Lau, N. Reiche, U. Sauer, H. Borsdorf, and P. Dietrich, “Ground-based remote sensing with open-path fourier- transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy for large-scale monitoring of greenhouse gases,” Energy Procedia 37, 4276–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmid, T.

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schunemann, P. G.

Schütze, C.

C. Schütze, S. Lau, N. Reiche, U. Sauer, H. Borsdorf, and P. Dietrich, “Ground-based remote sensing with open-path fourier- transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy for large-scale monitoring of greenhouse gases,” Energy Procedia 37, 4276–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sharpe, S. W.

Sinclair, L. C.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, T. E. L.

T. E. L. Smith, M. J. Wooster, M. Tattaris, and D. W. T. Griffith, “Absolute accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over concentrations representative of ‘clean air’ and ‘polluted plumes’,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(1), 97–116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Souhaité, G.

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Svanberg, S.

Swann, W. C.

Sweeney, C.

Tans, P. P.

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tattaris, M.

T. E. L. Smith, M. J. Wooster, M. Tattaris, and D. W. T. Griffith, “Absolute accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over concentrations representative of ‘clean air’ and ‘polluted plumes’,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(1), 97–116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G. A.

Waxman, E. M.

Weibring, P.

Weidmann, D.

Wirth, M.

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75(2-3), 165–172 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wooster, M. J.

T. E. L. Smith, M. J. Wooster, M. Tattaris, and D. W. T. Griffith, “Absolute accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over concentrations representative of ‘clean air’ and ‘polluted plumes’,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(1), 97–116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

K. Numata, H. Riris, S. Li, S. Wu, S. R. Kawa, M. Krainak, and J. Abshire, “Ground demonstration of trace gas lidar based on optical parametric amplifier,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063561 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

Zhang, Z.

Zolot, A. M.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (3)

J. Barrientos Barria, A. Dobroc, H. Coudert-Alteirac, M. Raybaut, N. Cézard, J.-B. Dherbecourt, T. Schmid, B. Faure, G. Souhaité, J. Pelon, J.-M. Melkonian, A. Godard, and M. Lefebvre, “Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 117(1), 509–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75(2-3), 165–172 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, F. R. Giorgetta, and S. A. Diddams, “Open-air, broad-bandwidth trace gas sensing with a mid-infrared optical frequency comb,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 119(2), 327–338 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, and R. L. Byer, “Remote detection of CO by parametric tunable laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(5), 242–244 (1974).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

T. E. L. Smith, M. J. Wooster, M. Tattaris, and D. W. T. Griffith, “Absolute accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over concentrations representative of ‘clean air’ and ‘polluted plumes’,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(1), 97–116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Energy Procedia (1)

C. Schütze, S. Lau, N. Reiche, U. Sauer, H. Borsdorf, and P. Dietrich, “Ground-based remote sensing with open-path fourier- transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy for large-scale monitoring of greenhouse gases,” Energy Procedia 37, 4276–4282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. L. Marshall, C. T. Chaffin, R. M. Hammaker, and W. G. Fateley, “An introduction to open-path FT-IR atmospheric monitoring,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 28(5), 224A–232A (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Remote Sens. (1)

K. Numata, H. Riris, S. Li, S. Wu, S. R. Kawa, M. Krainak, and J. Abshire, “Ground demonstration of trace gas lidar based on optical parametric amplifier,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063561 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. J. Milton, T. Gardiner, F. Molero, and J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142(1-3), 153–160 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. C. Phillips and B. E. Brumfield, “Standoff detection of turbulent chemical mixture plumes using a swept external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Eng. 57(1), 011003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (1)

Other (5)

IEC 60825-1:2001, Edition 1.2, Consolidated Edition; Safety of Laser Products—Part 1: Equipment classification, requirements and user’s guide.

G. M. Russwurm and J. W. Childers, FT-IR open-path monitoring guidance document (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, 1999).

Bruker, D-fenceline™ and OPS, https://brukeropenpath.com/atmosfir-d-fenceline/ .

Full laser specifications are available from the manufacturer’s website: http://www.chromacitylasers.com/

E. J. Dlugokencky, A.M. Crotwell, P.M. Lang, J.W. Mund, and M.E. Rhodes, “Atmospheric methane dry air mole fractions from quasi-continuous measurements at Barrow, Alaska and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 1986-2017,” Version: 2018-03-19, Path: ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/ch4/in-situ/surface/ (2018).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Idler spectra produced by fan-out-grating tuning of the MgO:PPLN crystal. The spectral shapes are determined by the phasematching characteristics of the MgO:PPLN crystal and by the OPO pump-laser spectrum. Water absorption lines are visible at shorter wavelengths.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) OPO, telescope and scanning Michelson interferometer on a 60 × 90 cm breadboard. (b) Layout of the Fourier-transform spectrometer.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Example spectrum from a set of 45 collected at 30-m range from a rough aluminum-foil target. The upper plot shows the envelope of the illumination spectrum extracted from a fitting procedure which simultaneously minimized the rms error between the experimental spectrum (blue) and a synthetic spectrum (black) calculated from the envelope and a fitted mixture of PNNL absorbance data for water, methane and ethane. In this example the best-fit concentrations determined were 1.15% (water), 1860 ppb (methane) and 1.37% (ethane). The lower plot shows the rms fitting residual. (b) Measured concentrations at 10, 20, 25 and 30 m, with data points showing the average values from approximately 45 spectra each, and the error bars showing the ± 1 standard deviation range. The methane background value is consistent with reported ambient levels measured at 1885 ± 15 ppb [17]. Respective water and ethane values were consistent with the ambient relative humidity measured in the building and the filling concentration of the ethane cell. The dashed lines show the average of all the measured values.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Example spectrum from a set of 51 collected at 70-m range from a rough aluminum-foil target. In this example the best-fit concentrations were 0.77% water, 12650 ppb methane and 0% ethane. (b) Concentrations of methane (blue) and water (red) measured before, during and after the methane release, showing a recovery to near-background levels after 150 seconds.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Average of 1250 spectra acquired over a 35-m indoor range (blue and shaded), and a comparison with the best-fit HITRAN data (black) for 0.977% water vapor and 1830 ppb methane. The co-fitted illumination envelope is indicated by the dashed line. Most of the lines are from water, but the small features labelled in the inset (3.18–3.21 µm) are two of the most prominent methane absorptions. The residual (red) reveals remaining line-shape fitting errors.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Results of fitting to 1063 individual spectra acquired over a 35-m indoor range, showing concentrations for (a) water vapor (9634 ± 725 ppm) and (b) methane (1861 ± 349 ppb), with ± one standard deviation shown by the shaded regions. (c) Allan deviation analysis.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Illumination envelope extraction algorithm. See text for details.

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