Abstract

A single-beam-splitting approach was employed to enhance the signal intensity of LIBS under the extreme condition of laser beam grazing the surface of non-flat samples. Examining the time-integrated emission spectra shows that ISplit/ISingle enhancement factors of 2.5 and 3.5 were achieved at the laser energy of 33 mJ for aluminium alloy and brass, respectively. This factor first increases, reaches its maximum at 33 mJ, and drops gradually with the laser energy further increased. The mechanisms behind the enhanced optical emission and the enhancement factor evolution are discussed by using the proposed laser ablation model and laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave model, respectively. Examining the time-resolved emission spectra show that enhancement effect exists across all the plasma expansion process and the split beam mode allows for a longer plasma lifetime. A remarkable feature is that the trailing phenomenon emerging in the single beam mode vanishes due to the interaction between the plasmas generated by the grazing incident and normally incident laser beams in the split beam mode. The underlying cause is probably that the plasma plume produced by the normally incident laser beam prevents the grazing incident laser beam from further propagating and ablating the sample surface below. These findings not only give an insight into the plasma generation and evolution at grazing incidence of laser beam on sample surface but also provide a more reliable method for outdoor LIBS measurement of irregular samples.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (5)

J. Bergevin, T. H. Wu, J. Yeak, B. E. Brumfield, S. S. Harilal, M. C. Phillips, and R. J. Jones, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of laser-induced plasmas,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1273 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Y. Lu, Y. Lan, Y. Li, J. Guo, and R. Zheng, “Sr/Ca ratio analysis of seashells using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy under objective-lens focusing and single-lens focusing,” Appl. Opt. 57(13), 3539–3545 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lei, J. Wang, J. Li, J. Tang, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and Y. Duan, “Influence of humidity on the characteristics of laser-induced air plasma,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(10), 106001 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. H. Zhang, X. X. Yuan, M. G. Su, Q. Min, C. Z. Dong, and D. X. Sun, “Shielding and diagnostics of laser-induced air plasmas generated in collinear double pulse configuration,” Phys. Plasmas 25(6), 063112 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Hai, X. L. Mao, G. C. Y. Chan, R. E. Russo, H. B. Ding, and V. Zorba, “Internal mixing dynamics of Cu/Sn-Pb plasmas produced by femtosecond laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 148, 92–98 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

J. Guo, Y. Lu, K. Cheng, J. Song, W. Ye, N. Li, and R. Zheng, “Development of a compact underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system and preliminary results in sea trials,” Appl. Opt. 56(29), 8196–8200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, D. Tian, Y. Ding, G. Yang, K. Liu, C. Wang, and X. Han, “A review of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 53(1), 1–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

A. Huassin, X. Gao, Z. Hao, and J. Lin, “Combined effects of double pulses and magnetic field on emission enhancement of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy from aluminum plasma,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(20), 10024–10030 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, Y. He, Q. Yu, and Y. Duan, “Temporal-resolved characterization of laser-induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of gas shales,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 121(1), 28–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, P. Liu, L. Sun, R. Hai, and H. Ding, “Influence of a static magnetic field on laser induced tungsten plasma in air,” Plasma Sci. Technol. 18(4), 364–369 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

G. Yang, Q. Lin, Y. Ding, D. Tian, and Y. Duan, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy based on single beam splitting and geometric configuration for effective signal enhancement,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7625 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Zorba, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of Cu at the micron/sub-micron scale,” Spectrochimca Acta Part B. 113(1), 37–42 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, B. Xue, J. Song, Y. Lu, and R. Zheng, “Non-gated laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in bulk water by position-selective detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111107 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z. Wang, T. B. Yuan, Z. Y. Hou, W. D. Zhou, J. D. Lu, H. B. Ding, and X. Y. Zeng, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in China,” Front. Phys. 9(4), 419–438 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. W. Li, Z. Wang, X. L. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Spatially and temporally resolved spectral emission of laser-induced plasmas confined by cylindrical cavities,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(11), 2127–2135 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. S. Harilal, P. K. Diwakar, and A. Hassanein, “Electron-ion relaxation time dependent signal enhancement in ultrafast double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Martin, S. Allman, D. J. Brice, R. C. Martin, and N. O. Andre, “Exploring laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for nuclear materials analysis and insitu applications,” Spectrochimca Acta Part B. 74, 177–183 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Zorba, J. Syzdek, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, and R. Kostecki, “Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 234101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Antony, N. J. Vasa, V. L. N. S. Raja, and A. S. Laxmiprasad, “Single laser based dual-wavelength ablation technique for emission enhancement during LIBS,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(36), 365401 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

L. B. Guo, W. Hu, B. Y. Zhang, X. N. He, C. M. Li, Y. S. Zhou, Z. X. Cai, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “Enhancement of optical emission from laser-induced plasmas by combined spatial and magnetic confinement,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14067–14075 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Luo, W. Zhao, Y. Duan, and H. Wang, “Diagnostics of air plasma ablated by 1064 nm laser pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(s1), s10303 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Hanif, M. Salik, and M. A. Baig, “Quantitative studies of copper plasma using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(12), 1456–1461 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

W. Luo, Q. Sun, C. Gao, J. Tang, H. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Plasma properties of 532 nm laser-ablated aluminum E414d target with different power densities,” Plasma Sci. Technol. 12(4), 385–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. M. Shaikh, S. Hafeez, M. A. Kalyar, R. Ali, and M. A. Baig, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser ablation brass plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103108 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

N. Kawahara, J. I. Beduneau, T. Nakayama, E. Tomita, and Y. Ikeda, “Spatially, temporally, and spectrally resolved measurement of laser-induced plasma in air,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 605–614 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Nicolas, M. P. Mateo, and V. Pinon, “3D chemical maps of non-flat surfaces by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22(10), 1244–1249 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. K. Shen, J. Sun, H. Ling, and Y. F. Lu, “Spatial confinement effects in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081501 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, and T. M. El Sherbini, “Measurement of electron density utilizing the Hα-line from laser produced plasma in air,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 61(5), 532–539 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

X. L. Mao, X. Z. Zeng, S. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 60(7), 960–967 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: An analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(1), 117–123 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. Yalçin, D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, and G. W. Faris, “Influence of ambient conditions on the laser air spark,” Appl. Phys. B 68(1), 121–130 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. S. Harilal, C. V. Bindhu, R. C. Issac, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Electron density and temperature measurements in a laser produced carbon plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(5), 2140–2146 (1997).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

R. K. Singh and J. Narayan, “Pulsed-laser evaporation technique for deposition of thin films: Physics and theoretical model,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 41(13), 8843–8859 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ali, R.

N. M. Shaikh, S. Hafeez, M. A. Kalyar, R. Ali, and M. A. Baig, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser ablation brass plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Allman, S.

M. Z. Martin, S. Allman, D. J. Brice, R. C. Martin, and N. O. Andre, “Exploring laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for nuclear materials analysis and insitu applications,” Spectrochimca Acta Part B. 74, 177–183 (2012).
[Crossref]

Andre, N. O.

M. Z. Martin, S. Allman, D. J. Brice, R. C. Martin, and N. O. Andre, “Exploring laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for nuclear materials analysis and insitu applications,” Spectrochimca Acta Part B. 74, 177–183 (2012).
[Crossref]

Antony, J. K.

J. K. Antony, N. J. Vasa, V. L. N. S. Raja, and A. S. Laxmiprasad, “Single laser based dual-wavelength ablation technique for emission enhancement during LIBS,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(36), 365401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baig, M. A.

M. Hanif, M. Salik, and M. A. Baig, “Quantitative studies of copper plasma using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(12), 1456–1461 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. M. Shaikh, S. Hafeez, M. A. Kalyar, R. Ali, and M. A. Baig, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser ablation brass plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baliva, A.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: An analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(1), 117–123 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barkley, W. C.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barraclough, B.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Beduneau, J. I.

N. Kawahara, J. I. Beduneau, T. Nakayama, E. Tomita, and Y. Ikeda, “Spatially, temporally, and spectrally resolved measurement of laser-induced plasma in air,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 605–614 (2007).
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Bell, J. F.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Bender, S.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Bergevin, J.

J. Bergevin, T. H. Wu, J. Yeak, B. E. Brumfield, S. S. Harilal, M. C. Phillips, and R. J. Jones, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of laser-induced plasmas,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1273 (2018).
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Bernardin, J.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Bindhu, C. V.

S. S. Harilal, C. V. Bindhu, R. C. Issac, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Electron density and temperature measurements in a laser produced carbon plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(5), 2140–2146 (1997).
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Blaney, D.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blank, J.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bouyé, M.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Brice, D. J.

M. Z. Martin, S. Allman, D. J. Brice, R. C. Martin, and N. O. Andre, “Exploring laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for nuclear materials analysis and insitu applications,” Spectrochimca Acta Part B. 74, 177–183 (2012).
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Bridges, N.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brumfield, B. E.

J. Bergevin, T. H. Wu, J. Yeak, B. E. Brumfield, S. S. Harilal, M. C. Phillips, and R. J. Jones, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of laser-induced plasmas,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1273 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bultman, N.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z. X.

Caïs, P.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Chan, G. C. Y.

R. Hai, X. L. Mao, G. C. Y. Chan, R. E. Russo, H. B. Ding, and V. Zorba, “Internal mixing dynamics of Cu/Sn-Pb plasmas produced by femtosecond laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 148, 92–98 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K.

Clanton, R. C.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Clark, B.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Clegg, S.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Colao, F.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: An analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(1), 117–123 (2004).
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Cousin, A.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cremers, D.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cremers, D. A.

D. A. Cremers and R. A. Multari, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (JohnWiley & Sons Ltd, 2006).

Cros, A.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Crosley, D. R.

S. Yalçin, D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, and G. W. Faris, “Influence of ambient conditions on the laser air spark,” Appl. Phys. B 68(1), 121–130 (1999).
[Crossref]

D’Uston, C.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Darby Dyar, M.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

DeFlores, L.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Delapp, D.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ding, H.

D. Wu, P. Liu, L. Sun, R. Hai, and H. Ding, “Influence of a static magnetic field on laser induced tungsten plasma in air,” Plasma Sci. Technol. 18(4), 364–369 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ding, H. B.

R. Hai, X. L. Mao, G. C. Y. Chan, R. E. Russo, H. B. Ding, and V. Zorba, “Internal mixing dynamics of Cu/Sn-Pb plasmas produced by femtosecond laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 148, 92–98 (2018).
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Z. Wang, T. B. Yuan, Z. Y. Hou, W. D. Zhou, J. D. Lu, H. B. Ding, and X. Y. Zeng, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in China,” Front. Phys. 9(4), 419–438 (2014).
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Ding, Y.

Y. Li, D. Tian, Y. Ding, G. Yang, K. Liu, C. Wang, and X. Han, “A review of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 53(1), 1–35 (2017).
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G. Yang, Q. Lin, Y. Ding, D. Tian, and Y. Duan, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy based on single beam splitting and geometric configuration for effective signal enhancement,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7625 (2015).
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Dingler, R.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Diwakar, P. K.

S. S. Harilal, P. K. Diwakar, and A. Hassanein, “Electron-ion relaxation time dependent signal enhancement in ultrafast double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041102 (2013).
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Dong, C. Z.

D. H. Zhang, X. X. Yuan, M. G. Su, Q. Min, C. Z. Dong, and D. X. Sun, “Shielding and diagnostics of laser-induced air plasmas generated in collinear double pulse configuration,” Phys. Plasmas 25(6), 063112 (2018).
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Duan, Y.

B. Lei, J. Wang, J. Li, J. Tang, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and Y. Duan, “Influence of humidity on the characteristics of laser-induced air plasma,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(10), 106001 (2018).
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T. Xu, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, Y. He, Q. Yu, and Y. Duan, “Temporal-resolved characterization of laser-induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of gas shales,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 121(1), 28–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, Q. Lin, Y. Ding, D. Tian, and Y. Duan, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy based on single beam splitting and geometric configuration for effective signal enhancement,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7625 (2015).
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W. Luo, W. Zhao, Y. Duan, and H. Wang, “Diagnostics of air plasma ablated by 1064 nm laser pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(s1), s10303 (2011).
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El Sherbini, A. M.

A. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, and T. M. El Sherbini, “Measurement of electron density utilizing the Hα-line from laser produced plasma in air,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 61(5), 532–539 (2006).
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El Sherbini, T. M.

A. M. El Sherbini, H. Hegazy, and T. M. El Sherbini, “Measurement of electron density utilizing the Hα-line from laser produced plasma in air,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 61(5), 532–539 (2006).
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Elliott, T.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Enemark, D.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Fabbri, F.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: An analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(1), 117–123 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fabre, C.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fantoni, R.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: An analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(1), 117–123 (2004).
[Crossref]

Faris, G. W.

S. Yalçin, D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, and G. W. Faris, “Influence of ambient conditions on the laser air spark,” Appl. Phys. B 68(1), 121–130 (1999).
[Crossref]

Flores, M.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Forni, O.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gao, C.

W. Luo, Q. Sun, C. Gao, J. Tang, H. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Plasma properties of 532 nm laser-ablated aluminum E414d target with different power densities,” Plasma Sci. Technol. 12(4), 385–390 (2010).
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Gao, X.

A. Huassin, X. Gao, Z. Hao, and J. Lin, “Combined effects of double pulses and magnetic field on emission enhancement of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy from aluminum plasma,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(20), 10024–10030 (2016).
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Gasnault, O.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Spectral Line Broadening by Plasma (Acdemic, 1964).

Guo, J.

Guo, L. B.

Hafeez, S.

N. M. Shaikh, S. Hafeez, M. A. Kalyar, R. Ali, and M. A. Baig, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser ablation brass plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hai, R.

R. Hai, X. L. Mao, G. C. Y. Chan, R. E. Russo, H. B. Ding, and V. Zorba, “Internal mixing dynamics of Cu/Sn-Pb plasmas produced by femtosecond laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 148, 92–98 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, P. Liu, L. Sun, R. Hai, and H. Ding, “Influence of a static magnetic field on laser induced tungsten plasma in air,” Plasma Sci. Technol. 18(4), 364–369 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hale, T.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Huassin, A.

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Kouach, D.

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Lan, Y.

Landis, D.

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Langevin, Y.

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Lanza, N.

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LaRocca, F.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Lei, B.

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Limonadi, D.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Lin, J.

A. Huassin, X. Gao, Z. Hao, and J. Lin, “Combined effects of double pulses and magnetic field on emission enhancement of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy from aluminum plasma,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(20), 10024–10030 (2016).
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R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Wiens, R. C.

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Witt, J.

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Wong-Swanson, B.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, B. Barraclough, M. Saccoccio, W. C. Barkley, J. F. Bell, S. Bender, J. Bernardin, D. Blaney, J. Blank, M. Bouyé, N. Bridges, N. Bultman, P. Caïs, R. C. Clanton, B. Clark, S. Clegg, A. Cousin, D. Cremers, A. Cros, L. DeFlores, D. Delapp, R. Dingler, C. D’Uston, M. Darby Dyar, T. Elliott, D. Enemark, C. Fabre, M. Flores, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, T. Hale, C. Hays, K. Herkenhoff, E. Kan, L. Kirkland, D. Kouach, D. Landis, Y. Langevin, N. Lanza, F. LaRocca, J. Lasue, J. Latino, D. Limonadi, C. Lindensmith, C. Little, N. Mangold, G. Manhes, P. Mauchien, C. McKay, E. Miller, J. Mooney, R. V. Morris, L. Morrison, T. Nelson, H. Newsom, A. Ollila, M. Ott, L. Pares, R. Perez, F. Poitrasson, C. Provost, J. W. Reiter, T. Roberts, F. Romero, V. Sautter, S. Salazar, J. J. Simmonds, R. Stiglich, S. Storms, N. Striebig, J.-J. Thocaven, T. Trujillo, M. Ulibarri, D. Vaniman, N. Warner, R. Waterbury, R. Whitaker, J. Witt, and B. Wong-Swanson, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science objectives and mast unit description,” Space Sci. Rev. 170, 95–166 (2012).
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Wu, D.

D. Wu, P. Liu, L. Sun, R. Hai, and H. Ding, “Influence of a static magnetic field on laser induced tungsten plasma in air,” Plasma Sci. Technol. 18(4), 364–369 (2016).
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Wu, T. H.

J. Bergevin, T. H. Wu, J. Yeak, B. E. Brumfield, S. S. Harilal, M. C. Phillips, and R. J. Jones, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of laser-induced plasmas,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1273 (2018).
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T. Xu, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, Y. He, Q. Yu, and Y. Duan, “Temporal-resolved characterization of laser-induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of gas shales,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 121(1), 28–37 (2016).
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Y. Tian, B. Xue, J. Song, Y. Lu, and R. Zheng, “Non-gated laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in bulk water by position-selective detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111107 (2015).
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Y. Li, D. Tian, Y. Ding, G. Yang, K. Liu, C. Wang, and X. Han, “A review of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 53(1), 1–35 (2017).
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G. Yang, Q. Lin, Y. Ding, D. Tian, and Y. Duan, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy based on single beam splitting and geometric configuration for effective signal enhancement,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7625 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, W.

Yeak, J.

J. Bergevin, T. H. Wu, J. Yeak, B. E. Brumfield, S. S. Harilal, M. C. Phillips, and R. J. Jones, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of laser-induced plasmas,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1273 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Xu, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, Y. He, Q. Yu, and Y. Duan, “Temporal-resolved characterization of laser-induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of gas shales,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 121(1), 28–37 (2016).
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D. H. Zhang, X. X. Yuan, M. G. Su, Q. Min, C. Z. Dong, and D. X. Sun, “Shielding and diagnostics of laser-induced air plasmas generated in collinear double pulse configuration,” Phys. Plasmas 25(6), 063112 (2018).
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Zeng, X. Z.

X. L. Mao, X. Z. Zeng, S. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 60(7), 960–967 (2005).
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Zhang, B. Y.

Zhang, D. H.

D. H. Zhang, X. X. Yuan, M. G. Su, Q. Min, C. Z. Dong, and D. X. Sun, “Shielding and diagnostics of laser-induced air plasmas generated in collinear double pulse configuration,” Phys. Plasmas 25(6), 063112 (2018).
[Crossref]

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T. Xu, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, Y. He, Q. Yu, and Y. Duan, “Temporal-resolved characterization of laser-induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of gas shales,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 121(1), 28–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

T. Xu, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, Y. He, Q. Yu, and Y. Duan, “Temporal-resolved characterization of laser-induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of gas shales,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 121(1), 28–37 (2016).
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Z. Wang, T. B. Yuan, Z. Y. Hou, W. D. Zhou, J. D. Lu, H. B. Ding, and X. Y. Zeng, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in China,” Front. Phys. 9(4), 419–438 (2014).
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Zorba, V.

R. Hai, X. L. Mao, G. C. Y. Chan, R. E. Russo, H. B. Ding, and V. Zorba, “Internal mixing dynamics of Cu/Sn-Pb plasmas produced by femtosecond laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 148, 92–98 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Zorba, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of Cu at the micron/sub-micron scale,” Spectrochimca Acta Part B. 113(1), 37–42 (2015).
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S. S. Harilal, P. K. Diwakar, and A. Hassanein, “Electron-ion relaxation time dependent signal enhancement in ultrafast double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041102 (2013).
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Y. Li, D. Tian, Y. Ding, G. Yang, K. Liu, C. Wang, and X. Han, “A review of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 53(1), 1–35 (2017).
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W. Luo, W. Zhao, Y. Duan, and H. Wang, “Diagnostics of air plasma ablated by 1064 nm laser pulses,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(s1), s10303 (2011).
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Front. Phys. (1)

Z. Wang, T. B. Yuan, Z. Y. Hou, W. D. Zhou, J. D. Lu, H. B. Ding, and X. Y. Zeng, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in China,” Front. Phys. 9(4), 419–438 (2014).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Lei, J. Wang, J. Li, J. Tang, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, and Y. Duan, “Influence of humidity on the characteristics of laser-induced air plasma,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(10), 106001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Bergevin, T. H. Wu, J. Yeak, B. E. Brumfield, S. S. Harilal, M. C. Phillips, and R. J. Jones, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of laser-induced plasmas,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1273 (2018).
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Opt. Express (1)

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M. Hanif, M. Salik, and M. A. Baig, “Quantitative studies of copper plasma using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(12), 1456–1461 (2011).
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A. Huassin, X. Gao, Z. Hao, and J. Lin, “Combined effects of double pulses and magnetic field on emission enhancement of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy from aluminum plasma,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(20), 10024–10030 (2016).
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W. Luo, Q. Sun, C. Gao, J. Tang, H. Wang, and W. Zhao, “Plasma properties of 532 nm laser-ablated aluminum E414d target with different power densities,” Plasma Sci. Technol. 12(4), 385–390 (2010).
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D. Wu, P. Liu, L. Sun, R. Hai, and H. Ding, “Influence of a static magnetic field on laser induced tungsten plasma in air,” Plasma Sci. Technol. 18(4), 364–369 (2016).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

G. Yang, Q. Lin, Y. Ding, D. Tian, and Y. Duan, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy based on single beam splitting and geometric configuration for effective signal enhancement,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7625 (2015).
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T. Xu, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, Y. He, Q. Yu, and Y. Duan, “Temporal-resolved characterization of laser-induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of gas shales,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 121(1), 28–37 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. L. Mao, X. Z. Zeng, S. Wen, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved plasma properties for double pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of silicon,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 60(7), 960–967 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Hai, X. L. Mao, G. C. Y. Chan, R. E. Russo, H. B. Ding, and V. Zorba, “Internal mixing dynamics of Cu/Sn-Pb plasmas produced by femtosecond laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 148, 92–98 (2018).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the experiment setup. The contact area and angle of sample surface with (b) Vertical laser beam I and (c) Horizontal laser beam II in the laser ablation model established in our experiment.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of time-integrated emission spectra obtained in four different shooting modes, i.e., beam I (solid curve, 23.1 mJ), beam II (short dashed curve, 9.9 mJ), split beam (beam I + beam II, dotted curve, 33 mJ), and single beam (blue circles, 33 mJ). (a) Shows the case for the sample Aluminium alloy, while (b) and (c) shows the situation for the sample brass.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Enhancement factors of atomic lines from (a) Aluminium alloy (Al I 394.40 nm and Al I 396.15 nm) and (b) Brass sample (Cu I 324.75 nm and Cu I 327.39 nm) as a function of laser energy, which include I Split / I Single (red and blue solid lines) and I Split / I Bea m I (red and blue dashed lines). The error bars show the standard deviation of 30 replicate measurements.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Typical images of laser-induced Al and Cu plasmas acquired at the delay time of 300 ns with the gate width of 300 ns in the single beam and split beam modes. Schematic diagram of the laser ablation model about evolution of plasma initiated on the sample surface in (b) The single beam mode and (c) The split beam mode.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Temporal evolutions of emission intensities of typical spectral lines from (a) Aluminium alloy (Al I 394.40 nm and Al I 396.15 nm) and (b) Brass sample (Cu I 324.75 nm and Cu I 327.39 nm) recorded at the laser energy of 33 mJ in the split beam mode (red and blue dashed lines) and single beam mode (red and blue solid lines).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Boltzmann plots for plasma temperature determination by using Cu atomic lines at 465.2 nm, 510.55 nm, 515.32 nm, and 521.82 nm in (a) Single beam mode and (b) Split beam mode with the same laser energy of 33 mJ. (d) Comparison of plasma temperatures between the single beam mode (green) and the split beam mode (yellow) at the laser energies 18 mJ, 33 mJ, and 48 mJ. The emission spectra were obtained with the delay time of 300 ns and gate width of 100 μs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Electron density determination by fitting Voigt function (red solid line) to the experimental spectra (blue circle) of Cu I line (324.754 nm) under (a) Single beam mode and (b) Split beam mode with the same laser energy of 33 mJ. (d) Comparison of electron densities between the single beam mode (red) and the split beam mode (blue) at the laser energies, 18 mJ, 33 mJ, and 48 mJ. The emission spectra were obtained with the delay time of 300 ns and gate width of 100μs.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison of time-resolved photographic images of laser-induced (a) Al plasmas from aluminium alloy sample and (b) Cu plasmas from brass sample between the split beam mode (first and third row) and the single beam mode (second and fourth row) with the same laser energy of 33 mJ. The ICCD gate width and delay time are labeled below each set of frames.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectroscopic parameters of Cu I lines used to determine the plasma temperature.

Equations (8)

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I= E S×τ ,
{ S(Ι)=π a 1 × b 1 =π r 2 / sin α S(ΙΙ)=π a 2 × b 2 =π r 2 / cos α .
{ I Split = E Split vertical S(Ι)×τ + E Split horizontal S(ΙΙ)×τ I Single = E Total S(Ι)×τ E Total = E Split vertical + E Split horizontal ,
ln( λ mn I mn h c g m A mn )= E m k T p +ln[ N(T) U(T) ],
T p { I e i σ ε E ^ } 0.18 .
N e =8.02× 10 12 ( Δ λ L Stark / α 1/2 ) 3/2 ,
Δ λ L Stark =Δ λ L Total Δ λ L Instrument
N e Lower (c m 3 )1.6× 10 12 T p 1/2 (ΔE) 3 ,

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