Abstract

Metamaterial absorbers have been a topic of considerable interest in recent years, with a particular focus on Terahertz (THz) frequencies due to many natural materials having a weak interaction with THz light. Great efforts have aimed to expand such THz absorbers to cover a wide bandwidth whilst also being highly efficient. However, many of these require cascaded or stacked multilayer resonant elements, where even a small deviation in the alignment between layers is extremely detrimental to the performance. Here, we propose a bilayer metasurface absorber (thickness ∼ λ/6) that is immune to such layer misalignments capable of exceeding a fractional bandwidth (FWHM) of 100% of the central frequency. The design works due to a novel absorption mechanism based on Salisbury Screen and anti-reflection absorption mechanisms, using fractal cross absorbers to expand the bandwidth. Our work is of particular benefit to developing devices which require ultra-wide bandwidth, such as bolometric sensing and planar blackbody absorbers, with the extremely robust absorption responses being unaffected by any misalignments between layers – a limiting factor of previous absorbers.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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2019 (1)

W. Li, L. Lin, C. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Radar absorbing combinatorial metamaterial based on silicon carbide/carbon foam material embedded with split square ring metal,” Results Phys. 12, 278–286 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (9)

J. Grant, M. Kenney, Y. D. Shah, I. Escorcia-Carranza, and D. R. S. Cumming, “CMOS compatible metamaterial absorbers for hyperspectral medium wave infrared imaging and sensing applications,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10408–10420 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Li and S. Fan, “Nanophotonic control of thermal radiation for energy applications [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(12), 15995–16021 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Beeharry, R. Yahiaoui, K. Selemani, and H. Ouslimani, “A co-polarization broadband radar absorber for RCS reduction,” Materials 11(9), 1668 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, G. Liu, Z. Huang, X. Liu, and G. Fu, “Ultra-broadband perfect solar absorber by an ultra-thin refractory titanium nitride meta-surface,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 179, 346–352 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Shrestha, A. C. Overvig, M. Lu, A. Stein, and N. Yu, “Broadband achromatic dielectric metalenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 85 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, M.-K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T.-T. Huang, J.-H. Wang, R.-M. Lin, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Burch and A. Di Falco, “Surface topology specific metasurface holograms,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1762–1766 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Humphreys, J. P. Grant, I. Escorcia-Carranza, C. Accarino, M. Kenney, Y. D. Shah, K. G. Rew, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Video-rate terahertz digital holographic imaging system,” Opt. Express 26(20), 25805–25813 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Xu, D. Wu, Y. Liu, C. Liu, Z. Yu, L. Yu, and H. Ye, “Design of a tunable ultra-broadband terahertz absorber based on multiple layers of graphene ribbons,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 143 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

M. Kenney, J. Grant, Y. D. Shah, I. Escorcia-Carranza, M. Humphreys, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Octave-spanning broadband absorption of terahertz light using metasurface fractal-cross absorbers,” ACS Photonics 4(10), 2604–2612 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, M. Pu, X. Li, P. Gao, X. Ma, J. Luo, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “All-dielectric metasurfaces for simultaneous giant circular asymmetric transmission and wavefront shaping based on asymmetric photonic spin-orbit interactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1704295 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad and F. Capasso, “Metalenses : Versatile multifunctional photonic components,” Science 358(6367), eaam8100 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Escorcia Carranza, J. P. Grant, J. Gough, and D. Cumming, “Terahertz metamaterial absorbers implemented in CMOS technology for imaging applications: scaling to large format focal plane arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

A. K. Azad, W. J. M. Kort-Kamp, M. Sykora, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, T. S. Luk, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20347 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hu, H. Wang, Z. Tang, and X. Zhang, “Investigation of a broadband refractory metal metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Opt. 55(19), 5257–5262 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kenney, S. Li, X. Zhang, X. Su, T.-T. Kim, D. Wang, D. Wu, C. Ouyang, J. Han, W. Zhang, H. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase induced spin-selective transmission in herringbone dielectric metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 28(43), 9567–9572 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, “Extrinsic chirality: Tunable optically active reflectors and perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241905 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, G. Liu, M. G. Kenney, Z. Li, P. He, S. Li, Z. Ren, and Q. Deng, “Ultracompact high-efficiency polarising beam splitter based on silicon nanobrick arrays,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6749–6757 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33310–33317 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Khavasi, “Design of ultra-broadband graphene absorber using circuit theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(9), 1941–1946 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. E. Carranza, J. Grant, J. Gough, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Metamaterial-based terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(6), 892–901 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. X. Wang, L. L. Wang, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, X. F. Li, and X. Zhai, “A simple design of a broadband, polarization-insensitive, and low-conductivity alloy metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(8), 082601 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

L. Huang and H. Chen, “A Brief review on terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(1), 26–39 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, F. Sun, and S. Song, “Subcell misalignment in vertically cascaded metamaterial absorbers,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15896–15903 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Laman, B. Schulkin, and T. Tongue, “Review of terahertz technology readiness assessment and applications,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 34(9), 500–518 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Z. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 440–445 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, A.M. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Grant, Y. Ma, S. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Polarization insensitive, broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber.,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3476–3478 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Q. Chen, J. Grant, S. C. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A terahertz polarization insensitive dual band metamaterial absorber.,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 945–947 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 111101 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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F. Miyamaru, Y. Saito, M. W. Takeda, B. Hou, L. Liu, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Terahertz electric response of fractal metamaterial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045124 (2008).
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2007 (1)

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, M. R. Hogbin, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1559–1565 (2007).
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2006 (2)

H. Liu, Y. Chen, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection and identification of explosive RDX by THz diffuse reflection spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 14(1), 415–423 (2006).
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A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
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2005 (2)

C. J. Strachan, P. F. Taday, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and T. Rades, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to quantify pharmaceutical polymorphism and crystallinity,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(4), 837–846 (2005).
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J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
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2003 (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
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1907 (1)

J. W. Strutt, “On the dynamical theory of gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 79(532), 399–416 (1907).
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Accarino, C.

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, A.M. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Appleby, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).
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A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33310–33317 (2015).
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Arnone, D. D.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
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Axel Zeitler, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Azad, A. K.

A. K. Azad, W. J. M. Kort-Kamp, M. Sykora, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, T. S. Luk, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20347 (2016).
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Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33310–33317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baker, C.

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, M. R. Hogbin, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1559–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ball, A. J.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bastiaans, G. J.

Beeharry, T.

T. Beeharry, R. Yahiaoui, K. Selemani, and H. Ouslimani, “A co-polarization broadband radar absorber for RCS reduction,” Materials 11(9), 1668 (2018).
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Bonod, N.

S. Enoch and N. Bonod, Plasmonics - From Basics to Advanced Topics, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012), 167.

Booske, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R. M.

Burch, J.

J. Burch and A. Di Falco, “Surface topology specific metasurface holograms,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1762–1766 (2018).
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Capasso, F.

M. Khorasaninejad and F. Capasso, “Metalenses : Versatile multifunctional photonic components,” Science 358(6367), eaam8100 (2017).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, A.M. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “Phase and dispersion engineering of metalenses : broadband achromatic focusing and imaging in the visible,” ArXiv 1–30 (2017).

Carranza, I. E.

I. E. Carranza, J. Grant, J. Gough, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Metamaterial-based terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(6), 892–901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Castro-Camus, E.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chan, K.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
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Cheah, K. W.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
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Chen, B. H.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, M.-K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T.-T. Huang, J.-H. Wang, R.-M. Lin, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
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Chen, H.

L. Huang and H. Chen, “A Brief review on terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(1), 26–39 (2013).
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Chen, H.-T.

A. K. Azad, W. J. M. Kort-Kamp, M. Sykora, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, T. S. Luk, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20347 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.-K.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, M.-K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T.-T. Huang, J.-H. Wang, R.-M. Lin, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Chen, S.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. T.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “Phase and dispersion engineering of metalenses : broadband achromatic focusing and imaging in the visible,” ArXiv 1–30 (2017).

Chen, X.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. H.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, M.-K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T.-T. Huang, J.-H. Wang, R.-M. Lin, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Clarke, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cocker, T. L.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cole, B. E.

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, M. R. Hogbin, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1559–1565 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, B. E. Cole, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 120(1), 72–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cooper, K. B.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cumming, D.

I. Escorcia Carranza, J. P. Grant, J. Gough, and D. Cumming, “Terahertz metamaterial absorbers implemented in CMOS technology for imaging applications: scaling to large format focal plane arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cumming, D. R. S.

M. Humphreys, J. P. Grant, I. Escorcia-Carranza, C. Accarino, M. Kenney, Y. D. Shah, K. G. Rew, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Video-rate terahertz digital holographic imaging system,” Opt. Express 26(20), 25805–25813 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Grant, M. Kenney, Y. D. Shah, I. Escorcia-Carranza, and D. R. S. Cumming, “CMOS compatible metamaterial absorbers for hyperspectral medium wave infrared imaging and sensing applications,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10408–10420 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Kenney, J. Grant, Y. D. Shah, I. Escorcia-Carranza, M. Humphreys, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Octave-spanning broadband absorption of terahertz light using metasurface fractal-cross absorbers,” ACS Photonics 4(10), 2604–2612 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. E. Carranza, J. Grant, J. Gough, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Metamaterial-based terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(6), 892–901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Q. Chen, J. Grant, S. C. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A terahertz polarization insensitive dual band metamaterial absorber.,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 945–947 (2011).
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J. Grant, Y. Ma, S. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Polarization insensitive, broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber.,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3476–3478 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dalvit, D. A. R.

A. K. Azad, W. J. M. Kort-Kamp, M. Sykora, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, T. S. Luk, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20347 (2016).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Deng, Q.

Devlin, R. C.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dhillon, S. S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Di Falco, A.

J. Burch and A. Di Falco, “Surface topology specific metasurface holograms,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1762–1766 (2018).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the fractal cross absorbers. (a) Side-view of single layer absorber structure. (b) Top-view of the fractal cross supercell arrangement. Each arrow shows the evolution of increasing the fractal level from Fractal 1 to Fractal 4.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Resonance spectra of individual fractal crosses for the (a) top-layer and (b) bottom-layer. The orange dashed line corresponds to the anti-reflection response as a result of the polyimide layer alone.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Resonance spectra of the individual and combined layers. The green curve shows the lower frequency broadband response for only the top layer, whilst the magenta curve shows the higher frequency broadband response for only the bottom layer. When both the top and bottom layers are both present simultaneously in the design we obtain a combined broadband response, shown by the blue curve.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Resonance spectra for x and y polarized light and their corresponding designs (inset in each) for (a) completely aligned layers, (b) layers misaligned in the x direction and (c) y direction, and finally (d) complete misalignment of the layers in both x and y directions. To aid interpretation, the lighter shaded crosses are the top-layer and the darker, smaller crosses are the bottom-layer.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Electric-field profiles of both the top (a-f) and bottom (g-l) fractal cross layers at corresponding frequencies within the absorption spectrum for Fig. 4(d), using the totally misaligned configuration.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Electric-field plots in the y-z planes to illustrate the energy localization during absorption. (a) Schematic illustrating the y-z planes chosen, for three x positions at −16 µm, 0 µm, and + 16 µm. The eye shows us the viewing direction for the y-z planes, given in (b) and (c). E-fields shown in (b) are for resonances occurring at 2.72 THz, whilst the E-fields shown in (c) are for resonances occurring at 5.08 THz. Axes are given for assistance.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Contour plots showing the relationship between the broadband absorption intensity when the incident oblique angle is changed, for both TM (x) and TE (y) polarizations. The full bilayer design as used in Fig. 5 was simulated for the incident angle calculations shown here.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Figures of merit for the absorption spectra in Fig. 4