Abstract

The lower order cladding mode resonances of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are sensitive to fiber bending but their spectral density makes their response to bending very complex. In this work we present a simple method to reduce and control the number of low order cladding mode resonances via FBGs written in a two-mode fiber (TMF) with an ultrafast laser. Owing to the larger core size of the TMF, a slight break of the cylindrical asymmetry of the grating patterns can be induced when using femtosecond side-irradiation with a small change in the writing condition. This allows us to control the mode families coupled by the grating, and in particular to those modes that have positive or negative bending responses along certain bend directions. Experimental results demonstrate that several lower-order neighboring-cladding mode pairs coupled by the asymmetric TMFBG have antagonistic loss responses (by several dB) for different bending directions, thus allowing full 2D bending measurements with many applications in shape sensing. Finally, this device has similar advantages as tilted FBGs, i.e. temperature de-correlation and the possibility of increasing the signal to noise ratio by averaging simultaneous measurements on several pairs of resonances.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Two-dimensional vector bending sensor based on seven-core fiber Bragg gratings

Maoxiang Hou, Kaiming Yang, Jun He, Xizhen Xu, Shuai Ju, Kuikui Guo, and Yiping Wang
Opt. Express 26(18) 23770-23781 (2018)

Capturing reflected cladding modes from a fiber Bragg grating with a double-clad fiber coupler

Mohamad Diaa Baiad, Mathieu Gagné, Simon Lemire-Renaud, Etienne De Montigny, Wendy-Julie Madore, Nicolas Godbout, Caroline Boudoux, and Raman Kashyap
Opt. Express 21(6) 6873-6879 (2013)

Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: modal properties and transmission spectra

Jens Thomas, Nemanja Jovanovic, Ria G. Becker, Graham D. Marshall, Michael J. Withford, Andreas Tünnermann, Stefan Nolte, and M. J. Steel
Opt. Express 19(1) 325-341 (2011)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. V. Newkirk, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, A. Velazquez-Benitez, J. Albert, R. Amezcua-Correa, and A. Schülzgen, “Bending sensor combining multicore fiber with a mode-selective photonic lantern,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5188–5191 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. K. Naeem, Y. Chung, and I. Kwon, “Highly sensitive two-dimensional bending vector sensor using an elliptic two-core PCF,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(3), 273–276 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, P. C. Geng, T. Y. Yan, L. Chen, Y. P. Li, and W. Hu, “Two-dimensional bending vector sensor based on the multimode-3-core-multimode fiber structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(10), 822–825 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Tian, Y. Xin, W. Yang, T. Geng, J. Ren, Y. Fan, G. Farrell, E. Lewis, and P. Wang, “A curvature sensor based on twisted single-mode–multimode–single-mode hybrid optical fiber structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1725–1731 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Gong, D. Wang, M. Xiong, C. Zhao, and K. Ni, “Optical fiber hollow ellipsoid for directional bend sensing with a large bending range,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(6), 1767–1776 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Gao, P. Geng, and X. Xue, “Fiber-optic bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer exploiting lateral-offset and up-taper,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4480–4482 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, T. Yan, L. Wang, B. Wang, and Q. Zhou, “A fiber bending vector sensor based on M–Z interferometer exploiting two hump-shaped tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1240–1243 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Kong, X. Ouyang, A. Zhou, and L. Yuan, “Highly sensitive directional bending sensor based on eccentric core fiber Mach–Zehnder modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(18), 6899–6902 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. Gao, D. Lu, J. Cheng, and Z. M. Qi, “Self-referenced antiresonant reflecting guidance mechanism for directional bending sensing with low temperature and strain crosstalk,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18081–18091 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. Chen, Y. Wang, and D. Wang, “Selectively infiltrated PCF for directional bend sensing with large bending range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 502–505 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. Pallarés-Aldeiturriaga, L. Rodríguez-Cobo, A. Quintela, and J. M. López-Higuera, “Curvature sensor based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer inscribed with femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4624–4628 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, T. Han, Z. Wu, C. Wei, H. Wei, J. Li, and W. Tong, “Bending sensor based on intermodal interference properties of two-dimensional waveguide array fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1610–1612 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Yu, W. Hu, and Y. Li, “Two-dimensional microbend sensor based on long-period fiber gratings in an isosceles triangle arrangement three-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4938–4941 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Hou, K. Yang, J. He, X. Xu, S. Ju, K. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Two-dimensional vector bending sensor based on seven-core fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23770–23781 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. Barrera, J. Madrigal, and S. Sales, “Long period gratings in multicore optical fibers for directional curvature sensor implementation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(4), 1063–1068 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Feng, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Off-axis ultraviolet-written fiber Bragg gratings for directional bending measurements,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1201–1204 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Q. Zhou, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Z. Bai, L. Zhang, L. Wang, B. Wang, and T. Yan, “Bending vector sensor based on a sector-shaped long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 713–716 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. Saffari, T. Allsop, A. Adebayo, D. Webb, R. Haynes, and M. M. Roth, “Long period grating in multicore optical fiber: an ultra-sensitive vector bending sensor for low curvatures,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3508–3511 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Kong, A. Zhou, C. Cheng, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Two-axis bending sensor based on cascaded eccentric core fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1237–1240 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Bie, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Kong, X. Kang, L. Yu, and P. Geng, “V-shaped long-period fiber grating high-sensitive bending vector sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(17), 1531–1534 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y. Li, W. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, T. Yan, X. Li, and W. Hu, “Bending vector sensor based on a pair of opposite tilted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(2), 224–227 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. W. Ni, P. Lu, C. Luo, X. Fu, L. Liu, H. Liao, X. Jiang, D. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Bending direction detective fiber sensor for dual-parameter sensing based on an asymmetrical thin-core long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 6803811 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. W. Bao, X. Qiao, Q. Rong, N. Hu, H. Yang, Z. Feng, and M. Hu, “sensing characteristics for a fiber Bragg grating inscribed over a fiber core and cladding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 709–712 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Baek, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, “Characteristics of short-period blazed fiber Bragg gratings for use as macro-bending sensors,” Appl. Opt. 41(4), 631–636 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. K. Yang, J. He, C. Liao, Y. Wang, S. Liu, K. Guo, J. Zhou, Z. Li, Z. Tan, and Y. Wang, “Femtosecond laser inscription of fiber Bragg grating in twin-core few-mode fiber for directional bend sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4670–4676 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. L. Shao, L. Xiong, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Directional bend sensor based on re-grown tilted fiber Bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(18), 2681–2687 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. D. Feng, W. Zhou, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Compact optical fiber 3D shape sensor based on a pair of orthogonal tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17415 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. B. Jiang, K. Zhou, C. Wang, Q. Sun, G. Yin, Z. Tai, K. Wilson, J. Zhao, and L. Zhang, “Label-free glucose biosensor based on enzymatic graphene oxide-functionalized tilted fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1033–1039 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Express 19(1), 325–341 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. J. U. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Krämer, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings II: complete vectorial analysis,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21434–21449 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. W. Bao, Q. Rong, F. Chen, and X. Qiao, “All-fiber 3D vector displacement (bending) sensor based on an eccentric FBG,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8619–8627 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. B. Jiang, Z. Bai, C. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer with D-shaped fiber grating for temperature-discriminated directional curvature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(3), 742–747 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  33. Y. Jiang, C. Liu, W. Zhang, D. Mao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Multi-parameter sensing using a fiber Bragg grating inscribed in dual-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1607–1610 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  34. A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg gratings (Artech House, 1999).
  35. T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long period fiber grating filters,” J. Opt. Am. A 14(8), 1760–1773 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  36. M. Z. Alam and J. Albert, “Selective excitation of radially and azimuthally polarized optical fiber cladding modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(19), 3167–3175 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  37. U. Block, M. Digonnet, M. Fejer, and V. Dangui, “Bending-induced birefringence of optical fiber cladding modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2336–2339 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2018 (7)

K. Naeem, Y. Chung, and I. Kwon, “Highly sensitive two-dimensional bending vector sensor using an elliptic two-core PCF,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(3), 273–276 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Hou, K. Yang, J. He, X. Xu, S. Ju, K. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Two-dimensional vector bending sensor based on seven-core fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23770–23781 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Barrera, J. Madrigal, and S. Sales, “Long period gratings in multicore optical fibers for directional curvature sensor implementation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(4), 1063–1068 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Bie, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Kong, X. Kang, L. Yu, and P. Geng, “V-shaped long-period fiber grating high-sensitive bending vector sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(17), 1531–1534 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Bao, Q. Rong, F. Chen, and X. Qiao, “All-fiber 3D vector displacement (bending) sensor based on an eccentric FBG,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8619–8627 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Jiang, Z. Bai, C. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer with D-shaped fiber grating for temperature-discriminated directional curvature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Jiang, K. Zhou, C. Wang, Q. Sun, G. Yin, Z. Tai, K. Wilson, J. Zhao, and L. Zhang, “Label-free glucose biosensor based on enzymatic graphene oxide-functionalized tilted fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1033–1039 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (9)

Y. Jiang, C. Liu, W. Zhang, D. Mao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Multi-parameter sensing using a fiber Bragg grating inscribed in dual-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1607–1610 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, W. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, T. Yan, X. Li, and W. Hu, “Bending vector sensor based on a pair of opposite tilted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(2), 224–227 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yang, J. He, C. Liao, Y. Wang, S. Liu, K. Guo, J. Zhou, Z. Li, Z. Tan, and Y. Wang, “Femtosecond laser inscription of fiber Bragg grating in twin-core few-mode fiber for directional bend sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4670–4676 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Pallarés-Aldeiturriaga, L. Rodríguez-Cobo, A. Quintela, and J. M. López-Higuera, “Curvature sensor based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer inscribed with femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4624–4628 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Yu, W. Hu, and Y. Li, “Two-dimensional microbend sensor based on long-period fiber gratings in an isosceles triangle arrangement three-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4938–4941 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, P. C. Geng, T. Y. Yan, L. Chen, Y. P. Li, and W. Hu, “Two-dimensional bending vector sensor based on the multimode-3-core-multimode fiber structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(10), 822–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Tian, Y. Xin, W. Yang, T. Geng, J. Ren, Y. Fan, G. Farrell, E. Lewis, and P. Wang, “A curvature sensor based on twisted single-mode–multimode–single-mode hybrid optical fiber structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1725–1731 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, D. Wang, M. Xiong, C. Zhao, and K. Ni, “Optical fiber hollow ellipsoid for directional bend sensing with a large bending range,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(6), 1767–1776 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Gao, D. Lu, J. Cheng, and Z. M. Qi, “Self-referenced antiresonant reflecting guidance mechanism for directional bending sensing with low temperature and strain crosstalk,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18081–18091 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

C. Kong, X. Ouyang, A. Zhou, and L. Yuan, “Highly sensitive directional bending sensor based on eccentric core fiber Mach–Zehnder modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(18), 6899–6902 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Feng, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Off-axis ultraviolet-written fiber Bragg gratings for directional bending measurements,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kong, A. Zhou, C. Cheng, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Two-axis bending sensor based on cascaded eccentric core fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1237–1240 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Ni, P. Lu, C. Luo, X. Fu, L. Liu, H. Liao, X. Jiang, D. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Bending direction detective fiber sensor for dual-parameter sensing based on an asymmetrical thin-core long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 6803811 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

W. Bao, X. Qiao, Q. Rong, N. Hu, H. Yang, Z. Feng, and M. Hu, “sensing characteristics for a fiber Bragg grating inscribed over a fiber core and cladding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 709–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Feng, W. Zhou, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Compact optical fiber 3D shape sensor based on a pair of orthogonal tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17415 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhou, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Z. Bai, L. Zhang, L. Wang, B. Wang, and T. Yan, “Bending vector sensor based on a sector-shaped long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 713–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Y. Wang, and D. Wang, “Selectively infiltrated PCF for directional bend sensing with large bending range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 502–505 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. V. Newkirk, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, A. Velazquez-Benitez, J. Albert, R. Amezcua-Correa, and A. Schülzgen, “Bending sensor combining multicore fiber with a mode-selective photonic lantern,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5188–5191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, T. Yan, L. Wang, B. Wang, and Q. Zhou, “A fiber bending vector sensor based on M–Z interferometer exploiting two hump-shaped tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1240–1243 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long period fiber grating filters,” J. Opt. Am. A 14(8), 1760–1773 (1997).
[Crossref]

Adebayo, A.

Alam, M. Z.

Albert, J.

Allsop, T.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

Baek, S.

Bai, Z.

B. Jiang, Z. Bai, C. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer with D-shaped fiber grating for temperature-discriminated directional curvature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhou, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Z. Bai, L. Zhang, L. Wang, B. Wang, and T. Yan, “Bending vector sensor based on a sector-shaped long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 713–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, W.

W. Bao, Q. Rong, F. Chen, and X. Qiao, “All-fiber 3D vector displacement (bending) sensor based on an eccentric FBG,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8619–8627 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bao, X. Qiao, Q. Rong, N. Hu, H. Yang, Z. Feng, and M. Hu, “sensing characteristics for a fiber Bragg grating inscribed over a fiber core and cladding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 709–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barrera, D.

Becker, R. G.

Bie, L.

Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Bie, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Kong, X. Kang, L. Yu, and P. Geng, “V-shaped long-period fiber grating high-sensitive bending vector sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(17), 1531–1534 (2018).
[Crossref]

Block, U.

Chen, C.

Chen, F.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, Y. Wang, and D. Wang, “Selectively infiltrated PCF for directional bend sensing with large bending range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 502–505 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

S. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, P. C. Geng, T. Y. Yan, L. Chen, Y. P. Li, and W. Hu, “Two-dimensional bending vector sensor based on the multimode-3-core-multimode fiber structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(10), 822–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, W. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, T. Yan, X. Li, and W. Hu, “Bending vector sensor based on a pair of opposite tilted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(2), 224–227 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Yu, W. Hu, and Y. Li, “Two-dimensional microbend sensor based on long-period fiber gratings in an isosceles triangle arrangement three-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4938–4941 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, T. Yan, L. Wang, B. Wang, and Q. Zhou, “A fiber bending vector sensor based on M–Z interferometer exploiting two hump-shaped tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1240–1243 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhou, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Z. Bai, L. Zhang, L. Wang, B. Wang, and T. Yan, “Bending vector sensor based on a sector-shaped long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 713–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.

J. Kong, A. Zhou, C. Cheng, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Two-axis bending sensor based on cascaded eccentric core fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1237–1240 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

Chung, Y.

K. Naeem, Y. Chung, and I. Kwon, “Highly sensitive two-dimensional bending vector sensor using an elliptic two-core PCF,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(3), 273–276 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dangui, V.

Digonnet, M.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long period fiber grating filters,” J. Opt. Am. A 14(8), 1760–1773 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.

Farrell, G.

Fejer, M.

Feng, D.

D. Feng, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Off-axis ultraviolet-written fiber Bragg gratings for directional bending measurements,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, W. Zhou, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Compact optical fiber 3D shape sensor based on a pair of orthogonal tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17415 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Z.

W. Bao, X. Qiao, Q. Rong, N. Hu, H. Yang, Z. Feng, and M. Hu, “sensing characteristics for a fiber Bragg grating inscribed over a fiber core and cladding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 709–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

W. Ni, P. Lu, C. Luo, X. Fu, L. Liu, H. Liao, X. Jiang, D. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Bending direction detective fiber sensor for dual-parameter sensing based on an asymmetrical thin-core long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 6803811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, R.

Gao, S.

Geng, P.

Geng, P. C.

S. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, P. C. Geng, T. Y. Yan, L. Chen, Y. P. Li, and W. Hu, “Two-dimensional bending vector sensor based on the multimode-3-core-multimode fiber structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(10), 822–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

Geng, T.

Gong, H.

Guo, K.

Han, T.

Haynes, R.

He, J.

Hou, M.

Hu, M.

W. Bao, X. Qiao, Q. Rong, N. Hu, H. Yang, Z. Feng, and M. Hu, “sensing characteristics for a fiber Bragg grating inscribed over a fiber core and cladding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 709–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, N.

W. Bao, X. Qiao, Q. Rong, N. Hu, H. Yang, Z. Feng, and M. Hu, “sensing characteristics for a fiber Bragg grating inscribed over a fiber core and cladding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 709–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

S. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Yu, W. Hu, and Y. Li, “Two-dimensional microbend sensor based on long-period fiber gratings in an isosceles triangle arrangement three-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4938–4941 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, W. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, T. Yan, X. Li, and W. Hu, “Bending vector sensor based on a pair of opposite tilted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(2), 224–227 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, P. C. Geng, T. Y. Yan, L. Chen, Y. P. Li, and W. Hu, “Two-dimensional bending vector sensor based on the multimode-3-core-multimode fiber structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(10), 822–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jeong, Y.

Jiang, B.

B. Jiang, Z. Bai, C. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer with D-shaped fiber grating for temperature-discriminated directional curvature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Jiang, K. Zhou, C. Wang, Q. Sun, G. Yin, Z. Tai, K. Wilson, J. Zhao, and L. Zhang, “Label-free glucose biosensor based on enzymatic graphene oxide-functionalized tilted fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1033–1039 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

W. Ni, P. Lu, C. Luo, X. Fu, L. Liu, H. Liao, X. Jiang, D. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Bending direction detective fiber sensor for dual-parameter sensing based on an asymmetrical thin-core long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 6803811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, C. Liu, W. Zhang, D. Mao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Multi-parameter sensing using a fiber Bragg grating inscribed in dual-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1607–1610 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jovanovic, N.

Ju, S.

Kang, X.

Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Bie, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Kong, X. Kang, L. Yu, and P. Geng, “V-shaped long-period fiber grating high-sensitive bending vector sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(17), 1531–1534 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kong, C.

C. Kong, X. Ouyang, A. Zhou, and L. Yuan, “Highly sensitive directional bending sensor based on eccentric core fiber Mach–Zehnder modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(18), 6899–6902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kong, J.

J. Kong, A. Zhou, C. Cheng, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Two-axis bending sensor based on cascaded eccentric core fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1237–1240 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kong, L.

Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Bie, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Kong, X. Kang, L. Yu, and P. Geng, “V-shaped long-period fiber grating high-sensitive bending vector sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(17), 1531–1534 (2018).
[Crossref]

Krämer, R. G.

Kwon, I.

K. Naeem, Y. Chung, and I. Kwon, “Highly sensitive two-dimensional bending vector sensor using an elliptic two-core PCF,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(3), 273–276 (2018).
[Crossref]

Laronche, A.

Lee, B.

Lewis, E.

Li, J.

Li, S.

Li, X.

Y. Li, W. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, T. Yan, X. Li, and W. Hu, “Bending vector sensor based on a pair of opposite tilted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(2), 224–227 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

S. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Yu, W. Hu, and Y. Li, “Two-dimensional microbend sensor based on long-period fiber gratings in an isosceles triangle arrangement three-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4938–4941 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, W. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, T. Yan, X. Li, and W. Hu, “Bending vector sensor based on a pair of opposite tilted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(2), 224–227 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. P.

S. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, P. C. Geng, T. Y. Yan, L. Chen, Y. P. Li, and W. Hu, “Two-dimensional bending vector sensor based on the multimode-3-core-multimode fiber structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(10), 822–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Liao, C.

Liao, H.

W. Ni, P. Lu, C. Luo, X. Fu, L. Liu, H. Liao, X. Jiang, D. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Bending direction detective fiber sensor for dual-parameter sensing based on an asymmetrical thin-core long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 6803811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Y. Jiang, C. Liu, W. Zhang, D. Mao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Multi-parameter sensing using a fiber Bragg grating inscribed in dual-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1607–1610 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

W. Ni, P. Lu, C. Luo, X. Fu, L. Liu, H. Liao, X. Jiang, D. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Bending direction detective fiber sensor for dual-parameter sensing based on an asymmetrical thin-core long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 6803811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

W. Ni, P. Lu, C. Luo, X. Fu, L. Liu, H. Liao, X. Jiang, D. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Bending direction detective fiber sensor for dual-parameter sensing based on an asymmetrical thin-core long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 6803811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Liu, Y.

López-Higuera, J. M.

Lu, D.

Lu, P.

W. Ni, P. Lu, C. Luo, X. Fu, L. Liu, H. Liao, X. Jiang, D. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Bending direction detective fiber sensor for dual-parameter sensing based on an asymmetrical thin-core long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 6803811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Luo, C.

W. Ni, P. Lu, C. Luo, X. Fu, L. Liu, H. Liao, X. Jiang, D. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Bending direction detective fiber sensor for dual-parameter sensing based on an asymmetrical thin-core long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 6803811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Madrigal, J.

Mao, D.

Y. Jiang, C. Liu, W. Zhang, D. Mao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Multi-parameter sensing using a fiber Bragg grating inscribed in dual-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1607–1610 (2017).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

Naeem, K.

K. Naeem, Y. Chung, and I. Kwon, “Highly sensitive two-dimensional bending vector sensor using an elliptic two-core PCF,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(3), 273–276 (2018).
[Crossref]

Newkirk, A. V.

Ni, K.

Ni, W.

W. Ni, P. Lu, C. Luo, X. Fu, L. Liu, H. Liao, X. Jiang, D. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Bending direction detective fiber sensor for dual-parameter sensing based on an asymmetrical thin-core long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 6803811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

Ouyang, X.

C. Kong, X. Ouyang, A. Zhou, and L. Yuan, “Highly sensitive directional bending sensor based on eccentric core fiber Mach–Zehnder modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(18), 6899–6902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pallarés-Aldeiturriaga, D.

Qi, Z. M.

Qiao, X.

W. Bao, Q. Rong, F. Chen, and X. Qiao, “All-fiber 3D vector displacement (bending) sensor based on an eccentric FBG,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8619–8627 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Off-axis ultraviolet-written fiber Bragg gratings for directional bending measurements,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bao, X. Qiao, Q. Rong, N. Hu, H. Yang, Z. Feng, and M. Hu, “sensing characteristics for a fiber Bragg grating inscribed over a fiber core and cladding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 709–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Feng, W. Zhou, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Compact optical fiber 3D shape sensor based on a pair of orthogonal tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17415 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quintela, A.

Ren, J.

Rodríguez-Cobo, L.

Rong, Q.

W. Bao, Q. Rong, F. Chen, and X. Qiao, “All-fiber 3D vector displacement (bending) sensor based on an eccentric FBG,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8619–8627 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bao, X. Qiao, Q. Rong, N. Hu, H. Yang, Z. Feng, and M. Hu, “sensing characteristics for a fiber Bragg grating inscribed over a fiber core and cladding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 709–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Roth, M. M.

Saffari, P.

Sales, S.

Schülzgen, A.

Shao, L.

Steel, M. J.

Sun, Q.

B. Jiang, K. Zhou, C. Wang, Q. Sun, G. Yin, Z. Tai, K. Wilson, J. Zhao, and L. Zhang, “Label-free glucose biosensor based on enzymatic graphene oxide-functionalized tilted fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1033–1039 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tai, Z.

B. Jiang, K. Zhou, C. Wang, Q. Sun, G. Yin, Z. Tai, K. Wilson, J. Zhao, and L. Zhang, “Label-free glucose biosensor based on enzymatic graphene oxide-functionalized tilted fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1033–1039 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tan, Z.

Thomas, J.

Thomas, J. U.

Tian, K.

Tong, W.

Tünnermann, A.

Velazquez-Benitez, A.

Wang, B.

Y. Li, W. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, T. Yan, X. Li, and W. Hu, “Bending vector sensor based on a pair of opposite tilted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(2), 224–227 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, T. Yan, L. Wang, B. Wang, and Q. Zhou, “A fiber bending vector sensor based on M–Z interferometer exploiting two hump-shaped tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1240–1243 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhou, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Z. Bai, L. Zhang, L. Wang, B. Wang, and T. Yan, “Bending vector sensor based on a sector-shaped long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 713–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

B. Jiang, K. Zhou, C. Wang, Q. Sun, G. Yin, Z. Tai, K. Wilson, J. Zhao, and L. Zhang, “Label-free glucose biosensor based on enzymatic graphene oxide-functionalized tilted fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1033–1039 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Jiang, Z. Bai, C. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer with D-shaped fiber grating for temperature-discriminated directional curvature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

H. Gong, D. Wang, M. Xiong, C. Zhao, and K. Ni, “Optical fiber hollow ellipsoid for directional bend sensing with a large bending range,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(6), 1767–1776 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Y. Wang, and D. Wang, “Selectively infiltrated PCF for directional bend sensing with large bending range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 502–505 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Q. Zhou, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Z. Bai, L. Zhang, L. Wang, B. Wang, and T. Yan, “Bending vector sensor based on a sector-shaped long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 713–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, T. Yan, L. Wang, B. Wang, and Q. Zhou, “A fiber bending vector sensor based on M–Z interferometer exploiting two hump-shaped tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1240–1243 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Wang, S.

Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Bie, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Kong, X. Kang, L. Yu, and P. Geng, “V-shaped long-period fiber grating high-sensitive bending vector sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(17), 1531–1534 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, P. C. Geng, T. Y. Yan, L. Chen, Y. P. Li, and W. Hu, “Two-dimensional bending vector sensor based on the multimode-3-core-multimode fiber structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(10), 822–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Yu, W. Hu, and Y. Li, “Two-dimensional microbend sensor based on long-period fiber gratings in an isosceles triangle arrangement three-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4938–4941 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, W. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, T. Yan, X. Li, and W. Hu, “Bending vector sensor based on a pair of opposite tilted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(2), 224–227 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Webb, D.

Wei, C.

Wei, H.

Wilson, K.

B. Jiang, K. Zhou, C. Wang, Q. Sun, G. Yin, Z. Tai, K. Wilson, J. Zhao, and L. Zhang, “Label-free glucose biosensor based on enzymatic graphene oxide-functionalized tilted fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1033–1039 (2018).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

Wu, Z.

Xin, Y.

Xiong, L.

Xiong, M.

Xu, X.

Xue, X.

Yan, T.

Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Bie, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Kong, X. Kang, L. Yu, and P. Geng, “V-shaped long-period fiber grating high-sensitive bending vector sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(17), 1531–1534 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Yu, W. Hu, and Y. Li, “Two-dimensional microbend sensor based on long-period fiber gratings in an isosceles triangle arrangement three-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4938–4941 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, W. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, T. Yan, X. Li, and W. Hu, “Bending vector sensor based on a pair of opposite tilted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(2), 224–227 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, T. Yan, L. Wang, B. Wang, and Q. Zhou, “A fiber bending vector sensor based on M–Z interferometer exploiting two hump-shaped tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1240–1243 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhou, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Z. Bai, L. Zhang, L. Wang, B. Wang, and T. Yan, “Bending vector sensor based on a sector-shaped long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 713–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, T. Y.

S. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, P. C. Geng, T. Y. Yan, L. Chen, Y. P. Li, and W. Hu, “Two-dimensional bending vector sensor based on the multimode-3-core-multimode fiber structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(10), 822–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

Y. Jiang, C. Liu, W. Zhang, D. Mao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Multi-parameter sensing using a fiber Bragg grating inscribed in dual-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1607–1610 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

W. Bao, X. Qiao, Q. Rong, N. Hu, H. Yang, Z. Feng, and M. Hu, “sensing characteristics for a fiber Bragg grating inscribed over a fiber core and cladding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 709–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Kong, A. Zhou, C. Cheng, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Two-axis bending sensor based on cascaded eccentric core fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1237–1240 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

Yang, W.

Yin, G.

B. Jiang, K. Zhou, C. Wang, Q. Sun, G. Yin, Z. Tai, K. Wilson, J. Zhao, and L. Zhang, “Label-free glucose biosensor based on enzymatic graphene oxide-functionalized tilted fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1033–1039 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Bie, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Kong, X. Kang, L. Yu, and P. Geng, “V-shaped long-period fiber grating high-sensitive bending vector sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(17), 1531–1534 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Yu, W. Hu, and Y. Li, “Two-dimensional microbend sensor based on long-period fiber gratings in an isosceles triangle arrangement three-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4938–4941 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, L.

C. Kong, X. Ouyang, A. Zhou, and L. Yuan, “Highly sensitive directional bending sensor based on eccentric core fiber Mach–Zehnder modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(18), 6899–6902 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Kong, A. Zhou, C. Cheng, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Two-axis bending sensor based on cascaded eccentric core fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1237–1240 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

W. Ni, P. Lu, C. Luo, X. Fu, L. Liu, H. Liao, X. Jiang, D. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Bending direction detective fiber sensor for dual-parameter sensing based on an asymmetrical thin-core long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 6803811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

B. Jiang, Z. Bai, C. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer with D-shaped fiber grating for temperature-discriminated directional curvature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Jiang, K. Zhou, C. Wang, Q. Sun, G. Yin, Z. Tai, K. Wilson, J. Zhao, and L. Zhang, “Label-free glucose biosensor based on enzymatic graphene oxide-functionalized tilted fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1033–1039 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhou, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Z. Bai, L. Zhang, L. Wang, B. Wang, and T. Yan, “Bending vector sensor based on a sector-shaped long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 713–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, T. Yan, L. Wang, B. Wang, and Q. Zhou, “A fiber bending vector sensor based on M–Z interferometer exploiting two hump-shaped tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1240–1243 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Zhang, W.

Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Bie, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Kong, X. Kang, L. Yu, and P. Geng, “V-shaped long-period fiber grating high-sensitive bending vector sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(17), 1531–1534 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, C. Liu, W. Zhang, D. Mao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Multi-parameter sensing using a fiber Bragg grating inscribed in dual-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1607–1610 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, W. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, T. Yan, X. Li, and W. Hu, “Bending vector sensor based on a pair of opposite tilted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(2), 224–227 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Yu, W. Hu, and Y. Li, “Two-dimensional microbend sensor based on long-period fiber gratings in an isosceles triangle arrangement three-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4938–4941 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, T. Yan, L. Wang, B. Wang, and Q. Zhou, “A fiber bending vector sensor based on M–Z interferometer exploiting two hump-shaped tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1240–1243 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhou, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Z. Bai, L. Zhang, L. Wang, B. Wang, and T. Yan, “Bending vector sensor based on a sector-shaped long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 713–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Gao, P. Geng, and X. Xue, “Fiber-optic bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer exploiting lateral-offset and up-taper,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4480–4482 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. G.

S. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, P. C. Geng, T. Y. Yan, L. Chen, Y. P. Li, and W. Hu, “Two-dimensional bending vector sensor based on the multimode-3-core-multimode fiber structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(10), 822–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Bie, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Kong, X. Kang, L. Yu, and P. Geng, “V-shaped long-period fiber grating high-sensitive bending vector sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(17), 1531–1534 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Bie, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Kong, X. Kang, L. Yu, and P. Geng, “V-shaped long-period fiber grating high-sensitive bending vector sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(17), 1531–1534 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Yu, W. Hu, and Y. Li, “Two-dimensional microbend sensor based on long-period fiber gratings in an isosceles triangle arrangement three-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4938–4941 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Yu, W. Hu, and Y. Li, “Two-dimensional microbend sensor based on long-period fiber gratings in an isosceles triangle arrangement three-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4938–4941 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, W. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, T. Yan, X. Li, and W. Hu, “Bending vector sensor based on a pair of opposite tilted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(2), 224–227 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. X.

S. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, P. C. Geng, T. Y. Yan, L. Chen, Y. P. Li, and W. Hu, “Two-dimensional bending vector sensor based on the multimode-3-core-multimode fiber structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(10), 822–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, J.

B. Jiang, Z. Bai, C. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer with D-shaped fiber grating for temperature-discriminated directional curvature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Jiang, K. Zhou, C. Wang, Q. Sun, G. Yin, Z. Tai, K. Wilson, J. Zhao, and L. Zhang, “Label-free glucose biosensor based on enzymatic graphene oxide-functionalized tilted fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1033–1039 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, C. Liu, W. Zhang, D. Mao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Multi-parameter sensing using a fiber Bragg grating inscribed in dual-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1607–1610 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, A.

C. Kong, X. Ouyang, A. Zhou, and L. Yuan, “Highly sensitive directional bending sensor based on eccentric core fiber Mach–Zehnder modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(18), 6899–6902 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Kong, A. Zhou, C. Cheng, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Two-axis bending sensor based on cascaded eccentric core fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1237–1240 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Zhou, K.

B. Jiang, K. Zhou, C. Wang, Q. Sun, G. Yin, Z. Tai, K. Wilson, J. Zhao, and L. Zhang, “Label-free glucose biosensor based on enzymatic graphene oxide-functionalized tilted fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1033–1039 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Jiang, Z. Bai, C. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer with D-shaped fiber grating for temperature-discriminated directional curvature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

L. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, T. Yan, L. Wang, B. Wang, and Q. Zhou, “A fiber bending vector sensor based on M–Z interferometer exploiting two hump-shaped tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1240–1243 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhou, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Z. Bai, L. Zhang, L. Wang, B. Wang, and T. Yan, “Bending vector sensor based on a sector-shaped long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 713–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W.

D. Feng, W. Zhou, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Compact optical fiber 3D shape sensor based on a pair of orthogonal tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17415 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

W. Ni, P. Lu, C. Luo, X. Fu, L. Liu, H. Liao, X. Jiang, D. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Bending direction detective fiber sensor for dual-parameter sensing based on an asymmetrical thin-core long-period fiber grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(4), 6803811 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (10)

W. Bao, X. Qiao, Q. Rong, N. Hu, H. Yang, Z. Feng, and M. Hu, “sensing characteristics for a fiber Bragg grating inscribed over a fiber core and cladding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 709–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Naeem, Y. Chung, and I. Kwon, “Highly sensitive two-dimensional bending vector sensor using an elliptic two-core PCF,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(3), 273–276 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, Y. X. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, P. C. Geng, T. Y. Yan, L. Chen, Y. P. Li, and W. Hu, “Two-dimensional bending vector sensor based on the multimode-3-core-multimode fiber structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(10), 822–825 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Chen, T. Yan, L. Wang, B. Wang, and Q. Zhou, “A fiber bending vector sensor based on M–Z interferometer exploiting two hump-shaped tapers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(11), 1240–1243 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Y. Wang, and D. Wang, “Selectively infiltrated PCF for directional bend sensing with large bending range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 502–505 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhou, W. Zhang, L. Chen, Z. Bai, L. Zhang, L. Wang, B. Wang, and T. Yan, “Bending vector sensor based on a sector-shaped long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 713–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kong, A. Zhou, C. Cheng, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Two-axis bending sensor based on cascaded eccentric core fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1237–1240 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, T. Yan, L. Bie, Y. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Kong, X. Kang, L. Yu, and P. Geng, “V-shaped long-period fiber grating high-sensitive bending vector sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(17), 1531–1534 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, W. Zhang, S. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, T. Yan, X. Li, and W. Hu, “Bending vector sensor based on a pair of opposite tilted long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(2), 224–227 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, C. Liu, W. Zhang, D. Mao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Multi-parameter sensing using a fiber Bragg grating inscribed in dual-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1607–1610 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

C. Kong, X. Ouyang, A. Zhou, and L. Yuan, “Highly sensitive directional bending sensor based on eccentric core fiber Mach–Zehnder modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(18), 6899–6902 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (8)

U. Block, M. Digonnet, M. Fejer, and V. Dangui, “Bending-induced birefringence of optical fiber cladding modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2336–2339 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, L. Xiong, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Directional bend sensor based on re-grown tilted fiber Bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(18), 2681–2687 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Alam and J. Albert, “Selective excitation of radially and azimuthally polarized optical fiber cladding modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(19), 3167–3175 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Tian, Y. Xin, W. Yang, T. Geng, J. Ren, Y. Fan, G. Farrell, E. Lewis, and P. Wang, “A curvature sensor based on twisted single-mode–multimode–single-mode hybrid optical fiber structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1725–1731 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Barrera, J. Madrigal, and S. Sales, “Long period gratings in multicore optical fibers for directional curvature sensor implementation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(4), 1063–1068 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Jiang, Z. Bai, C. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhao, L. Zhang, and K. Zhou, “In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer with D-shaped fiber grating for temperature-discriminated directional curvature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(3), 742–747 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Pallarés-Aldeiturriaga, L. Rodríguez-Cobo, A. Quintela, and J. M. López-Higuera, “Curvature sensor based on in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer inscribed with femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4624–4628 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yang, J. He, C. Liao, Y. Wang, S. Liu, K. Guo, J. Zhou, Z. Li, Z. Tan, and Y. Wang, “Femtosecond laser inscription of fiber Bragg grating in twin-core few-mode fiber for directional bend sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4670–4676 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Am. A (1)

T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long period fiber grating filters,” J. Opt. Am. A 14(8), 1760–1773 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Sci. Rep. (1)

D. Feng, W. Zhou, X. Qiao, and J. Albert, “Compact optical fiber 3D shape sensor based on a pair of orthogonal tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17415 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

B. Jiang, K. Zhou, C. Wang, Q. Sun, G. Yin, Z. Tai, K. Wilson, J. Zhao, and L. Zhang, “Label-free glucose biosensor based on enzymatic graphene oxide-functionalized tilted fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 254, 1033–1039 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg gratings (Artech House, 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of (a) the TMFBG inscription by femtosecond laser and (b) the phase contrast microscope image of the TMFBG2, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Transmitted spectrum comparison of the proposed TMFBGs under two different writing conditions and (b) the zoomed-in multi-pairs of neighboring modes.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for vector bend testing.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmission spectra of TMFBG2 for various curvatures. The inset show the zoomed bending-induced responses of the cladding mode resonances from 1539 nm to 1542 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The spectral comparisons of (a) TMFBG1 and (b) TMFBG2 from 0 m−1 to 1 m−1 under TE-, and TM-polarization states, respectively. The inserts indicate the equivalent center of the two grating patterns.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The changes of the selected neighboring cladding resonances for bending orientations of (a) 0°, (b) 90°, (c)180°, and (d)270°, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Bending orientation dependence of the selected cladding mode of Dip1 (a) and Dip2 (b) under different curvatures with linear fits.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Sensitivities of the relative amplitude changes of selected cladding dips versus bend orientations from 0° to 360°.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Spectral changes of the centered TMFBG1 under different bend planes.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Spectra responses of TMFBG2 under different temperatures. Insert indicates the zoomed-in resonances used for bend measurement; (b) Wavelength shifts and intensity fluctuations versus temperature, respectively.

Metrics