Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful interferometric imaging technique widely used in medical fields such as ophthalmology, cardiology and dermatology. Superluminescent diodes (SLDs) are widely used as light sources in OCT. Recently integrated chip-based frequency combs have been demonstrated in numerous platforms and the possibility of using these broadband chip-scale combs for OCT has been raised extensively over the past few years. However, the use of these chip-based frequency combs as light sources for OCT requires bandwidth and power compatibility with current OCT systems and have not been shown to date. Here we generate frequency combs based on chip-scale lithographically-defined microresonators and demonstrate its capability as a novel light source for OCT. The combs are designed with a small spectral line spacing of 0.21 nm which ensure imaging range comparable to commercial system and operated at non-phase locked regime which provide conversion efficiency of 30%. The comb source is shown to be compatible with a standard commercial spectral domain (SD) OCT system and enables imaging of human tissue with image quality comparable to the one achieved with tabletop commercial sources. The comb source also provides a path towards fully integrated OCT systems.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Mossca, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562(7727), 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. Lukashchuk, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based soliton frequency combs covering the biological imaging window,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1146 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

2016 (7)

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Liu, C. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, Eric J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354(6312), 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, and K. Yvind, “Efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator,” Optica 3(8), 823 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 101407 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, N. Weiss, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, R. M. de Ridder, K. Wörhoff, V. Subramaniam, and J. S. Kanger, “Chip based common-path optical coherence tomography system with an on-chip microlens and multi-reference suppression algorithm,” Opt. Express 24(12), 12635 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Schneider, M. Lauermann, P.-I. Dietrich, C. Weimann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Optical coherence tomography system mass-producible on a silicon photonic chip,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1573 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, C. A. Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Y. Gan, W. Yao, K. M. Myers, J. Y. Vink, R. J. Wapner, and C. P. Hendon, “Analyzing three-dimensional ultrastructure of human cervical tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1090–1108 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (4)

2012 (1)

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave Spanning Tunable Frequency Comb from a Microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3398–3400 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Optical hyperparametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator: Threshold and phase diffusion,” Phys. Rev. A 71(3), 033804 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-Nonlinearity Optical Parametric Oscillation in an Ultrahigh- Q Toroid Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

Akca, B. I.

Alex, A.

Alic, N.

Amir, S. B.

Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 101407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Yurtsever, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Zabihian, W. Drexler, and R. Baets, “Photonic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an on-chip reference arm for optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1050 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bajraszewski, T.

Bao, C.

Barbosa, F. A. S.

Bolle, C.

M. S. Eggleston, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, B. Farah, N. Fontaine, and H. Safar, “90 dB Sensitivity in a Chip-Scale Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography System,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018).

Bowers, J. E.

Bradu, A.

D. Demian, V.-F. Duma, C. Sinescu, M. L. Negrutiu, R. Cernat, F. I. Topala, G. Hutiu, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Design and testing of prototype handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part H 228(8), 743–753 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bryant, A.

Bulu, I.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

Cernat, R.

D. Demian, V.-F. Duma, C. Sinescu, M. L. Negrutiu, R. Cernat, F. I. Topala, G. Hutiu, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Design and testing of prototype handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part H 228(8), 743–753 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, E.

X. Yao, Y. Gan, E. Chang, H. Hibshoosh, S. Feldman, and C. Hendon, “Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 258–269 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chembo, Y. K.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Mossca, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coen, S.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Mossca, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Coen, H. G. Randle, T. Sylvestre, and M. Erkintalo, “Modeling of octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs using a generalized mean-field Lugiato–Lefever model,” Opt. Lett. 38(1), 37–39 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cui, D.

Davenport, M.

de Ridder, R. M.

Del’Haye, P.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Mossca, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 µm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave Spanning Tunable Frequency Comb from a Microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
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Deotare, P.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
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Diddams, S. A.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
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Dietrich, P.-I.

Ding, S.

Drexler, W.

DuBose, T.

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, C. A. Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
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D. Demian, V.-F. Duma, C. Sinescu, M. L. Negrutiu, R. Cernat, F. I. Topala, G. Hutiu, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Design and testing of prototype handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part H 228(8), 743–753 (2014).
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Eggleston, M. S.

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Erkintalo, M.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Mossca, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
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S. Coen, H. G. Randle, T. Sylvestre, and M. Erkintalo, “Modeling of octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs using a generalized mean-field Lugiato–Lefever model,” Opt. Lett. 38(1), 37–39 (2013).
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Farah, B.

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Farsiu, S.

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, C. A. Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
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Feldman, S.

X. Yao, Y. Gan, E. Chang, H. Hibshoosh, S. Feldman, and C. Hendon, “Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 258–269 (2017).
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Ferdous, F.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Fong, K. Y.

Fontaine, N.

M. S. Eggleston, F. Pardo, C. Bolle, B. Farah, N. Fontaine, and H. Safar, “90 dB Sensitivity in a Chip-Scale Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography System,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018).

Freude, W.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
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S. Schneider, M. Lauermann, P.-I. Dietrich, C. Weimann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Optical coherence tomography system mass-producible on a silicon photonic chip,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1573 (2016).
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Gaeta, A. L.

Gan, Y.

X. Yao, Y. Gan, E. Chang, H. Hibshoosh, S. Feldman, and C. Hendon, “Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 258–269 (2017).
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Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 101407 (2016).
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Y. Gan, W. Yao, K. M. Myers, J. Y. Vink, R. J. Wapner, and C. P. Hendon, “Analyzing three-dimensional ultrastructure of human cervical tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1090–1108 (2015).
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Ganin, D.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
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Gavartin, E.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
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P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave Spanning Tunable Frequency Comb from a Microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
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Gorodetsky, M. L.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
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P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave Spanning Tunable Frequency Comb from a Microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
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Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Griffith, A. G.

Grudinin, I. S.

Guo, H.

Hänsch, T. W.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
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C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 µm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1345 (2013).
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Hansson, T.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Mossca, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: a novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
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T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
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Hausmann, B. J. M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
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Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Hendon, C.

X. Yao, Y. Gan, E. Chang, H. Hibshoosh, S. Feldman, and C. Hendon, “Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 258–269 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hendon, C. P.

Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 101407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Gan, W. Yao, K. M. Myers, J. Y. Vink, R. J. Wapner, and C. P. Hendon, “Analyzing three-dimensional ultrastructure of human cervical tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1090–1108 (2015).
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Herkommer, C.

Herr, T.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 µm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1345 (2013).
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T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave Spanning Tunable Frequency Comb from a Microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hibshoosh, H.

X. Yao, Y. Gan, E. Chang, H. Hibshoosh, S. Feldman, and C. Hendon, “Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 258–269 (2017).
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Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofer, J.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 µm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1345 (2013).
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B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
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Holzwarth, R.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 µm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1345 (2013).
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T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave Spanning Tunable Frequency Comb from a Microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
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T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
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Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Hulme, J.

Hutiu, G.

D. Demian, V.-F. Duma, C. Sinescu, M. L. Negrutiu, R. Cernat, F. I. Topala, G. Hutiu, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Design and testing of prototype handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part H 228(8), 743–753 (2014).
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Ideguchi, T.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
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Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Optical hyperparametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator: Threshold and phase diffusion,” Phys. Rev. A 71(3), 033804 (2005).
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F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, C. A. Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
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Ji, X.

Jung, H.

Kanger, J. S.

Karpov, M.

M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. Lukashchuk, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based soliton frequency combs covering the biological imaging window,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1146 (2018).
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P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
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M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si_3N_4 microresonators,” Optica 4(7), 684 (2017).
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Kimerling, L. C.

Kippenberg, T. J.

M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. Lukashchuk, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based soliton frequency combs covering the biological imaging window,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1146 (2018).
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P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
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M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si_3N_4 microresonators,” Optica 4(7), 684 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 µm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave Spanning Tunable Frequency Comb from a Microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
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T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-Nonlinearity Optical Parametric Oscillation in an Ultrahigh- Q Toroid Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
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Komljenovic, T.

Koos, C.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Schneider, M. Lauermann, P.-I. Dietrich, C. Weimann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Optical coherence tomography system mass-producible on a silicon photonic chip,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1573 (2016).
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Kordts, A.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
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Kowalczyk, A.

Krockenberger, J.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
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Kuyken, B.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
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LaRocca, F.

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, C. A. Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
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Lauermann, M.

Leaird, D. E.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
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F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
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Leitgeb, R.

Leo, F.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
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Levy, J. S.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al., “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

Liu, J.

M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. Lukashchuk, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based soliton frequency combs covering the biological imaging window,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1146 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si_3N_4 microresonators,” Optica 4(7), 684 (2017).
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Liu, L.

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
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Lucas, E.

Lukashchuk, A.

M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. Lukashchuk, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based soliton frequency combs covering the biological imaging window,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1146 (2018).
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Luo, Y.

Maleki, L.

Marboe, C. C.

Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 101407 (2016).
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Marin-Palomo, P.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Matsko, A. B.

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X. Yao, Y. Gan, E. Chang, H. Hibshoosh, S. Feldman, and C. Hendon, “Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 258–269 (2017).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

Y. Gan, D. Tsay, S. B. Amir, C. C. Marboe, and C. P. Hendon, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images of human atrial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 101407 (2016).
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G. L. Monroy and J. Won, “Clinical translation of handheld optical coherence tomography: practical considerations and recent advancements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1 (2017).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

X. Yao, Y. Gan, E. Chang, H. Hibshoosh, S. Feldman, and C. Hendon, “Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 258–269 (2017).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

M. Karpov, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. Lukashchuk, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based soliton frequency combs covering the biological imaging window,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1146 (2018).
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B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6310 (2015).
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C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 µm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1345 (2013).
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Nat. Photonics (5)

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
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B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, C. A. Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Device image and measured spectrum. (A) Schematic of a microresonator (B) Microscopy image of the silicon nitride on-chip microresonator. A platinum heater is fabricated over a large portion of the cavity and allows electric contact via the pads. (C) Measured frequency comb spectrum generated using the silicon nitride microresonators. Inset shows line spacing of 0.21 nm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the comb-based OCT setup. Note that we directly plugged the comb source into the commercial system (Thorlabs Telesto I) to acquire images. The optical circulator is added to protect the commercial console. It shows that our platform is compatible with a standard commercial SD-OCT system.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. OCT images comparison. OCT volumetric scan of human breast tissue taken with (A) the frequency comb source, (B) a single SLD source, and OCT B-scans of the same tissue taken with (C) the frequency comb source (marked by the blue arrow) and (D) a single SLD source (marked by the yellow arrow), respectively, corresponded with (E) the H&E staining slide. Different features and tissue types, such as stromal tissue, adipose tissue and milk duct, are delineated in both B-scans. The ductal opening in (C) is not revealed in (D) may due to the sample dehydration.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Frequency-comb-based OCT images. Stitched frequency-comb-based OCT B-scans of human coronary artery (A) and aorta (C) with corresponding H&E histology of coronary artery (B) and aorta (D). Critical features are observed, including delineation of the fibrous cap, calcium, and layered structure of intima and media are depicted within OCT images.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. A-line profiles of a mirror surface measured with SLD and comb sources, respectively. The SLD and comb source have the same acquisition rate. Single A lines are shown in gray and A lines obtained by 10x averaging (corresponding to a total of 357 µs acquisition time in current setting) are shown in blue.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (A) A typical interferogram of the comb source obtained after background subtraction and spectral shaping. (B) A-line profiles of a mirror surface measured with comb source. Single A lines are shown in gray and A lines obtained by 10x averaging (corresponding to a total of 357 µs acquisition time in current setting) are shown in blue.)
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Sensitivity fall-off measurement for SLD source (A) and comb source (B). The 6-dB fall-off range (marked by the red arrows) for the SLD is around 1.9 mm, for comb source it is around 1.4 mm. The green arrows indicate the aliased signal. The higher noise floor around DC is an indication of higher noise due to the instability of fiber coupling scheme (edge-coupling using lensed fiber) and can be reduced by fiber packaging [42].
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Measured SLD spectrum. Superluminescent diode spectrum measured with optical spectrum analyzer.

Equations (5)

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Δ z = 2 ln ( 2 ) π λ c 2 Δ λ ,
z max = λ c 2 / ( 4 δ λ s ) ,
I O F C (k) = I(k) III 2 π / L O F C (k) T O F C (k) ,
T O F C (k) = 1 π Γ k / 2 k 2 + ( Γ k / 2 ) 2 ,
I O C T (z) = γ (z) III L (z) exp ( Γ k π | z | ) ,

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