Abstract

With increasing laser peak power, the generation and manipulation of high-power laser pulses become a growing challenge for conventional solid-state optics due to their limited damage threshold. As a result, plasma-based optical components that can sustain extremely high fields are attracting increasing interest. Here, we propose a type of plasma waveplate based on magneto-optical birefringence under a transverse magnetic field, which can work under extremely high laser power. Importantly, this waveplate can simultaneously alter the polarization state and boost the peak laser power. It is demonstrated numerically that an initially linearly polarized laser pulse with 5 petawatt peak power can be converted into a circularly polarized pulse with a peak power higher than 10 petawatts by such a waveplate with a centimeter-scale diameter. The energy conversion efficiency of the polarization transformation is about 98%. The necessary waveplate thickness is shown to scale inversely with plasma electron density ne and the square of magnetic field B0, and it is about 1 cm for ne = 3 × 1020 cm−3 and B0 = 100 T. The proposed plasma waveplate and other plasma-based optical components can play a critical role for the effective utilization of multi-petawatt laser systems.

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References

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2019 (1)

T. C. Wilson, F. Y. Li, S. M. Weng, M. Chen, P. McKenna, and Z. M. Sheng, “Laser pulse compression towards collapse and beyond in plasma,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 055403 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

G. Lehmann and K. H. Spatschek, “Plasma-based polarizer and waveplate at large laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. E 97, 063201 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Turnbull, S. Bucht, A. Davies, D. Haberberger, T. Kessler, J. L. Shaw, and D. H. Froula, “Raman amplification with a flying focus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 024801 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (7)

W. Q. Wei, X. H. Yuan, Y. Fang, Z. Y. Ge, X. L. Ge, S. Yang, Y. F. Li, G. Q. Liao, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, M. Chen, L. Zhao, H. B. Zhuo, Y. T. Li, Z. M. Zheng, and J. Zhang, “Plasma optical shutter in ultraintense laser-foil interaction,” Phys. Plasmas 24, 113111 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Leblanc, A. Denoeud, L. Chopineau, G. Mennerat, Ph. Martin, and F. Quéré, “Plasma holograms for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 13, 440–443 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Scullion, D. Doria, L. Romagnani, A. Sgattoni, K. Naughton, D. R. Symes, P. McKenna, A. Macchi, M. Zepf, S. Kar, and M. Borghesi, “Polarization dependence of bulk ion acceleration from ultrathin foils irradiated by high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 054801 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Wilson, F. Y. Li, M. Weikum, and Z. M. Sheng, “Influence of strong magnetic fields on laser pulse propagation in underdense plasma,” Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59, 065002 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. F. Shen, B. Qiao, H. Zhang, S. Kar, C. T. Zhou, H. X. Chang, M. Borghesi, and X. T. He, “Achieving stable radiation pressure acceleration of heavy ions via successive electron replenishment from ionization of a high-material coating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 204802 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. T. Tikhonchuk, M. Bailly-Grandvaux, J. J. Santos, and A. Poyé, “Quasistationary magnetic field generation with a laser-driven capacitor-coil assembly,” Phys. Rev. E 96, 023202 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Weng, Q. Zhao, Z. Sheng, W. Yu, S. Luan, M. Chen, L. Yu, M. Murakami, W. B. Mori, and J. Zhang, “Extreme case of Faraday effect: magnetic splitting of ultrashort laser pulses in plasmas,” Optica 4, 1086–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

K. F. F. Law, M. Bailly-Grandvaux, A. Morace, S. Sakata, K. Matsuo, S. Kojima, S. Lee, X. Vaisseau, Y. Arikawa, A. Yogo, K. Kondo, Z. Zhang, C. Bellei, J. J. Santos, S. Fujioka, and H. Azechi, “Direct measurement of kilo-tesla level magnetic field generated with laser-driven capacitor-coil target by proton deflectometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 091104 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Turnbull, P. Michel, T. Chapman, E. Tubman, B. B. Pollock, C. Y. Chen, C. Goyon, J. S. Ross, L. Divol, N. Woolsey, and J. D. Moody, “High power dynamic polarization control using plasma photonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 205001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chiaramello, F. Amiranoff, C. Riconda, and S. Weber, “Role of Frequency Chirp and Energy Flow Directionality in the Strong Coupling Regime of Brillouin-Based Plasma Amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 235003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lehmann and K. H. Spatschek, “Transient plasma photonic crystals for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 225002 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. L. Yu, Y. Zhao, L. J. Qian, M. Chen, S. M. Weng, Z. M. Sheng, D. A. Jaroszynski, W. B. Mori, and J. Zheng, “Plasma optical modulators for intense lasers,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11893 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G.- Izquierdo, R. J. Gray, M. King, R. J. Dance, R. Wilson, J. McCreadie, N. M. H. Butler, R. Capdessus, S. Hawkes, J. S. Green, M. Borghesi, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Optically controlled dense current structures driven by relativistic plasma aperture-induced diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 12, 505–512 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. G.- Izquierdo, M. King, R. J. Gray, R. Wilson, R. J. Dance, H. Powell, D. A. Maclellan, J. McCreadie, N. M. H. Butler, S. Hawkes, J. S. Green, C. D. Murphy, L. C. Stockhausen, D. C. Carroll, N. Booth, G. G. Scott, M. Borghesi, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Towards optical polarization control of laser-driven proton acceleration in foils undergoing relativistic transparency,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12891 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

C. Danson, D. Hillier, N. Hopps, and D. Neely, “Petawatt class lasers worldwide,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 3, e3 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Bin, W. J. Ma, H. Y. Wang, M. J. V. Streeter, C. Kreuzer, D. Kiefer, M. Yeung, S. Cousens, P. S. Foster, B. Dromey, X. Q. Yan, R. Ramis, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, M. Zepf, and J. Schreiber, “Ion acceleration using relativistic pulse shaping in near-critical-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 064801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

P. Michel, L. Divol, D. Turnbull, and J. D. Moody, “Dynamic control of the polarization of intense laser beams via optical wave mixing in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 205001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

T.-P. Yu, A. Pukhov, Z.-M. Sheng, F. Liu, and G. Shvets, “Bright betatronlike x rays from radiation pressure acceleration of a mass-limited foil target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 045001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fujioka, Z. Zhang, K. Ishihara, K. Shigemori, Y. Hironaka, T. Johzaki, A. Sunahara, N. Yamamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Watanabe, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, and H. Azechi, “Kilotesla magnetic field due to a capacitor-coil target driven by high power laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1170 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. D. Moody, P. Michel, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, E. Bond, D. K. Bradley, D. A. Callahan, E. L. Dewald, S. Dixit, M. J. Edwards, S. Glenn, A. Hamza, C. Haynam, D. E. Hinkel, N. Izumi, O. Jones, J. D. Kilkenny, R. K. Kirkwood, J. L. Kline, W. L. Kruer, G. A. Kyrala, O. L. Landen, S. LePage, J. D. Lindl, B. J. MacGowan, N. B. Meezan, A. Nikroo, M. D. Rosen, M. B. Schneider, D. J. Strozzi, L. J. Suter, C. A. Thomas, R. P. J. Town, K. Widmann, E. A. Williams, L. J. Atherton, S. H. Glenzer, and E. I. Moses, “Multistep redirection by cross-beam power transfer of ultrahigh-power lasers in a plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 344–349 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. Suckewer, “Ultra-intense lasers: Beyond a petawatt,” Nat. Phys. 7, 11–12 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. M. G. M. Trines, F. Fiúza, R. Bingham, R. A. Fonseca, L. O. Silva, R. A. Cairns, and P. A. Norreys, “Simulations of efficient Raman amplification into the multipetawatt regime,” Nat. Phys. 7, 87–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

S. M Weng, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption with nonlinear effects of high laser intensity and non-Maxwellian distribution,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 056406 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. L. Yu, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Plasma Bragg density gratings produced by optical-field ionization,” J. Opt. Soc, Am. B 26, 2095–2100 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Michel, L. Divol, E. A. Williams, S. Weber, C. A. Thomas, D. A. Callahan, S. W. Haan, J. D. Salmonson, S. Dixit, D. E. Hinkel, M. J. Edwards, B. J. MacGowan, J. D. Lindl, S. H. Glenzer, and L. J. Suter, “Tuning the implosion symmetry of ICF targets via controlled crossed-beam energy transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 025004 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and Ph. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 424–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 309–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. A. Andreev, C. Riconda, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and S. Weber, “Short light pulse amplification and compression by stimulated Brillouin scattering in plasmas in the strong coupling regime,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 053110 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

H. C. Wu, Z. M. Sheng, Q. J. Zhang, Y. Cang, and J. Zhang, “Manipulating ultrashort intense laser pulses by plasma Bragg gratings,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 113103 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. C. Wu, Z. M. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Chirped pulse compression in nonuniform plasma Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201502 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. Doumy, F. Quéré, O. Gobert, M. Perdrix, Ph. Martin, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J.-P. Geindre, and T. Wittmann, “Complete characterization of a plasma mirror for the production of high-contrast ultraintense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026402 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

O. Shorokhov, A. Pukhov, and I. Kostyukov, “Self-compression of laser pulses in plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 265002 (2003).
[Crossref]

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2002 (1)

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2001 (1)

C. Ren, B. J. Duda, R. G. Hemker, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, T. M. Antonsen, and P. Mora, “Compressing and focusing a short laser pulse by a thin plasma lens,” Phys. Rev. E 63, 026411 (2001).
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1999 (1)

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1998 (1)

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1996 (1)

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M. Chiaramello, F. Amiranoff, C. Riconda, and S. Weber, “Role of Frequency Chirp and Energy Flow Directionality in the Strong Coupling Regime of Brillouin-Based Plasma Amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 235003 (2016).
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G. Doumy, F. Quéré, O. Gobert, M. Perdrix, Ph. Martin, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J.-P. Geindre, and T. Wittmann, “Complete characterization of a plasma mirror for the production of high-contrast ultraintense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 026402 (2004).
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S. Fujioka, Z. Zhang, K. Ishihara, K. Shigemori, Y. Hironaka, T. Johzaki, A. Sunahara, N. Yamamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Watanabe, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, and H. Azechi, “Kilotesla magnetic field due to a capacitor-coil target driven by high power laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1170 (2013).
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Bailly-Grandvaux, M.

V. T. Tikhonchuk, M. Bailly-Grandvaux, J. J. Santos, and A. Poyé, “Quasistationary magnetic field generation with a laser-driven capacitor-coil assembly,” Phys. Rev. E 96, 023202 (2017).
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Bellei, C.

K. F. F. Law, M. Bailly-Grandvaux, A. Morace, S. Sakata, K. Matsuo, S. Kojima, S. Lee, X. Vaisseau, Y. Arikawa, A. Yogo, K. Kondo, Z. Zhang, C. Bellei, J. J. Santos, S. Fujioka, and H. Azechi, “Direct measurement of kilo-tesla level magnetic field generated with laser-driven capacitor-coil target by proton deflectometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 091104 (2016).
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J. D. Moody, P. Michel, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, E. Bond, D. K. Bradley, D. A. Callahan, E. L. Dewald, S. Dixit, M. J. Edwards, S. Glenn, A. Hamza, C. Haynam, D. E. Hinkel, N. Izumi, O. Jones, J. D. Kilkenny, R. K. Kirkwood, J. L. Kline, W. L. Kruer, G. A. Kyrala, O. L. Landen, S. LePage, J. D. Lindl, B. J. MacGowan, N. B. Meezan, A. Nikroo, M. D. Rosen, M. B. Schneider, D. J. Strozzi, L. J. Suter, C. A. Thomas, R. P. J. Town, K. Widmann, E. A. Williams, L. J. Atherton, S. H. Glenzer, and E. I. Moses, “Multistep redirection by cross-beam power transfer of ultrahigh-power lasers in a plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 344–349 (2012).
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J. H. Bin, W. J. Ma, H. Y. Wang, M. J. V. Streeter, C. Kreuzer, D. Kiefer, M. Yeung, S. Cousens, P. S. Foster, B. Dromey, X. Q. Yan, R. Ramis, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, M. Zepf, and J. Schreiber, “Ion acceleration using relativistic pulse shaping in near-critical-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 064801 (2015).
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Bingham, R.

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Bond, E.

J. D. Moody, P. Michel, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, E. Bond, D. K. Bradley, D. A. Callahan, E. L. Dewald, S. Dixit, M. J. Edwards, S. Glenn, A. Hamza, C. Haynam, D. E. Hinkel, N. Izumi, O. Jones, J. D. Kilkenny, R. K. Kirkwood, J. L. Kline, W. L. Kruer, G. A. Kyrala, O. L. Landen, S. LePage, J. D. Lindl, B. J. MacGowan, N. B. Meezan, A. Nikroo, M. D. Rosen, M. B. Schneider, D. J. Strozzi, L. J. Suter, C. A. Thomas, R. P. J. Town, K. Widmann, E. A. Williams, L. J. Atherton, S. H. Glenzer, and E. I. Moses, “Multistep redirection by cross-beam power transfer of ultrahigh-power lasers in a plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 344–349 (2012).
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Booth, N.

B. G.- Izquierdo, M. King, R. J. Gray, R. Wilson, R. J. Dance, H. Powell, D. A. Maclellan, J. McCreadie, N. M. H. Butler, S. Hawkes, J. S. Green, C. D. Murphy, L. C. Stockhausen, D. C. Carroll, N. Booth, G. G. Scott, M. Borghesi, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Towards optical polarization control of laser-driven proton acceleration in foils undergoing relativistic transparency,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12891 (2016).
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Borghesi, M.

C. Scullion, D. Doria, L. Romagnani, A. Sgattoni, K. Naughton, D. R. Symes, P. McKenna, A. Macchi, M. Zepf, S. Kar, and M. Borghesi, “Polarization dependence of bulk ion acceleration from ultrathin foils irradiated by high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 054801 (2017).
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X. F. Shen, B. Qiao, H. Zhang, S. Kar, C. T. Zhou, H. X. Chang, M. Borghesi, and X. T. He, “Achieving stable radiation pressure acceleration of heavy ions via successive electron replenishment from ionization of a high-material coating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 204802 (2017).
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B. G.- Izquierdo, M. King, R. J. Gray, R. Wilson, R. J. Dance, H. Powell, D. A. Maclellan, J. McCreadie, N. M. H. Butler, S. Hawkes, J. S. Green, C. D. Murphy, L. C. Stockhausen, D. C. Carroll, N. Booth, G. G. Scott, M. Borghesi, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Towards optical polarization control of laser-driven proton acceleration in foils undergoing relativistic transparency,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12891 (2016).
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B. G.- Izquierdo, R. J. Gray, M. King, R. J. Dance, R. Wilson, J. McCreadie, N. M. H. Butler, R. Capdessus, S. Hawkes, J. S. Green, M. Borghesi, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Optically controlled dense current structures driven by relativistic plasma aperture-induced diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 12, 505–512 (2016).
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Bougeard, M.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and Ph. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 424–429 (2007).
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Bradley, D. K.

J. D. Moody, P. Michel, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, E. Bond, D. K. Bradley, D. A. Callahan, E. L. Dewald, S. Dixit, M. J. Edwards, S. Glenn, A. Hamza, C. Haynam, D. E. Hinkel, N. Izumi, O. Jones, J. D. Kilkenny, R. K. Kirkwood, J. L. Kline, W. L. Kruer, G. A. Kyrala, O. L. Landen, S. LePage, J. D. Lindl, B. J. MacGowan, N. B. Meezan, A. Nikroo, M. D. Rosen, M. B. Schneider, D. J. Strozzi, L. J. Suter, C. A. Thomas, R. P. J. Town, K. Widmann, E. A. Williams, L. J. Atherton, S. H. Glenzer, and E. I. Moses, “Multistep redirection by cross-beam power transfer of ultrahigh-power lasers in a plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 344–349 (2012).
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Bucht, S.

D. Turnbull, S. Bucht, A. Davies, D. Haberberger, T. Kessler, J. L. Shaw, and D. H. Froula, “Raman amplification with a flying focus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 024801 (2018).
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Buffechoux, S.

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S. V. Bulanov, T. Esirkepov, and T. Tajima, “Light Intensification towards the Schwinger Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 085001 (2003).
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Butler, N. M. H.

B. G.- Izquierdo, R. J. Gray, M. King, R. J. Dance, R. Wilson, J. McCreadie, N. M. H. Butler, R. Capdessus, S. Hawkes, J. S. Green, M. Borghesi, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Optically controlled dense current structures driven by relativistic plasma aperture-induced diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 12, 505–512 (2016).
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B. G.- Izquierdo, M. King, R. J. Gray, R. Wilson, R. J. Dance, H. Powell, D. A. Maclellan, J. McCreadie, N. M. H. Butler, S. Hawkes, J. S. Green, C. D. Murphy, L. C. Stockhausen, D. C. Carroll, N. Booth, G. G. Scott, M. Borghesi, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Towards optical polarization control of laser-driven proton acceleration in foils undergoing relativistic transparency,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12891 (2016).
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Cairns, R. A.

R. M. G. M. Trines, F. Fiúza, R. Bingham, R. A. Fonseca, L. O. Silva, R. A. Cairns, and P. A. Norreys, “Simulations of efficient Raman amplification into the multipetawatt regime,” Nat. Phys. 7, 87–92 (2011).
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Callahan, D. A.

J. D. Moody, P. Michel, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, E. Bond, D. K. Bradley, D. A. Callahan, E. L. Dewald, S. Dixit, M. J. Edwards, S. Glenn, A. Hamza, C. Haynam, D. E. Hinkel, N. Izumi, O. Jones, J. D. Kilkenny, R. K. Kirkwood, J. L. Kline, W. L. Kruer, G. A. Kyrala, O. L. Landen, S. LePage, J. D. Lindl, B. J. MacGowan, N. B. Meezan, A. Nikroo, M. D. Rosen, M. B. Schneider, D. J. Strozzi, L. J. Suter, C. A. Thomas, R. P. J. Town, K. Widmann, E. A. Williams, L. J. Atherton, S. H. Glenzer, and E. I. Moses, “Multistep redirection by cross-beam power transfer of ultrahigh-power lasers in a plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 344–349 (2012).
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H. C. Wu, Z. M. Sheng, Q. J. Zhang, Y. Cang, and J. Zhang, “Manipulating ultrashort intense laser pulses by plasma Bragg gratings,” Phys. Plasmas 12, 113103 (2005).
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B. G.- Izquierdo, R. J. Gray, M. King, R. J. Dance, R. Wilson, J. McCreadie, N. M. H. Butler, R. Capdessus, S. Hawkes, J. S. Green, M. Borghesi, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Optically controlled dense current structures driven by relativistic plasma aperture-induced diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 12, 505–512 (2016).
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Carroll, D. C.

B. G.- Izquierdo, M. King, R. J. Gray, R. Wilson, R. J. Dance, H. Powell, D. A. Maclellan, J. McCreadie, N. M. H. Butler, S. Hawkes, J. S. Green, C. D. Murphy, L. C. Stockhausen, D. C. Carroll, N. Booth, G. G. Scott, M. Borghesi, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Towards optical polarization control of laser-driven proton acceleration in foils undergoing relativistic transparency,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12891 (2016).
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Ceccotti, T.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and Ph. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 424–429 (2007).
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Chang, H. X.

X. F. Shen, B. Qiao, H. Zhang, S. Kar, C. T. Zhou, H. X. Chang, M. Borghesi, and X. T. He, “Achieving stable radiation pressure acceleration of heavy ions via successive electron replenishment from ionization of a high-material coating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 204802 (2017).
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D. Turnbull, P. Michel, T. Chapman, E. Tubman, B. B. Pollock, C. Y. Chen, C. Goyon, J. S. Ross, L. Divol, N. Woolsey, and J. D. Moody, “High power dynamic polarization control using plasma photonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 205001 (2016).
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D. Turnbull, P. Michel, T. Chapman, E. Tubman, B. B. Pollock, C. Y. Chen, C. Goyon, J. S. Ross, L. Divol, N. Woolsey, and J. D. Moody, “High power dynamic polarization control using plasma photonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 205001 (2016).
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T. C. Wilson, F. Y. Li, S. M. Weng, M. Chen, P. McKenna, and Z. M. Sheng, “Laser pulse compression towards collapse and beyond in plasma,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 055403 (2019).
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L. L. Yu, Y. Zhao, L. J. Qian, M. Chen, S. M. Weng, Z. M. Sheng, D. A. Jaroszynski, W. B. Mori, and J. Zheng, “Plasma optical modulators for intense lasers,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11893 (2016).
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Chiaramello, M.

M. Chiaramello, F. Amiranoff, C. Riconda, and S. Weber, “Role of Frequency Chirp and Energy Flow Directionality in the Strong Coupling Regime of Brillouin-Based Plasma Amplification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 235003 (2016).
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Chopineau, L.

A. Leblanc, A. Denoeud, L. Chopineau, G. Mennerat, Ph. Martin, and F. Quéré, “Plasma holograms for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 13, 440–443 (2017).
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Cousens, S.

J. H. Bin, W. J. Ma, H. Y. Wang, M. J. V. Streeter, C. Kreuzer, D. Kiefer, M. Yeung, S. Cousens, P. S. Foster, B. Dromey, X. Q. Yan, R. Ramis, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, M. Zepf, and J. Schreiber, “Ion acceleration using relativistic pulse shaping in near-critical-density plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 064801 (2015).
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D’Oliveira, P.

C. Thaury, F. Quéré, J.-P. Geindre, A. Levy, T. Ceccotti, P. Monot, M. Bougeard, F. Réau, P. D’Oliveira, P. Audebert, R. Marjoribanks, and Ph. Martin, “Plasma mirrors for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 3, 424–429 (2007).
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Dance, R. J.

B. G.- Izquierdo, R. J. Gray, M. King, R. J. Dance, R. Wilson, J. McCreadie, N. M. H. Butler, R. Capdessus, S. Hawkes, J. S. Green, M. Borghesi, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Optically controlled dense current structures driven by relativistic plasma aperture-induced diffraction,” Nat. Phys. 12, 505–512 (2016).
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B. G.- Izquierdo, M. King, R. J. Gray, R. Wilson, R. J. Dance, H. Powell, D. A. Maclellan, J. McCreadie, N. M. H. Butler, S. Hawkes, J. S. Green, C. D. Murphy, L. C. Stockhausen, D. C. Carroll, N. Booth, G. G. Scott, M. Borghesi, D. Neely, and P. McKenna, “Towards optical polarization control of laser-driven proton acceleration in foils undergoing relativistic transparency,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12891 (2016).
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D. Turnbull, S. Bucht, A. Davies, D. Haberberger, T. Kessler, J. L. Shaw, and D. H. Froula, “Raman amplification with a flying focus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 024801 (2018).
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R. A. Fonseca, L. O. Silva, F. S. Tsung, V. K. Decyk, W. Lu, C. Ren, W. B. Mori, S. Deng, S. Lee, T. Katsouleas, and J. C. Adam, “OSIRIS, a three-dimensional fully relativistic particle in cell code for modeling plasma based accelerators,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2331, 342–351 (2002).
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R. A. Fonseca, L. O. Silva, F. S. Tsung, V. K. Decyk, W. Lu, C. Ren, W. B. Mori, S. Deng, S. Lee, T. Katsouleas, and J. C. Adam, “OSIRIS, a three-dimensional fully relativistic particle in cell code for modeling plasma based accelerators,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2331, 342–351 (2002).
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A. Leblanc, A. Denoeud, L. Chopineau, G. Mennerat, Ph. Martin, and F. Quéré, “Plasma holograms for ultrahigh-intensity optics,” Nat. Phys. 13, 440–443 (2017).
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Dewald, E. L.

J. D. Moody, P. Michel, L. Divol, R. L. Berger, E. Bond, D. K. Bradley, D. A. Callahan, E. L. Dewald, S. Dixit, M. J. Edwards, S. Glenn, A. Hamza, C. Haynam, D. E. Hinkel, N. Izumi, O. Jones, J. D. Kilkenny, R. K. Kirkwood, J. L. Kline, W. L. Kruer, G. A. Kyrala, O. L. Landen, S. LePage, J. D. Lindl, B. J. MacGowan, N. B. Meezan, A. Nikroo, M. D. Rosen, M. B. Schneider, D. J. Strozzi, L. J. Suter, C. A. Thomas, R. P. J. Town, K. Widmann, E. A. Williams, L. J. Atherton, S. H. Glenzer, and E. I. Moses, “Multistep redirection by cross-beam power transfer of ultrahigh-power lasers in a plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 344–349 (2012).
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Divol, L.

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T. C. Wilson, F. Y. Li, S. M. Weng, M. Chen, P. McKenna, and Z. M. Sheng, “Laser pulse compression towards collapse and beyond in plasma,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 055403 (2019).
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Yu, L. L.

L. L. Yu, Y. Zhao, L. J. Qian, M. Chen, S. M. Weng, Z. M. Sheng, D. A. Jaroszynski, W. B. Mori, and J. Zheng, “Plasma optical modulators for intense lasers,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11893 (2016).
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T.-P. Yu, A. Pukhov, Z.-M. Sheng, F. Liu, and G. Shvets, “Bright betatronlike x rays from radiation pressure acceleration of a mass-limited foil target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 045001 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The time evolution of the electric field vector in the polarization transformation.
» Visualization 2       The entire self-compression process.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sketch of the magnetized plasma quarter-wave plate. A LP light wave is incident into a plasma under a transverse magnetic field B0. The incident wave can be equally divided into an ordinary sub-wave with EB0 and an extraordinary sub-wave with EB0 if its polarization plane is oriented at 45° with respect to B0. A phase difference Δϕ emerges between these two sub-waves because of their different phase velocities, and a CP wave can result when Δϕ = π/2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Stokes parameters of a laser pulse (a) before and (b) after a magnetized plasma quarter-wave plate with d0 ≃ 3.9 cm, ne/nc = 0.3, and B0 = 50 T. To be a quarter-wave plate, the required plasma thickness d0 as a function of (c) plasma density ne and (d) magnetic field B0, where the PIC simulation results (triangles) are in good agreement with the predictions by Eq. (3) (solid curves). In the simulation, the laser pulse initially has a FWHM duration of 300 fs and a relatively weak intensity (a0 = 0.001).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Stokes parameters for a weakly relativistic laser pulse with a0 = 0.015 after it passes through the magnetized plasma, where the input intensity profile Iin is also drawn for comparison; (b) the output peak intensity I′0 as a function of the initial amplitude a0. (c) The maximum peak intensity Imax can be achieved during the laser propagation in the plasma and (d) the propagation distance zmax where this maximum is achieved as functions of a0; where the PIC simulation results (triangles) are in good overall agreement with the predictions by NLSE Eq. (5) (squares). Except a0, all other parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2(b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Isosurfaces of the electromagnetic field energy density E2 + B2 = 0/10 (a) before (t = −50), (b) during (t = 950), and (c) after (t = 1350) the laser pulse interaction with a magnetized plasma, where 0 is the maximum of the initial electromagnetic energy density; (d) the pulse power as a function of the variable ψ for the input and output pulse, respectively; (e) Stokes parameters on the z-axis of the laser pulse after it passes through the magnetized plasma, where the input intensity profile Iin is also drawn for comparison.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Stokes parameters of a laser pulse after it passes through a plasma under (a) a longitudinal magnetic field or (b) a transverse magnetic field. Except for the magnetic field direction, all other parameters used in (a) and (b) are the same. The magnetic field strength is B0 = 50 T. The initial laser pulse is LP with a0 = 0.025 and a duration of 100 fs. The plasma has a uniform density ne = 0.3nc, and a thickness d ≃ 3.9 cm. With d ≃ 3.9 cm, the magnetized plasma in (b) plays a role as a quarter-wave plate according to Eq. (3). Therefore, the output laser pulse is CP with |V/I| ≃ 1 as shown in (b). With d ≃ 3.9 cm, the magnetized plasma in (a) should be long enough to separate the left-handed and right-handed CP sub-pulses according to Eq. (4) in [32]. However, no pulse splitting is observed in (a) since B0 = 50 T is below the threshold for the pulse splitting.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Stokes Parameters of a short laser pulse after it passes through a magnetized plasma with d0 = 0.474 cm, ne = 0.1nc and B = 300 T, where the input intensity profile Iin is also drawn for comparison. The initial LP laser pulse has a0 = 0.14 and tp = 30 fs.

Equations (6)

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c 2 k 2 ω 2 = c 2 v ϕ , O 2 = 1 ω p 2 ω 2 ,
c 2 k 2 ω 2 = c 2 v ϕ , X 2 = 1 ω p 2 ω 2 ω 2 ω p 2 ω 2 ω p 2 ω c 2 ,
Δ ϕ = 2 π d λ ( c v ϕ , O c v ϕ , X ) = π 2 ,
2 i ω 2 ω p 2 v g 3 c 3 a τ + ω 2 ω p 2 v g 2 c 2 2 a + 2 a ψ 2 + v g 2 c 2 ( 1 1 γ ) = 0 ,
2 i ω 2 ω p 2 v g 3 c 3 a τ + 2 a ψ 2 + v g 2 c 2 ( 1 1 γ ) = 0 ,
B B min = m e Δ ω e .

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