Abstract

We report on ‘slow’ pulsing dynamics in a silica resonator-based laser system: by nesting a high-Q rod-resonator inside an amplifying fiber cavity, we demonstrate that trains of microsecond pulses can be generated with repetition rates in the hundreds of kilohertz. We show that such pulses are produced with a period equivalent to several hundreds of laser cavity roundtrips via the interaction between the gain dynamics in the fiber cavity and the thermo-optical effects in the high-Q resonator. Experiments reveal that the pulsing properties can be controlled by adjusting the amplifying fiber cavity parameters. Our results, confirmed by numerical simulations, provide useful insights on the dynamical onset of complex self-organization phenomena in resonator-based laser systems where thermo-optical effects play an active role. In addition, we show how the thermal state of the resonator can be probed and even modified by an external, counter-propagating optical field, thus hinting towards novel approaches for all-optical control and sensing applications.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2019 (2)

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. Di Lauro, J. S. Totero Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G.-L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

R. R. Galiev, N. G. Pavlov, N. M. Kondratiev, S. Koptyaev, V. E. Lobanov, A. S. Voloshin, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Spectrum collapse, narrow linewidth, and Bogatov effect in diode lasers locked to high-Q optical microresonators,” Opt. Express 26(23), 30509–30522 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562(7727), 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Pavlov, S. Koptyaev, G. V. Lihachev, A. S. Voloshin, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. V. Ryabko, S. V. Polonsky, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Narrow-linewidth lasing and soliton Kerr microcombs with ordinary laser diodes,” Nat. Photonics 12(11), 694–698 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: A novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. Kues, C. Reimer, B. Wetzel, P. Roztocki, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Hansson, E. A. Viktorov, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Passively mode-locked laser with an ultra-narrow spectral width,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 159–162 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Di Lauro, J. Li, D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, S. T. Chu, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Parametric control of thermal self-pulsation in micro-cavities,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3407–3410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

F. Monifi, J. Zhang, Ş. K. Özdemir, B. Peng, Y. Liu, F. Bo, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Optomechanically induced stochastic resonance and chaos transfer between optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 399–405 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Reimer, M. Kues, P. Roztocki, B. Wetzel, F. Grazioso, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Johnston, Y. Bromberg, L. Caspani, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs,” Science 351(6278), 1176–1180 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Chembo, “Kerr optical frequency combs: theory, applications and perspectives,” Nanophotonics 5(2), 214–230 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351(6271), 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

C. Godey, I. V. Balakireva, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, “Stability analysis of the spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever model for Kerr optical frequency combs in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 063814 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-C. Luo, C.-Y. Ma, B.-B. Li, and Y.-F. Xiao, “MHz-level self-sustained pulsation in polymer microspheres on a chip,” AIP Adv. 4(12), 122902 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Laser-machined ultra-high-Q microrod resonators for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221119 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers: WGM microlasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Deng, F. Liu, Z. C. Leseman, and M. Hossein-Zadeh, “Thermo-optomechanical oscillator for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4653–4664 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

C. Baker, S. Stapfner, D. Parrain, S. Ducci, G. Leo, E. M. Weig, and I. Favero, “Optical instability and self-pulsing in silicon nitride whispering gallery resonators,” Opt. Express 20(27), 29076–29089 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 765 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 471–476 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, “Self-pulsation in fiber-coupled, on-chip microcavity lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 256–258 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y.-S. Park and H. Wang, “Regenerative pulsation in silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3104–3106 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(3), 033901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1998 (1)

G. H. M. van Tartwijk and G. P. Agrawal, “Laser instabilities: a modern perspective,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 43–122 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

L. Davidovich, “Sub-Poissonian processes in quantum optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 68(1), 127–173 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

V. Ilchenko and M. Gorodetsky, “Thermal nonlinear effects in optical whispering gallery microresonators,” Laser Phys. 2, 1004–1009 (1992).

1982 (1)

K. Ikeda and O. Akimoto, “Instability leading to periodic and chaotic self-pulsations in a bistable optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48(9), 617–620 (1982).
[Crossref]

Agafonova, S. E.

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. H. M. van Tartwijk and G. P. Agrawal, “Laser instabilities: a modern perspective,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 43–122 (1998).
[Crossref]

Akimoto, O.

K. Ikeda and O. Akimoto, “Instability leading to periodic and chaotic self-pulsations in a bistable optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48(9), 617–620 (1982).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, C.

Balakireva, I. V.

C. Godey, I. V. Balakireva, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, “Stability analysis of the spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever model for Kerr optical frequency combs in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 063814 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, H.

H. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. Di Lauro, J. S. Totero Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G.-L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bo, F.

F. Monifi, J. Zhang, Ş. K. Özdemir, B. Peng, Y. Liu, F. Bo, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Optomechanically induced stochastic resonance and chaos transfer between optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 399–405 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brasch, V.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351(6271), 357–360 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bromberg, Y.

C. Reimer, M. Kues, P. Roztocki, B. Wetzel, F. Grazioso, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Johnston, Y. Bromberg, L. Caspani, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs,” Science 351(6278), 1176–1180 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carmon, T.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(3), 033901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caspani, L.

C. Reimer, M. Kues, P. Roztocki, B. Wetzel, F. Grazioso, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Johnston, Y. Bromberg, L. Caspani, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs,” Science 351(6278), 1176–1180 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chembo, Y. K.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: A novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Chembo, “Kerr optical frequency combs: theory, applications and perspectives,” Nanophotonics 5(2), 214–230 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Diallo, G. Lin, and Y. K. Chembo, “Giant thermo-optical relaxation oscillations in millimeter-size whispering gallery mode disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3834–3837 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Godey, I. V. Balakireva, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, “Stability analysis of the spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever model for Kerr optical frequency combs in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 89(6), 063814 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. T.

H. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. Di Lauro, J. S. Totero Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G.-L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

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Z.-C. Luo, C.-Y. Ma, B.-B. Li, and Y.-F. Xiao, “MHz-level self-sustained pulsation in polymer microspheres on a chip,” AIP Adv. 4(12), 122902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, C.-Y.

Z.-C. Luo, C.-Y. Ma, B.-B. Li, and Y.-F. Xiao, “MHz-level self-sustained pulsation in polymer microspheres on a chip,” AIP Adv. 4(12), 122902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
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Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
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Mohageg, M.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
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Monifi, F.

F. Monifi, J. Zhang, Ş. K. Özdemir, B. Peng, Y. Liu, F. Bo, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Optomechanically induced stochastic resonance and chaos transfer between optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 399–405 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

H. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. Di Lauro, J. S. Totero Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G.-L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: A novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kues, C. Reimer, B. Wetzel, P. Roztocki, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Hansson, E. A. Viktorov, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Passively mode-locked laser with an ultra-narrow spectral width,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 159–162 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Di Lauro, J. Li, D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, S. T. Chu, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Parametric control of thermal self-pulsation in micro-cavities,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3407–3410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Reimer, M. Kues, P. Roztocki, B. Wetzel, F. Grazioso, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Johnston, Y. Bromberg, L. Caspani, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs,” Science 351(6278), 1176–1180 (2016).
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M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 765 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moss, D. J.

H. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. Di Lauro, J. S. Totero Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G.-L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: A novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kues, C. Reimer, B. Wetzel, P. Roztocki, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Hansson, E. A. Viktorov, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Passively mode-locked laser with an ultra-narrow spectral width,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 159–162 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Di Lauro, J. Li, D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, S. T. Chu, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Parametric control of thermal self-pulsation in micro-cavities,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3407–3410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Reimer, M. Kues, P. Roztocki, B. Wetzel, F. Grazioso, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Johnston, Y. Bromberg, L. Caspani, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs,” Science 351(6278), 1176–1180 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 765 (2012).
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Nori, F.

F. Monifi, J. Zhang, Ş. K. Özdemir, B. Peng, Y. Liu, F. Bo, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Optomechanically induced stochastic resonance and chaos transfer between optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 399–405 (2016).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562(7727), 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. Di Lauro, J. S. Totero Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G.-L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

Özdemir, S. K.

F. Monifi, J. Zhang, Ş. K. Özdemir, B. Peng, Y. Liu, F. Bo, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Optomechanically induced stochastic resonance and chaos transfer between optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 399–405 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers: WGM microlasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, “Self-pulsation in fiber-coupled, on-chip microcavity lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 256–258 (2010).
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P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Laser-machined ultra-high-Q microrod resonators for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221119 (2013).
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M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 765 (2012).
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Park, Y.-S.

Parrain, D.

Pasquazi, A.

H. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. Di Lauro, J. S. Totero Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G.-L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
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A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: A novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Di Lauro, J. Li, D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, S. T. Chu, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Parametric control of thermal self-pulsation in micro-cavities,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3407–3410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 765 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavlov, N. G.

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680 (2019).
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N. G. Pavlov, S. Koptyaev, G. V. Lihachev, A. S. Voloshin, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. V. Ryabko, S. V. Polonsky, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Narrow-linewidth lasing and soliton Kerr microcombs with ordinary laser diodes,” Nat. Photonics 12(11), 694–698 (2018).
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R. R. Galiev, N. G. Pavlov, N. M. Kondratiev, S. Koptyaev, V. E. Lobanov, A. S. Voloshin, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Spectrum collapse, narrow linewidth, and Bogatov effect in diode lasers locked to high-Q optical microresonators,” Opt. Express 26(23), 30509–30522 (2018).
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Peccianti, M.

H. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. Di Lauro, J. S. Totero Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G.-L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: A novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Di Lauro, J. Li, D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, S. T. Chu, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Parametric control of thermal self-pulsation in micro-cavities,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3407–3410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 765 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, B.

F. Monifi, J. Zhang, Ş. K. Özdemir, B. Peng, Y. Liu, F. Bo, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Optomechanically induced stochastic resonance and chaos transfer between optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 399–405 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, M. H.

V. Brasch, M. Geiselmann, T. Herr, G. Lihachev, M. H. Pfeiffer, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation,” Science 351(6271), 357–360 (2016).
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Polonsky, S. V.

N. G. Pavlov, S. Koptyaev, G. V. Lihachev, A. S. Voloshin, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. V. Ryabko, S. V. Polonsky, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Narrow-linewidth lasing and soliton Kerr microcombs with ordinary laser diodes,” Nat. Photonics 12(11), 694–698 (2018).
[Crossref]

Raja, A. S.

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680 (2019).
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Razzari, L.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: A novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
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Reimer, C.

M. Kues, C. Reimer, B. Wetzel, P. Roztocki, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Hansson, E. A. Viktorov, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Passively mode-locked laser with an ultra-narrow spectral width,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 159–162 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Reimer, M. Kues, P. Roztocki, B. Wetzel, F. Grazioso, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Johnston, Y. Bromberg, L. Caspani, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs,” Science 351(6278), 1176–1180 (2016).
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Rokhsari, H.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(3), 033901 (2005).
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Rowley, M.

H. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. Di Lauro, J. S. Totero Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G.-L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
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Roztocki, P.

M. Kues, C. Reimer, B. Wetzel, P. Roztocki, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Hansson, E. A. Viktorov, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Passively mode-locked laser with an ultra-narrow spectral width,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 159–162 (2017).
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C. Reimer, M. Kues, P. Roztocki, B. Wetzel, F. Grazioso, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Johnston, Y. Bromberg, L. Caspani, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs,” Science 351(6278), 1176–1180 (2016).
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Ryabko, M. V.

N. G. Pavlov, S. Koptyaev, G. V. Lihachev, A. S. Voloshin, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. V. Ryabko, S. V. Polonsky, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Narrow-linewidth lasing and soliton Kerr microcombs with ordinary laser diodes,” Nat. Photonics 12(11), 694–698 (2018).
[Crossref]

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
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Scherer, A.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(3), 033901 (2005).
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Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shitikov, A. E.

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680 (2019).
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T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
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Stapfner, S.

Stern, B.

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562(7727), 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243905 (2004).
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Totero Gongora, J. S.

H. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. Di Lauro, J. S. Totero Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G.-L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
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Trillo, S.

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(3), 033901 (2005).
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T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
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L. Yang and K. J. Vahala, “Gain functionalization of silica microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 28(8), 592–594 (2003).
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Viktorov, E. A.

M. Kues, C. Reimer, B. Wetzel, P. Roztocki, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Hansson, E. A. Viktorov, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Passively mode-locked laser with an ultra-narrow spectral width,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 159–162 (2017).
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Voloshin, A. S.

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Pavlov, S. Koptyaev, G. V. Lihachev, A. S. Voloshin, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. V. Ryabko, S. V. Polonsky, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Narrow-linewidth lasing and soliton Kerr microcombs with ordinary laser diodes,” Nat. Photonics 12(11), 694–698 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. R. Galiev, N. G. Pavlov, N. M. Kondratiev, S. Koptyaev, V. E. Lobanov, A. S. Voloshin, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Spectrum collapse, narrow linewidth, and Bogatov effect in diode lasers locked to high-Q optical microresonators,” Opt. Express 26(23), 30509–30522 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: A novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
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Wang, H.

Weig, E. M.

Weiner, A. M.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: A novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
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Wetzel, B.

H. Bao, A. Cooper, M. Rowley, L. Di Lauro, J. S. Totero Gongora, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, G.-L. Oppo, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, B. Wetzel, M. Peccianti, and A. Pasquazi, “Laser cavity-soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13(6), 384–389 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Kues, C. Reimer, B. Wetzel, P. Roztocki, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Hansson, E. A. Viktorov, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Passively mode-locked laser with an ultra-narrow spectral width,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 159–162 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Reimer, M. Kues, P. Roztocki, B. Wetzel, F. Grazioso, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Johnston, Y. Bromberg, L. Caspani, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs,” Science 351(6278), 1176–1180 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, Y.-F.

Z.-C. Luo, C.-Y. Ma, B.-B. Li, and Y.-F. Xiao, “MHz-level self-sustained pulsation in polymer microspheres on a chip,” AIP Adv. 4(12), 122902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xue, X.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, L. Razzari, D. J. Moss, S. Coen, M. Erkintalo, Y. K. Chembo, T. Hansson, S. Wabnitz, P. Del’Haye, X. Xue, A. M. Weiner, and R. Morandotti, “Micro-combs: A novel generation of optical sources,” Phys. Rep. 729, 1–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

F. Monifi, J. Zhang, Ş. K. Özdemir, B. Peng, Y. Liu, F. Bo, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Optomechanically induced stochastic resonance and chaos transfer between optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 399–405 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers: WGM microlasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, “Self-pulsation in fiber-coupled, on-chip microcavity lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 256–258 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yang and K. J. Vahala, “Gain functionalization of silica microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 28(8), 592–594 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

F. Monifi, J. Zhang, Ş. K. Özdemir, B. Peng, Y. Liu, F. Bo, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Optomechanically induced stochastic resonance and chaos transfer between optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 399–405 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

AIP Adv. (1)

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A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680 (2019).
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M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 765 (2012).
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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
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N. G. Pavlov, S. Koptyaev, G. V. Lihachev, A. S. Voloshin, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. V. Ryabko, S. V. Polonsky, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Narrow-linewidth lasing and soliton Kerr microcombs with ordinary laser diodes,” Nat. Photonics 12(11), 694–698 (2018).
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M. Kues, C. Reimer, B. Wetzel, P. Roztocki, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Hansson, E. A. Viktorov, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Passively mode-locked laser with an ultra-narrow spectral width,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 159–162 (2017).
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F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 471–476 (2010).
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Nature (2)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the experimental setup. PC, fiber polarization controller; VOA, variable optical attenuator; BPF, bandpass filter; EDFA, Erbium-doped fiber amplifier; ISO, optical isolator; WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer; OSC, oscilloscope; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer. Inset: Side view of the silica rod resonator and coupled fiber used for optical injection. (b) OSA transmission spectra of the resonator (grey) and BPF (blue shading) when seeded by the EDFA. (c-e) High-resolution transmission spectra are obtained by CW wavelength sweep using either unpolarized (c) or polarized transverse magnetic (TM) (d) and transverse electric (TE) (e) light. (f) Zoom on the predominant spatial modes oscillating for each polarization. (g) Spectrum of the selected TM main resonance and Lorentzian fit (dashed black line) used experimentally.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Typical pulse trace measured experimentally using the setup shown in Fig. 1 in TM polarization. (b) Zoom on a single pulse period. (c) Corresponding OSA spectrum. (d) Phase space portrait depicting the intensity versus the derivative of the intensity of the pulse train in panel (a).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of the physical process leading to self-pulsing via thermally-induced resonance shifting in our setup: The loaded Lorentzian resonator mode within the filtered bandwidth of the EDFA (shaded blue region around 1545 nm) dynamically shifts by an amount Δν via the thermo-optical effect (see gradient arrow and colored shadings). This shift is also expected across all resonances and as such, can be readily measured experimentally using a CW probe weakly coupled and slightly detuned from a resonance far outside the main cavity gain bandwidth (see e.g. red and blue arrows around 1561 nm). (b) Numerical results obtained using the coupled mode equations of Eqs. (1-4) for parameters yielding self-pulsing behavior. The field intensity in the resonator, |a|2 (solid blue line – see Eq. (1)) shows a train of pulses, associated with a periodic resonance frequency shift Δν, induced by thermo-optical effects (dashed purple line – see Eq. (4)). (c) Example of pulse train obtained experimentally (solid black line) and corresponding transmission of a red-detuned (dashed red line) CW field, used to retrieve the dynamical resonance spectral shift as shown in (a). (d) Same measurements using a blue-detuned CW probe (dashed blue line).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a, b) Scatter plots of pulse peak power and duration obtained experimentally using the setup shown in Fig. 1(a). Here, data are extracted for various cavity transmission values (see color scale, where 100% transmission represents the minimum attenuation state of the VOA) and EDFA gain settings, while either increasing (a) or decreasing (b) the EDFA gain by adjustment of its pump current. The inset in (a) corresponds to the same scatter plot, obtained experimentally by replacing the initial EDFA in the setup by a longer and higher power gain medium (HP-EDFA). Here, the data are also obtained for various cavity transmission values while increasing the EDFA gain, but the color scale instead represents the gain medium pumping current. (c) Scatter plot of the mean pulse duration and period obtained experimentally for various loss values and upward tuning of the gain. This analysis was performed using both available amplifiers (see legend) and by averaging the properties extracted from each ms-long experimental trace. (d) Corresponding properties retrieved from numerical simulations using a selected loss parameter α. Scatter points of the pulse properties are displayed for various values of normalized gain G = g0/α (see color scale). The numerical results are obtained using the coupled-mode equations of Eqs. (1-4) for selected parameters yielding self-pulsing behavior. The pulse properties were extracted from the numerical field intensity via the same post-processing used on the experimental data sets. The grey shading region (featuring clusters of points instead of a single point), corresponds to a dynamical regime where simulations exhibit self-pulsing only sustained for a limited period (i.e. in a slow transient ultimately leading to a stable CW solution).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a-b) False color maps showing the average intracavity power (see color scale) for experimental measurements of the laser cavity operation. Measurements are performed for a range of loss values while increasing (a) or decreasing (b) the gain. (c-d) Corresponding map of the pulse peak powers displaying clear regions of self-pulsing operation (i.e. black areas are representative of parameters for which self-pulsing is absent - see color scale). (e-h) Examples of phase space portraits retrieved from experimental data measured at selected transmission of 50% (e, f) and 70% (g, h), respectively. As these panels show, we observe different self-pulsing conditions around the attractor when increasing (e, g) and decreasing (f, h) the gain, even for the same cavity parameters, thus attesting to a variety of multistable regimes.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a-d) Examples of experimental laser cavity dynamics observed when using a strong counter-propagating CW field (purple line) to both probe and influence the main cavity pulsing properties (blue line). The parameters of the main amplifying cavity are kept constant and a 15 mW CW probe around 1560 nm is coupled to the resonance but not frequency-stabilized. The drift of the CW around this resonance lead to a variety of slow-fast and mutistable dynamics observed in self-pulsing and correlated to the CW field coupling, whose induced thermo-optical effects on the resonator properties cannot be neglected anymore. The panels show different regimes. (a) The CW detuning and associated coupled power initiates the self-pulsing. (b) A transient behavior due to the passage from blue to red frequency detuning from the resonance. (c) Slow-fast dynamics associated with complex and threshold-like coupling behavior. (d) Frequency doubling of the self-pulsing operation.

Equations (4)

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t a=πΔ F A a+i|a | 2 a+iΔ ω T a+ θ b T A T B
t b=iΔωb+(gα 1 T B )b+ θ a T A T B
t g= ( g 0 g) T g R g |b | 2 g
t Δ ω T = 1 T T (Δ ω T R T |a | 2 )

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