Abstract

A gain-tailored Ge-free Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate fiber is fabricated by MCVD combined with solution doping technique. Through regulating the temperature in the tube and designing the solution doping process, the refractive index profile of this fiber is close to a step-index without any center dip. The laser performance of this fiber is proved through contrast experiments with conventional fiber in a kW-level MOPA setup. The gain-tailored fiber amplifier presents a beam quality of M2 ~1.43 at 1.2 kW. Its MI threshold is 1.25 kW, about 1.74 times as much as that of the conventional fiber amplifier. The laser slope efficiency of the gain-tailored fiber amplifier is 86.75%. Stabilized at an output power of 1.1 kW for 15 hours, the MI threshold does not decrease after this long-term operation, demonstrating a strong resistance to photodarkening effect. These results have confirmed that MCVD-fabricated gain-tailored Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate fibers have great potential in power scaling and output stability of high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

F. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Xing, S. Hou, Y. Chen, J. Li, N. Dai, H. Li, Y. Wang, and L. Liao, “Bending diameter dependence of mode instabilities in multimode fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(3), 035104 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

R. Tao, X. Wang, and P. Zhou, “Comprehensive theoretical study of mode instability in high-power fiber lasers by employing a universal model and its implications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 0903319 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Shima, S. Ikoma, K. Uchiyama, Y. Takubo, M. Kashiwagi, and D. Tanaka, “5-kW single stage all-fiber Yb-doped single-mode fiber laser for materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 10512, 105120C (2018).

L. Liao, F. Zhang, X. He, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, H. Li, J. Peng, L. Yang, N. Dai, and J. Li, “Confined-doped fiber for effective mode control fabricated by MCVD process,” Appl. Opt. 57(12), 3244–3249 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, F. Zhang, N. Zhao, X. Lin, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Peng, H. Li, L. Yang, N. Dai, and J. Li, “Single transverse mode laser in a center-sunken and cladding-trenched Yb-doped fiber,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3421–3426 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, S. Liu, H. Zhan, K. Peng, S. Sun, J. Jiang, X. Wang, L. Ni, L. Jiang, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “Fiber design and fabrication of Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate laser fiber with high laser stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1502908 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

L. Kong, M. Li, J. Leng, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, J. Chen, and Z. Jiang, “Experimental investigation of the photodarkening induced core laser leakage in a 3kW co-pumping fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 10436, 104360N (2017).

K. Hejaz, M. Shayganmanesh, R. Rezaei-Nasirabad, A. Roohforouz, S. Azizi, A. Abedinajafi, and V. Vatani, “Modal instability induced by stimulated Raman scattering in high-power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 42(24), 5274–5277 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shi, R. Su, H. Zhang, B. Yang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, and Q. Lu, “Experimental study of output characteristics of bi-directional pumping high power fiber amplifier in different pumping schemes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1502910 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Tao, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Seed power dependence of mode instabilities in high-power fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065202 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Su, R. Tao, X. Wang, H. Zhang, P. Ma, P. Zhou, and X. Xu, “2.43 kW narrow linewidth linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier based on mode instability suppression,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(8), 085102 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Y. Mashiko, H. K. Nguyen, M. Kashiwagi, T. Kitabayashi, K. Shima, and D. Tanaka, “2 kW single-mode fiber laser with 20-m long delivery fiber and high SRS suppression,” Proc. SPIE 9728, 972805 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, D. Yan, S. Xiong, B. Huang, and C. Li, “High power all-fiber amplifier with different seed power injection,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14463–14469 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Li, C. Liu, J. Peng, H. Li, N. Dai, L. Yang, and J. Li, “Investigation of cerium influence on photo-darkening and photo-bleaching in Yb-doped fibers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(2), 75 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

H. J. Otto, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Scaling the mode instability threshold with multicore fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2680–2683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Robin, I. Dajani, and B. Pulford, “Modal instability-suppressing, single-frequency photonic crystal fiber amplifier with 811 W output power,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 666–669 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. R. Nasirabad, N. T. Jafari, A. H. Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500 W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(2), 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, “High power fiber lasers: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 219–241 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Ye, L. Petit, J. J. Koponen, I. Hu, and A. Galvanauskas, “Short-term and long-term stability in ytterbium-doped high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0903512 (2014).

2013 (5)

2012 (7)

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “On the thermal origin of mode instabilities in high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82370D (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Laurila, M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292W with improved mode stability,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5742–5753 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Thermally induced mode coupling in rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2382–2384 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ward, C. Robin, and I. Dajani, “Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11407–11422 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, B. Ward, and A. Lanari, “Gain-tailored SBS suppressing photonic crystal fibers for high power applications,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82371D (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Ye, J. Koponen, T. Kokki, J. Montiel i Ponsoda, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “J. M. i Ponsoda, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Confined-doped ytterbium fibers for beam quality improvement: fabrication and performance,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 823737 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

2009 (3)

2008 (4)

2007 (2)

M. Gong, Y. Yuan, C. Li, P. Yan, H. Zhang, and S. Liao, “Numerical modeling of transverse mode competition in strongly pumped multimode fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3236–3246 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Quintino, A. Costa, R. Miranda, D. Yapp, V. Kumar, and C. J. Kong, “Welding with high power fiber lasers– A preliminary study,” Mater. Des. 28(4), 1231–1237 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, S. K. T. Tammela, and H. Po, “Photodarkening in ytterbium-doped silica fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5990, 599008 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, and A. Schwuchow, “Fiber lasers: materials, structures and technologies,” Proc. SPIE 4957, 1–15 (2003).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 23(7), 329–331 (1987).
[Crossref]

Abedinajafi, A.

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Andersen, T. V.

Azizi, S.

Babazadeh, A.

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. R. Nasirabad, N. T. Jafari, A. H. Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500 W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(2), 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bacus, R.

V. Petit, T. Okazaki, E. H. Sekiya, R. Bacus, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Characterization of Yb3+ clusters in silica glass preforms,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 300–305 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barty, C. P. J.

Beach, R. J.

Boyland, A. J.

Broeng, J.

Carstens, H.

Chen, J.

L. Kong, M. Li, J. Leng, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, J. Chen, and Z. Jiang, “Experimental investigation of the photodarkening induced core laser leakage in a 3kW co-pumping fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 10436, 104360N (2017).

Chen, X.

J. Wang, S. Gray, D. T. Walton, M. Li, X. Chen, A. Liu, and L. A. Zenteno, “Advanced vapor-doping all-glass double-clad fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6890, 6890061 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

F. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Xing, S. Hou, Y. Chen, J. Li, N. Dai, H. Li, Y. Wang, and L. Liao, “Bending diameter dependence of mode instabilities in multimode fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(3), 035104 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Liao, F. Zhang, X. He, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, H. Li, J. Peng, L. Yang, N. Dai, and J. Li, “Confined-doped fiber for effective mode control fabricated by MCVD process,” Appl. Opt. 57(12), 3244–3249 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, S.

Clarkson, W. A.

Codemard, C. A.

M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, “High power fiber lasers: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 219–241 (2014).
[Crossref]

Costa, A.

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L. Liao, F. Zhang, X. He, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, H. Li, J. Peng, L. Yang, N. Dai, and J. Li, “Confined-doped fiber for effective mode control fabricated by MCVD process,” Appl. Opt. 57(12), 3244–3249 (2018).
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N. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Li, C. Liu, J. Peng, H. Li, N. Dai, L. Yang, and J. Li, “Investigation of cerium influence on photo-darkening and photo-bleaching in Yb-doped fibers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(2), 75 (2016).
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Golshan, A. H.

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. R. Nasirabad, N. T. Jafari, A. H. Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500 W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(2), 025102 (2014).
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Huang, B.

Ikoma, S.

K. Shima, S. Ikoma, K. Uchiyama, Y. Takubo, M. Kashiwagi, and D. Tanaka, “5-kW single stage all-fiber Yb-doped single-mode fiber laser for materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 10512, 105120C (2018).

Ikushima, A. J.

V. Petit, T. Okazaki, E. H. Sekiya, R. Bacus, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Characterization of Yb3+ clusters in silica glass preforms,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 300–305 (2008).
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K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. R. Nasirabad, N. T. Jafari, A. H. Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500 W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(2), 025102 (2014).
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Jauregui, C.

H. J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15265–15277 (2015).
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H. J. Otto, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Scaling the mode instability threshold with multicore fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2680–2683 (2014).
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H. J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17285–17298 (2013).
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C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “On the thermal origin of mode instabilities in high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82370D (2012).
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C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
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T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
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Jeong, Y.

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Jiang, J.

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Y. Li, S. Liu, H. Zhan, K. Peng, S. Sun, J. Jiang, X. Wang, L. Ni, L. Jiang, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “Fiber design and fabrication of Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate laser fiber with high laser stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1502908 (2018).
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Jing, F.

Y. Li, S. Liu, H. Zhan, K. Peng, S. Sun, J. Jiang, X. Wang, L. Ni, L. Jiang, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “Fiber design and fabrication of Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate laser fiber with high laser stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1502908 (2018).
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K. Shima, S. Ikoma, K. Uchiyama, Y. Takubo, M. Kashiwagi, and D. Tanaka, “5-kW single stage all-fiber Yb-doped single-mode fiber laser for materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 10512, 105120C (2018).

Y. Mashiko, H. K. Nguyen, M. Kashiwagi, T. Kitabayashi, K. Shima, and D. Tanaka, “2 kW single-mode fiber laser with 20-m long delivery fiber and high SRS suppression,” Proc. SPIE 9728, 972805 (2016).
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Kirchhof, J.

Kitabayashi, T.

Y. Mashiko, H. K. Nguyen, M. Kashiwagi, T. Kitabayashi, K. Shima, and D. Tanaka, “2 kW single-mode fiber laser with 20-m long delivery fiber and high SRS suppression,” Proc. SPIE 9728, 972805 (2016).
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Kokki, T.

C. Ye, J. Koponen, T. Kokki, J. Montiel i Ponsoda, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “J. M. i Ponsoda, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Confined-doped ytterbium fibers for beam quality improvement: fabrication and performance,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 823737 (2012).
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L. Quintino, A. Costa, R. Miranda, D. Yapp, V. Kumar, and C. J. Kong, “Welding with high power fiber lasers– A preliminary study,” Mater. Des. 28(4), 1231–1237 (2007).
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L. Kong, M. Li, J. Leng, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, J. Chen, and Z. Jiang, “Experimental investigation of the photodarkening induced core laser leakage in a 3kW co-pumping fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 10436, 104360N (2017).

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C. Ye, J. Koponen, T. Kokki, J. Montiel i Ponsoda, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “J. M. i Ponsoda, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Confined-doped ytterbium fibers for beam quality improvement: fabrication and performance,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 823737 (2012).
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C. Ye, L. Petit, J. J. Koponen, I. Hu, and A. Galvanauskas, “Short-term and long-term stability in ytterbium-doped high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0903512 (2014).

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Lafouti, M.

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Li, C.

Li, H.

F. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Xing, S. Hou, Y. Chen, J. Li, N. Dai, H. Li, Y. Wang, and L. Liao, “Bending diameter dependence of mode instabilities in multimode fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(3), 035104 (2019).
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L. Liao, F. Zhang, X. He, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, H. Li, J. Peng, L. Yang, N. Dai, and J. Li, “Confined-doped fiber for effective mode control fabricated by MCVD process,” Appl. Opt. 57(12), 3244–3249 (2018).
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Y. Liu, F. Zhang, N. Zhao, X. Lin, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Peng, H. Li, L. Yang, N. Dai, and J. Li, “Single transverse mode laser in a center-sunken and cladding-trenched Yb-doped fiber,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3421–3426 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Li, C. Liu, J. Peng, H. Li, N. Dai, L. Yang, and J. Li, “Investigation of cerium influence on photo-darkening and photo-bleaching in Yb-doped fibers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(2), 75 (2016).
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F. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Xing, S. Hou, Y. Chen, J. Li, N. Dai, H. Li, Y. Wang, and L. Liao, “Bending diameter dependence of mode instabilities in multimode fiber amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(3), 035104 (2019).
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Y. Liu, F. Zhang, N. Zhao, X. Lin, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Peng, H. Li, L. Yang, N. Dai, and J. Li, “Single transverse mode laser in a center-sunken and cladding-trenched Yb-doped fiber,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3421–3426 (2018).
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L. Liao, F. Zhang, X. He, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, H. Li, J. Peng, L. Yang, N. Dai, and J. Li, “Confined-doped fiber for effective mode control fabricated by MCVD process,” Appl. Opt. 57(12), 3244–3249 (2018).
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N. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Li, C. Liu, J. Peng, H. Li, N. Dai, L. Yang, and J. Li, “Investigation of cerium influence on photo-darkening and photo-bleaching in Yb-doped fibers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(2), 75 (2016).
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N. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Li, C. Liu, J. Peng, H. Li, N. Dai, L. Yang, and J. Li, “Investigation of cerium influence on photo-darkening and photo-bleaching in Yb-doped fibers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(2), 75 (2016).
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Li, M.

L. Kong, M. Li, J. Leng, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, J. Chen, and Z. Jiang, “Experimental investigation of the photodarkening induced core laser leakage in a 3kW co-pumping fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 10436, 104360N (2017).

J. Wang, S. Gray, D. T. Walton, M. Li, X. Chen, A. Liu, and L. A. Zenteno, “Advanced vapor-doping all-glass double-clad fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6890, 6890061 (2008).
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Y. Li, S. Liu, H. Zhan, K. Peng, S. Sun, J. Jiang, X. Wang, L. Ni, L. Jiang, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “Fiber design and fabrication of Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate laser fiber with high laser stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1502908 (2018).
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Liao, S.

Limpert, J.

H. J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15265–15277 (2015).
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H. J. Otto, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Scaling the mode instability threshold with multicore fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2680–2683 (2014).
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H. J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17285–17298 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “On the thermal origin of mode instabilities in high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82370D (2012).
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C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
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T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
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Y. Li, S. Liu, H. Zhan, K. Peng, S. Sun, J. Jiang, X. Wang, L. Ni, L. Jiang, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “Fiber design and fabrication of Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate laser fiber with high laser stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1502908 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lin, X.

Liu, A.

J. Wang, S. Gray, D. T. Walton, M. Li, X. Chen, A. Liu, and L. A. Zenteno, “Advanced vapor-doping all-glass double-clad fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6890, 6890061 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

N. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Li, C. Liu, J. Peng, H. Li, N. Dai, L. Yang, and J. Li, “Investigation of cerium influence on photo-darkening and photo-bleaching in Yb-doped fibers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(2), 75 (2016).
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Liu, S.

Y. Li, S. Liu, H. Zhan, K. Peng, S. Sun, J. Jiang, X. Wang, L. Ni, L. Jiang, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “Fiber design and fabrication of Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate laser fiber with high laser stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1502908 (2018).
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R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “1.3 kW monolithic linearly polarized single-mode master oscillator power amplifier and strategies for mitigating mode instabilities,” Photon. Res. 3(3), 86–93 (2015).
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R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “1.3 kW monolithic linearly polarized single-mode master oscillator power amplifier and strategies for mitigating mode instabilities,” Photon. Res. 3(3), 86–93 (2015).
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Y. Mashiko, H. K. Nguyen, M. Kashiwagi, T. Kitabayashi, K. Shima, and D. Tanaka, “2 kW single-mode fiber laser with 20-m long delivery fiber and high SRS suppression,” Proc. SPIE 9728, 972805 (2016).
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Messerly, M. J.

Miranda, R.

L. Quintino, A. Costa, R. Miranda, D. Yapp, V. Kumar, and C. J. Kong, “Welding with high power fiber lasers– A preliminary study,” Mater. Des. 28(4), 1231–1237 (2007).
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Modsching, N.

Montiel i Ponsoda, J.

C. Ye, J. Koponen, T. Kokki, J. Montiel i Ponsoda, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “J. M. i Ponsoda, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Confined-doped ytterbium fibers for beam quality improvement: fabrication and performance,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 823737 (2012).
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Nguyen, H. K.

Y. Mashiko, H. K. Nguyen, M. Kashiwagi, T. Kitabayashi, K. Shima, and D. Tanaka, “2 kW single-mode fiber laser with 20-m long delivery fiber and high SRS suppression,” Proc. SPIE 9728, 972805 (2016).
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Y. Li, S. Liu, H. Zhan, K. Peng, S. Sun, J. Jiang, X. Wang, L. Ni, L. Jiang, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “Fiber design and fabrication of Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate laser fiber with high laser stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1502908 (2018).
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K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. R. Nasirabad, N. T. Jafari, A. H. Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500 W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(2), 025102 (2014).
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V. Petit, T. Okazaki, E. H. Sekiya, R. Bacus, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Characterization of Yb3+ clusters in silica glass preforms,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 300–305 (2008).
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Otto, H.

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “On the thermal origin of mode instabilities in high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82370D (2012).
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V. Petit, T. Okazaki, E. H. Sekiya, R. Bacus, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Characterization of Yb3+ clusters in silica glass preforms,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 300–305 (2008).
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Shima, K.

K. Shima, S. Ikoma, K. Uchiyama, Y. Takubo, M. Kashiwagi, and D. Tanaka, “5-kW single stage all-fiber Yb-doped single-mode fiber laser for materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 10512, 105120C (2018).

Y. Mashiko, H. K. Nguyen, M. Kashiwagi, T. Kitabayashi, K. Shima, and D. Tanaka, “2 kW single-mode fiber laser with 20-m long delivery fiber and high SRS suppression,” Proc. SPIE 9728, 972805 (2016).
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Shverdin, M. Y.

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R. Su, R. Tao, X. Wang, H. Zhang, P. Ma, P. Zhou, and X. Xu, “2.43 kW narrow linewidth linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier based on mode instability suppression,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(8), 085102 (2017).
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Y. Li, S. Liu, H. Zhan, K. Peng, S. Sun, J. Jiang, X. Wang, L. Ni, L. Jiang, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “Fiber design and fabrication of Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate laser fiber with high laser stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1502908 (2018).
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Tammela, S. K. T.

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, S. K. T. Tammela, and H. Po, “Photodarkening in ytterbium-doped silica fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5990, 599008 (2005).
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Y. Mashiko, H. K. Nguyen, M. Kashiwagi, T. Kitabayashi, K. Shima, and D. Tanaka, “2 kW single-mode fiber laser with 20-m long delivery fiber and high SRS suppression,” Proc. SPIE 9728, 972805 (2016).
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R. Tao, X. Wang, and P. Zhou, “Comprehensive theoretical study of mode instability in high-power fiber lasers by employing a universal model and its implications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 0903319 (2018).
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R. Su, R. Tao, X. Wang, H. Zhang, P. Ma, P. Zhou, and X. Xu, “2.43 kW narrow linewidth linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier based on mode instability suppression,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(8), 085102 (2017).
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R. Tao, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Seed power dependence of mode instabilities in high-power fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065202 (2017).
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R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Mitigating of modal instabilities in linearly-polarized fiber amplifiers by shifting pump wavelength,” J. Opt. 17(4), 045504 (2015).
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R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “1.3 kW monolithic linearly polarized single-mode master oscillator power amplifier and strategies for mitigating mode instabilities,” Photon. Res. 3(3), 86–93 (2015).
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J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 23(7), 329–331 (1987).
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Unger, S.

Vatani, V.

Walton, D. T.

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R. Su, R. Tao, X. Wang, H. Zhang, P. Ma, P. Zhou, and X. Xu, “2.43 kW narrow linewidth linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier based on mode instability suppression,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(8), 085102 (2017).
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L. Kong, M. Li, J. Leng, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, J. Chen, and Z. Jiang, “Experimental investigation of the photodarkening induced core laser leakage in a 3kW co-pumping fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 10436, 104360N (2017).

R. Tao, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Seed power dependence of mode instabilities in high-power fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065202 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Shi, R. Su, H. Zhang, B. Yang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, and Q. Lu, “Experimental study of output characteristics of bi-directional pumping high power fiber amplifier in different pumping schemes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1502910 (2017).
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R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Mitigating of modal instabilities in linearly-polarized fiber amplifiers by shifting pump wavelength,” J. Opt. 17(4), 045504 (2015).
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R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “1.3 kW monolithic linearly polarized single-mode master oscillator power amplifier and strategies for mitigating mode instabilities,” Photon. Res. 3(3), 86–93 (2015).
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Ward, B.

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, B. Ward, and A. Lanari, “Gain-tailored SBS suppressing photonic crystal fibers for high power applications,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82371D (2012).
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C. Shi, R. Su, H. Zhang, B. Yang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, and Q. Lu, “Experimental study of output characteristics of bi-directional pumping high power fiber amplifier in different pumping schemes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1502910 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Su, R. Tao, X. Wang, H. Zhang, P. Ma, P. Zhou, and X. Xu, “2.43 kW narrow linewidth linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier based on mode instability suppression,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(8), 085102 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Kong, M. Li, J. Leng, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, J. Chen, and Z. Jiang, “Experimental investigation of the photodarkening induced core laser leakage in a 3kW co-pumping fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 10436, 104360N (2017).

Yan, D.

Yan, P.

Yang, B.

C. Shi, R. Su, H. Zhang, B. Yang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, and Q. Lu, “Experimental study of output characteristics of bi-directional pumping high power fiber amplifier in different pumping schemes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1502910 (2017).
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Yapp, D.

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C. Ye, L. Petit, J. J. Koponen, I. Hu, and A. Galvanauskas, “Short-term and long-term stability in ytterbium-doped high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0903512 (2014).

C. Ye, J. Koponen, T. Kokki, J. Montiel i Ponsoda, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “J. M. i Ponsoda, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Confined-doped ytterbium fibers for beam quality improvement: fabrication and performance,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 823737 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

Zenteno, L. A.

J. Wang, S. Gray, D. T. Walton, M. Li, X. Chen, A. Liu, and L. A. Zenteno, “Advanced vapor-doping all-glass double-clad fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6890, 6890061 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zeringue, C.

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Zeringue, B. Ward, and A. Lanari, “Gain-tailored SBS suppressing photonic crystal fibers for high power applications,” Proc. SPIE 8237, 82371D (2012).
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M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, “High power fiber lasers: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 219–241 (2014).
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Y. Li, S. Liu, H. Zhan, K. Peng, S. Sun, J. Jiang, X. Wang, L. Ni, L. Jiang, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “Fiber design and fabrication of Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate laser fiber with high laser stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1502908 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, H.

C. Shi, R. Su, H. Zhang, B. Yang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, and Q. Lu, “Experimental study of output characteristics of bi-directional pumping high power fiber amplifier in different pumping schemes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1502910 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Su, R. Tao, X. Wang, H. Zhang, P. Ma, P. Zhou, and X. Xu, “2.43 kW narrow linewidth linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier based on mode instability suppression,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(8), 085102 (2017).
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Zhao, N.

Y. Liu, F. Zhang, N. Zhao, X. Lin, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Peng, H. Li, L. Yang, N. Dai, and J. Li, “Single transverse mode laser in a center-sunken and cladding-trenched Yb-doped fiber,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3421–3426 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Li, C. Liu, J. Peng, H. Li, N. Dai, L. Yang, and J. Li, “Investigation of cerium influence on photo-darkening and photo-bleaching in Yb-doped fibers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(2), 75 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, P.

R. Tao, X. Wang, and P. Zhou, “Comprehensive theoretical study of mode instability in high-power fiber lasers by employing a universal model and its implications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 0903319 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Su, R. Tao, X. Wang, H. Zhang, P. Ma, P. Zhou, and X. Xu, “2.43 kW narrow linewidth linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier based on mode instability suppression,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(8), 085102 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Kong, M. Li, J. Leng, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, J. Chen, and Z. Jiang, “Experimental investigation of the photodarkening induced core laser leakage in a 3kW co-pumping fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 10436, 104360N (2017).

C. Shi, R. Su, H. Zhang, B. Yang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, and Q. Lu, “Experimental study of output characteristics of bi-directional pumping high power fiber amplifier in different pumping schemes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1502910 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Tao, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Seed power dependence of mode instabilities in high-power fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065202 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Mitigating of modal instabilities in linearly-polarized fiber amplifiers by shifting pump wavelength,” J. Opt. 17(4), 045504 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “1.3 kW monolithic linearly polarized single-mode master oscillator power amplifier and strategies for mitigating mode instabilities,” Photon. Res. 3(3), 86–93 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

N. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Li, C. Liu, J. Peng, H. Li, N. Dai, L. Yang, and J. Li, “Investigation of cerium influence on photo-darkening and photo-bleaching in Yb-doped fibers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(2), 75 (2016).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 23(7), 329–331 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, “High power fiber lasers: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 219–241 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Ye, L. Petit, J. J. Koponen, I. Hu, and A. Galvanauskas, “Short-term and long-term stability in ytterbium-doped high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0903512 (2014).

R. Tao, X. Wang, and P. Zhou, “Comprehensive theoretical study of mode instability in high-power fiber lasers by employing a universal model and its implications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 0903319 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. R. Marciante, “Gain filtering for single-spatial-mode operation of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 30–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

C. Shi, R. Su, H. Zhang, B. Yang, X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Xu, and Q. Lu, “Experimental study of output characteristics of bi-directional pumping high power fiber amplifier in different pumping schemes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(3), 1502910 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, S. Liu, H. Zhan, K. Peng, S. Sun, J. Jiang, X. Wang, L. Ni, L. Jiang, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “Fiber design and fabrication of Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate laser fiber with high laser stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1502908 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (2)

R. Tao, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Seed power dependence of mode instabilities in high-power fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065202 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Tao, P. Ma, X. Wang, P. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Mitigating of modal instabilities in linearly-polarized fiber amplifiers by shifting pump wavelength,” J. Opt. 17(4), 045504 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

K. Hejaz, A. Norouzey, R. Poozesh, A. Heidariazar, A. Roohforouz, R. R. Nasirabad, N. T. Jafari, A. H. Golshan, A. Babazadeh, and M. Lafouti, “Controlling mode instability in a 500 W ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(2), 025102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Su, R. Tao, X. Wang, H. Zhang, P. Ma, P. Zhou, and X. Xu, “2.43 kW narrow linewidth linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier based on mode instability suppression,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(8), 085102 (2017).
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Proc. SPIE (9)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Designed refractive index profile of a gain-tailored Yb/Ce codoped aluminosilicate fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Refractive index profile of the gain-tailored fiber (red line) and the conventional fiber (black line); (b) the microscope image of the cross section of the gain-tailored fiber and the core region (inset).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Elemental distribution of the (a) gain-tailored fiber and the (b) conventional fiber.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scheme of the experimental setup. LD, laser diode; PC, pump combiner; HR, high reflectivity fiber Bragg grating; OC, output coupler fiber Bragg grating; CLS, cladding light stripper; MFA, mode field adaptor; P/S C, pump and signal combiner; PD, photodetector; EC, endcap; CM, collimating mirror; BS, beam splitter; PM, power meter; DM, dichroic mirror; BD, beam dump; PBS, polarization beam splitter; NDF, neutral density filter.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of gain fiber coils in the main amplifier.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Output power and (b) M2 factor (averaged of the x and y direction) as a function of pump power for the conventional fiber and the gain-tailored fiber, (c) seed laser spectrum and output laser spectrum at output power of 1.39 kW.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Photodiode intensity traces and (b) frequency characteristics of the conventional fiber amplifier and (c) photodiode intensity traces and (d) frequency characteristics of the gain-tailored fiber amplifier, respectively, (c)standard deviation with respect to the output power in different fiber amplifiers. Additionally, the MI thresholds are marked in green.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Output stability evaluation at 1.1 kW, (b) standard deviation with respect to the output power before and after the 15-hour operation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Fiber parameters

Equations (2)

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Δ n active 10 4 = 67C Yb 2 O 3 + 23C Al 2 O 3 + 67C Ce 2 O 3 - 50C SiF 4
Δn passive 10 4 = 23C Al 2 O 3 - 50C SiF 4 ,