Abstract

We investigate experimentally spatiotemporal characteristics of fluorescence emission from fs-laser-induced filaments in air. Emissions accompanying the transitions of N2 (C3ΠuB3Πg) and N 2+ (B2Σu+X2Σg+) are dominant. The decay dynamics of fluorescence from different radial positions and longitudinal sections of a filament column are obtained along with high resolution spectra. A decay curve contains two exponential components: a fast one (with a decay time constant ∼10s ps), and a slow one (∼sub-ns). The lifetime of the N 2 fluorescence is about three orders shorter than its spontaneous emission lifetime, indicating that most of the N 2 molecules in the excited state (C3Πu) are de-excited through collision. Different de-excitation mechanisms of N 2 (C3Πu) molecules contributing to fluorescence decay constants, e.g., the e N2, N 2N2, and O 2N2 collisions, are elucidated. We analyze the variations of decay constants together with corresponding fluorescence intensities, and obtain temperature distributions by fitting band spectra of N 2 molecules and N 2+ ions with a synthetic spectral model. Our results suggest that the fast and slow decay processes originate from the e N2 and O 2N2 collisions, respectively.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

N. Ivanov, V. Losev, V. Prokop’ev, K. Sitnik, and I. Zyatikov, “High time-resolved spectroscopy of filament plasma in air,” Opt. Commun. 431, 120–125 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ Air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133208 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, Y. Chen, S. Cui, F. He, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Manipulation of polarizations for broadband terahertz waves emitted from laser plasma filaments,” Nat. Photonics 12, 554 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Finney, P. Skrodzki, M. Burger, X. Xiao, J. Nees, and I. Jovanovic, “Optical emission from ultrafast laser filament-produced air plasmas in the multiple filament regime,” Opt. Express 26, 29110–29122 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

H. Hou, X. Mao, V. Zorba, and R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for molecules formation chemistry in femtosecond-laser ablated plasmas,” Anal. Chem. 89, 7750–7757 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lei, C. Wu, Q. Liang, A. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Cheng, S. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “The fast decay of ionized nitrogen molecules in laser filamentation investigated by a picosecond streak camera,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 145101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogenions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 203205 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8347 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Hou, G. C. Chan, X. Mao, R. Zheng, V. Zorba, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond filament-laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 113, 113–118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma luminescence from femtosecond filaments in air: evidence for impact excitation with circularly polarized light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 063003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hou, G. C.-Y. Chan, X. Mao, V. Zorba, R. Zheng, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for zirconium isotope analysis,” Anal. Chem. 87, 4788–4796 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Backward stimulated radiation from filaments in nitrogen gas and air pumped by circularly polarized 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 12750–12759 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ding, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, E. Oliva, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Backward lasing of air plasma pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond pulses for the sake of remote sensing (black),” Opt. Express 22, 29964–29977 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y.-C. Wang, C.-Y. Wu, Y.-X. Liu, S.-H. Xu, and Q.-H. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8, 34–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Dong, X. Mao, J. J. Gonzalez, J. Lu, and R. E. Russo, “Carbon isotope separation and molecular formation in laser-induced plasmas by laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 85, 2899–2906 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, Z. He, L. Yu, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Ciliary white light: optical aspect of ultrashort laser ablation on transparent dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 097601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, P. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 3130–3134 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bol’shakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 66, 99–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331, 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

H. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2+,” Science 322, 1232–1235 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Chin, S. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, O. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

S. Pancheshnyi, S. Starikovskaia, and A. Y. Starikovskii, “Collisional deactivation of N 2 (C 3Πu, v= 0, 1, 2, 3) states by N 2, O 2, H 2 and H 2O molecules,” Chem. Phys. 262, 349–357 (2000).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Y. Itikawa, A. Ichimura, K. Onda, K. Sakimoto, K. Takayanagi, Y. Hatano, M. Hayashi, H. Nishimura, and S. Tsurubuchi, “Cross sections for collisions of electrons and photons with oxygen molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 18, 23–42 (1989).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

R. Kunabenchi, M. Gorbal, and M. Savadatti, “Nitrogen lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9, 259–329 (1984).
[Crossref]

1950 (1)

G. Herzberg, “Molecular spectra and molecular structure. i. spectra of diatomic molecules,” Chap II,  1950130–140 (1950).

Aközbek, N.

S. Chin, S. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, O. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Arissian, L.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ Air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133208 (2018).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C. L.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogenions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 203205 (2017).
[Crossref]

Azarm, A.

H. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

Azarma, A.

S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

S. Chin, S. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, O. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bengtsson, S.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogenions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 203205 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, J.

H. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bol’shakov, A. A.

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bol’shakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 66, 99–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brelet, Y.

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, Z. He, L. Yu, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Ciliary white light: optical aspect of ultrashort laser ablation on transparent dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 097601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Britton, M.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ Air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133208 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brown, G.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ Air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133208 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2+,” Science 322, 1232–1235 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burger, M.

Chan, G. C.

H. Hou, G. C. Chan, X. Mao, R. Zheng, V. Zorba, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond filament-laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 113, 113–118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chan, G. C.-Y.

H. Hou, G. C.-Y. Chan, X. Mao, V. Zorba, R. Zheng, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for zirconium isotope analysis,” Anal. Chem. 87, 4788–4796 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Z. Zhang, Y. Chen, S. Cui, F. He, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Manipulation of polarizations for broadband terahertz waves emitted from laser plasma filaments,” Nat. Photonics 12, 554 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Z. Zhang, Y. Chen, S. Cui, F. He, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Manipulation of polarizations for broadband terahertz waves emitted from laser plasma filaments,” Nat. Photonics 12, 554 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

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S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
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Li, Y.

M. Lei, C. Wu, Q. Liang, A. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Cheng, S. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “The fast decay of ionized nitrogen molecules in laser filamentation investigated by a picosecond streak camera,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 145101 (2017).
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M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ Air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133208 (2018).
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H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 042504 (2014).
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M. Lei, C. Wu, Q. Liang, A. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Cheng, S. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “The fast decay of ionized nitrogen molecules in laser filamentation investigated by a picosecond streak camera,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 145101 (2017).
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S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
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S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
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S. Chin, S. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, O. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogenions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 203205 (2017).
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Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133203 (2015).
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S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma luminescence from femtosecond filaments in air: evidence for impact excitation with circularly polarized light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 063003 (2015).
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S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Backward stimulated radiation from filaments in nitrogen gas and air pumped by circularly polarized 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 12750–12759 (2014).
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P. Ding, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, E. Oliva, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Backward lasing of air plasma pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond pulses for the sake of remote sensing (black),” Opt. Express 22, 29964–29977 (2014).
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Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, Z. He, L. Yu, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Ciliary white light: optical aspect of ultrashort laser ablation on transparent dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 097601 (2013).
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Y.-C. Wang, C.-Y. Wu, Y.-X. Liu, S.-H. Xu, and Q.-H. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8, 34–38 (2013).
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N. Ivanov, V. Losev, V. Prokop’ev, K. Sitnik, and I. Zyatikov, “High time-resolved spectroscopy of filament plasma in air,” Opt. Commun. 431, 120–125 (2019).
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J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 143007 (2016).
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S. Chin, S. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, O. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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H. Hou, X. Mao, V. Zorba, and R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for molecules formation chemistry in femtosecond-laser ablated plasmas,” Anal. Chem. 89, 7750–7757 (2017).
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H. Hou, G. C.-Y. Chan, X. Mao, V. Zorba, R. Zheng, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for zirconium isotope analysis,” Anal. Chem. 87, 4788–4796 (2015).
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H. Hou, G. C. Chan, X. Mao, R. Zheng, V. Zorba, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond filament-laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 113, 113–118 (2015).
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M. Dong, X. Mao, J. J. Gonzalez, J. Lu, and R. E. Russo, “Carbon isotope separation and molecular formation in laser-induced plasmas by laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 85, 2899–2906 (2013).
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R. E. Russo, A. A. Bol’shakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 66, 99–104 (2011).
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S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
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Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogenions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 203205 (2017).
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R. E. Russo, A. A. Bol’shakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 66, 99–104 (2011).
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Michael, J. B.

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331, 442–445 (2011).
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A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331, 442–445 (2011).
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P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, P. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 3130–3134 (2011).
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S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma luminescence from femtosecond filaments in air: evidence for impact excitation with circularly polarized light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 063003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Backward stimulated radiation from filaments in nitrogen gas and air pumped by circularly polarized 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 12750–12759 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ding, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, E. Oliva, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Backward lasing of air plasma pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond pulses for the sake of remote sensing (black),” Opt. Express 22, 29964–29977 (2014).
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Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, Z. He, L. Yu, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Ciliary white light: optical aspect of ultrashort laser ablation on transparent dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 097601 (2013).
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Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogenions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 203205 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ding, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, E. Oliva, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Backward lasing of air plasma pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond pulses for the sake of remote sensing (black),” Opt. Express 22, 29964–29977 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Backward stimulated radiation from filaments in nitrogen gas and air pumped by circularly polarized 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 12750–12759 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, Z. He, L. Yu, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Ciliary white light: optical aspect of ultrashort laser ablation on transparent dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 097601 (2013).
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J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 19005–19013 (2014).
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H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 042504 (2014).
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S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
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Perry, D. L.

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bol’shakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 66, 99–104 (2011).
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P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, P. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 3130–3134 (2011).
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N. Ivanov, V. Losev, V. Prokop’ev, K. Sitnik, and I. Zyatikov, “High time-resolved spectroscopy of filament plasma in air,” Opt. Commun. 431, 120–125 (2019).
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S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
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H. Hou, X. Mao, V. Zorba, and R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for molecules formation chemistry in femtosecond-laser ablated plasmas,” Anal. Chem. 89, 7750–7757 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hou, G. C.-Y. Chan, X. Mao, V. Zorba, R. Zheng, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for zirconium isotope analysis,” Anal. Chem. 87, 4788–4796 (2015).
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H. Hou, G. C. Chan, X. Mao, R. Zheng, V. Zorba, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond filament-laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 113, 113–118 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Dong, X. Mao, J. J. Gonzalez, J. Lu, and R. E. Russo, “Carbon isotope separation and molecular formation in laser-induced plasmas by laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 85, 2899–2906 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bol’shakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 66, 99–104 (2011).
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P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, P. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 3130–3134 (2011).
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A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331, 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
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P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, P. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 3130–3134 (2011).
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Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogenions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 203205 (2017).
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N. Ivanov, V. Losev, V. Prokop’ev, K. Sitnik, and I. Zyatikov, “High time-resolved spectroscopy of filament plasma in air,” Opt. Commun. 431, 120–125 (2019).
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Sokolov, A. V.

P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, P. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 3130–3134 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. E. Russo, A. A. Bol’shakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 66, 99–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

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P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, P. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 3130–3134 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Pancheshnyi, S. Starikovskaia, and A. Y. Starikovskii, “Collisional deactivation of N 2 (C 3Πu, v= 0, 1, 2, 3) states by N 2, O 2, H 2 and H 2O molecules,” Chem. Phys. 262, 349–357 (2000).
[Crossref]

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S. Pancheshnyi, S. Starikovskaia, and A. Y. Starikovskii, “Collisional deactivation of N 2 (C 3Πu, v= 0, 1, 2, 3) states by N 2, O 2, H 2 and H 2O molecules,” Chem. Phys. 262, 349–357 (2000).
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Y. Itikawa, A. Ichimura, K. Onda, K. Sakimoto, K. Takayanagi, Y. Hatano, M. Hayashi, H. Nishimura, and S. Tsurubuchi, “Cross sections for collisions of electrons and photons with oxygen molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 18, 23–42 (1989).
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S. Chin, S. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, O. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogenions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 203205 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133203 (2015).
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[Crossref]

Wang, T.

S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Wang, C.-Y. Wu, Y.-X. Liu, S.-H. Xu, and Q.-H. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8, 34–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

M. Lei, C. Wu, Q. Liang, A. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Cheng, S. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “The fast decay of ionized nitrogen molecules in laser filamentation investigated by a picosecond streak camera,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 145101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-Y.

Y.-C. Wang, C.-Y. Wu, Y.-X. Liu, S.-H. Xu, and Q.-H. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8, 34–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

Xie, H.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8347 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.-H.

Y.-C. Wang, C.-Y. Wu, Y.-X. Liu, S.-H. Xu, and Q.-H. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8, 34–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yamanouchi, K.

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8347 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

M. Lei, C. Wu, Q. Liang, A. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Cheng, S. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “The fast decay of ionized nitrogen molecules in laser filamentation investigated by a picosecond streak camera,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 145101 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

Z. Zhang, Y. Chen, S. Cui, F. He, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Manipulation of polarizations for broadband terahertz waves emitted from laser plasma filaments,” Nat. Photonics 12, 554 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, Z. He, L. Yu, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Ciliary white light: optical aspect of ultrashort laser ablation on transparent dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 097601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, S.

S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeng, B.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, A.

M. Lei, C. Wu, Q. Liang, A. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Cheng, S. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “The fast decay of ionized nitrogen molecules in laser filamentation investigated by a picosecond streak camera,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 145101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ Air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133208 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22, 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Z. Zhang, Y. Chen, S. Cui, F. He, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Manipulation of polarizations for broadband terahertz waves emitted from laser plasma filaments,” Nat. Photonics 12, 554 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogenions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 203205 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, Y. Chen, S. Cui, F. He, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Manipulation of polarizations for broadband terahertz waves emitted from laser plasma filaments,” Nat. Photonics 12, 554 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, Y. Chen, S. Cui, F. He, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Manipulation of polarizations for broadband terahertz waves emitted from laser plasma filaments,” Nat. Photonics 12, 554 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zheng, R.

H. Hou, G. C. Chan, X. Mao, R. Zheng, V. Zorba, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond filament-laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 113, 113–118 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Hou, G. C.-Y. Chan, X. Mao, V. Zorba, R. Zheng, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for zirconium isotope analysis,” Anal. Chem. 87, 4788–4796 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, S.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogenions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 203205 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zorba, V.

H. Hou, X. Mao, V. Zorba, and R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for molecules formation chemistry in femtosecond-laser ablated plasmas,” Anal. Chem. 89, 7750–7757 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hou, G. C.-Y. Chan, X. Mao, V. Zorba, R. Zheng, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for zirconium isotope analysis,” Anal. Chem. 87, 4788–4796 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hou, G. C. Chan, X. Mao, R. Zheng, V. Zorba, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond filament-laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 113, 113–118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zyatikov, I.

N. Ivanov, V. Losev, V. Prokop’ev, K. Sitnik, and I. Zyatikov, “High time-resolved spectroscopy of filament plasma in air,” Opt. Commun. 431, 120–125 (2019).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (3)

H. Hou, G. C.-Y. Chan, X. Mao, V. Zorba, R. Zheng, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for zirconium isotope analysis,” Anal. Chem. 87, 4788–4796 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hou, X. Mao, V. Zorba, and R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry for molecules formation chemistry in femtosecond-laser ablated plasmas,” Anal. Chem. 89, 7750–7757 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dong, X. Mao, J. J. Gonzalez, J. Lu, and R. E. Russo, “Carbon isotope separation and molecular formation in laser-induced plasmas by laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 85, 2899–2906 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

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S. Chin, S. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, O. Kosareva, and H. Schröder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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H. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

Front. Phys. (1)

Y.-C. Wang, C.-Y. Wu, Y.-X. Liu, S.-H. Xu, and Q.-H. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8, 34–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

M. Lei, C. Wu, Q. Liang, A. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Cheng, S. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “The fast decay of ionized nitrogen molecules in laser filamentation investigated by a picosecond streak camera,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 145101 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Y. Itikawa, A. Ichimura, K. Onda, K. Sakimoto, K. Takayanagi, Y. Hatano, M. Hayashi, H. Nishimura, and S. Tsurubuchi, “Cross sections for collisions of electrons and photons with oxygen molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 18, 23–42 (1989).
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S. Chin, T. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. Chen, J. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarma, W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22, 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8347 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Z. Zhang, Y. Chen, S. Cui, F. He, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, J. Yu, L. Chen, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, “Manipulation of polarizations for broadband terahertz waves emitted from laser plasma filaments,” Nat. Photonics 12, 554 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. Ivanov, V. Losev, V. Prokop’ev, K. Sitnik, and I. Zyatikov, “High time-resolved spectroscopy of filament plasma in air,” Opt. Commun. 431, 120–125 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma luminescence from femtosecond filaments in air: evidence for impact excitation with circularly polarized light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 063003 (2015).
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J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ Air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133208 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, Z. He, L. Yu, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Ciliary white light: optical aspect of ultrashort laser ablation on transparent dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 097601 (2013).
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Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133203 (2015).
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Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogenions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 203205 (2017).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, P. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 3130–3134 (2011).
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B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2+,” Science 322, 1232–1235 (2008).
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Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. (2)

H. Hou, G. C. Chan, X. Mao, R. Zheng, V. Zorba, and R. E. Russo, “Femtosecond filament-laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 113, 113–118 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. E. Russo, A. A. Bol’shakov, X. Mao, C. P. McKay, D. L. Perry, and O. Sorkhabi, “Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 66, 99–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for measuring fluorescence decay dynamics of a fs-laser induced filament in air (right). For fluorescence intensity decay measurements, a low resolution spectrometer is used, and a streak camera is usedas detector. An intensified-CCD coupled to a high resolution spectrometer is used for measuring spectra with high spectral resolution. The polarization of laser is parallel to the x-axis. The longitudinal position and radial position are along the y-axis and x-axis, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Typical temporally and spectrally resolved fluorescence emission images at position of L = −2 mm and R = 0 m, recorded by the streak camera. (b) Fluorescence images of the filament in terms of N 2 + and N2 emission. The bandhead intensities of N 2 + and N2 molecular bands are used for image construction. The white dashed line in (b) indicates the focal point of the lens.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Time-resolved fluorescence emission around 337 nm recorded at different radial positions (R) for a longitudinal position L = −1 mm. (b-c) Fittings to the fluorescence intensity decay curves at R = 0 and −75 μm. τf and τs denote the fast decay and slow decay, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of decay dynamics of filaments created in (a) air and (b) pure nitrogen gas. The experimental setup and acquisition parameters are identical.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a–b) Radial distributions of decay times of slow and fast decay processes at different longitudinal positions. (c–d) Percentages of integrated fluorescence intensities of slow and fast processes.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Time-resolved fluorescence emission around 337 nm recorded at different longitudinal sections of the filament. (b–c) Fittings to the fluorescence intensity decay curves at L = 0 and −2 mm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Decay times of fast and slow decay processes at different longitudinal sections of the filament. (b) Percentages of integrated fluorescence intensities of fast and slow processes.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a–b) Measured spectra of band (0,0) of (a) N2 ( C 3 Π u B 3 Π g) and (b) N   2 + ( B 2 Σ u + X 2 Σ g +) systems, along with corresponding fittings. (c–d) Rotational temperatures at different longitudinal positions, obtained via fitting to molecular bands of N2 and N 2 +.

Equations (1)

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I ( t ) = t IRF ( t ^ ) [ A 1 exp  ( t t ^ τ f ) + A 2 exp  ( t t ^ τ s ) ] d t ^