Abstract

In our ongoing research on the effectiveness of different passive tools for aiding Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) subjects, we have analyzed the VINO 02 Amp Oxy-Iso glasses using two strategies: 1) 52 observers were studied using four color tests (recognition, arrangement, discrimination, and color-naming); 2) the spectral transmittance of the lenses were used to model the color appearance of natural scenes for different simulated CVD subjects. We have also compared VINO and EnChroma glasses. The spectral transmission of the VINO glasses significantly changed color appearance. This change would allow some CVD subjects, above all the deutan ones, to be able to pass recognition tests but not the arrangement tests. To sum up, our results support the hypothesis that glasses with filters are unable to effectively resolve the problems related to color vision deficiency.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. B. L. Cole, “The handicap of abnormal colour vision,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87(4-5), 258–275 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. Birch, “Worldwide prevalence of red-green color deficiency,” JOSA A 29, 313–320 (2012).
  3. M. P. Simunovic, “Colour vision deficiency,” Eye (Lond.) 24(5), 747–755 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Popleteev, N. Louveton, and R. McCall, “Colorizer: smart glasses aid for the colorblind,” in Workshop on Wearable Systems and Applications (Wearsys ’15), (ACM, 2015), 7–8.
    [Crossref]
  5. L. T. Sharpe and H. Jagle, “I used to be color blind,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S269–S272 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Seebeck, “Ueber den bei manchen Personen vorkommenden Mangel an Farbensinn,” Ann. Phys. 118(10), 177–233 (1837).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Maxwell, “XVIII.—Experiments on Colour, as perceived by the Eye, with Remarks on Colour-Blindness,” Trans. R. Soc. Edinb. 21(02), 275–298 (1857).
    [Crossref]
  8. X–Chrom, retrieved https://www.artoptical.com/lenses/specialty-gp-lenses/special-lens-options/x-chrom/ .
  9. ChromaGen, retrieved https://www.chromagen.us/ .
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. K. Hovis, “Long wavelength pass filters designed for the management of color vision deficiencies,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(4), 222–230 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. A. Swarbrick, P. Nguyen, T. Nguyen, and P. Pham, “The ChromaGen contact lens system: colour vision test results and subjective responses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21(3), 182–196 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. EnChroma, retrieved http://enchroma.com .
  14. VINO, retrieved https://www.vino.vi .
  15. L. Gómez-Robledo, E. M. Valero, R. Huertas, M. A. Martínez-Domingo, and J. Hernández-Andrés, “Do EnChroma glasses improve color vision for colorblind subjects?” Opt. Express 26(22), 28693–28703 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R. Mastey, E. J. Patterson, P. Summerfelt, J. Luther, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Effect of “color-correcting glasses” on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital color vision deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 192 (2016).
  17. E. J. Patterson, “Glasses for the colorblind: their effect on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital red-green color vision deficiency,” in International Conference on Computer Vision Systems (ICVS), 2017)
  18. N. Almutairi, J. Kundart, N. Muthuramalingam, J. Hayes, K. Citek, and S. Aljohani, “Assessment of Enchroma Filter for Correcting Color Vision Deficiency,” (Pacific University (Oregon), 2017).
  19. H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-Blindness (Kanehara Shuppen Company, Ltd., Tokyo, 1977).
  21. I. X-Rite, “FM 100 Hue Color Vision Test. 100 Hue Test Scoring Tool, Version 3.0” (2006), retrieved http://www.munsell.com .
  22. B. Berlin and P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California Press, 1969).
  23. J. Birch, “Failure of concordance of the Farnsworth D15 test and the Nagel anomaloscope matching range in anomalous trichromatism,” Vis. Neurosci. 25(3), 451–453 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. L. Barbur and M. Rodriguez-Carmona, “Ranking The Severity Of Colour Vision Loss In Congenital Deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4137 (2012).
  25. D. Y. Lee and M. Honson, “Chromatic variation of Ishihara diagnostic plates,” Color Res. Appl. 28(4), 267–276 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A Quantitative Scoring Technique for Panel Tests of Color Vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29(1), 50–63 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  27. B. Arad and O. Ben-Shahar, “Sparse recovery of hyperspectral signal from natural RGB images,” in European Conference on Computer Vision – ECCV 2016, (Springer, Cham, 2016), 19–34.
    [Crossref]
  28. M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models (Wiley, 2005).
  29. M. Lucassen and J. Alferdinck, “Dynamic Simulation of Color Blindness for Studying Color Vision Requirements in Practice,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, CGIV 2006, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), 355–358.
  30. C. Davidoff, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Genetic Testing as a New Standard for Clinical Diagnosis of Color Vision Deficiencies,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Techn. 5, 2 (2016).
  31. N. I. Fisher, Statistical Analysis of Circular Data (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (U.K.), 1993).
  32. M. Yap, “The Effect of a Yellow Filter on Contrast Sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 4(3), 227–232 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2016 (2)

R. Mastey, E. J. Patterson, P. Summerfelt, J. Luther, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Effect of “color-correcting glasses” on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital color vision deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 192 (2016).

C. Davidoff, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Genetic Testing as a New Standard for Clinical Diagnosis of Color Vision Deficiencies,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Techn. 5, 2 (2016).

2012 (2)

J. L. Barbur and M. Rodriguez-Carmona, “Ranking The Severity Of Colour Vision Loss In Congenital Deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4137 (2012).

J. Birch, “Worldwide prevalence of red-green color deficiency,” JOSA A 29, 313–320 (2012).

2010 (1)

M. P. Simunovic, “Colour vision deficiency,” Eye (Lond.) 24(5), 747–755 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Birch, “Failure of concordance of the Farnsworth D15 test and the Nagel anomaloscope matching range in anomalous trichromatism,” Vis. Neurosci. 25(3), 451–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. L. Cole, “The handicap of abnormal colour vision,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87(4-5), 258–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. Y. Lee and M. Honson, “Chromatic variation of Ishihara diagnostic plates,” Color Res. Appl. 28(4), 267–276 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

H. A. Swarbrick, P. Nguyen, T. Nguyen, and P. Pham, “The ChromaGen contact lens system: colour vision test results and subjective responses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21(3), 182–196 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. T. Sharpe and H. Jagle, “I used to be color blind,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S269–S272 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

J. K. Hovis, “Long wavelength pass filters designed for the management of color vision deficiencies,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(4), 222–230 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A Quantitative Scoring Technique for Panel Tests of Color Vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29(1), 50–63 (1988).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

M. Yap, “The Effect of a Yellow Filter on Contrast Sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 4(3), 227–232 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

I. M. Siegel, “The X-Chrom Lens. On Seeing Red,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 25(5), 312–324 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1857 (1)

J. Maxwell, “XVIII.—Experiments on Colour, as perceived by the Eye, with Remarks on Colour-Blindness,” Trans. R. Soc. Edinb. 21(02), 275–298 (1857).
[Crossref]

1837 (1)

A. Seebeck, “Ueber den bei manchen Personen vorkommenden Mangel an Farbensinn,” Ann. Phys. 118(10), 177–233 (1837).
[Crossref]

Alferdinck, J.

M. Lucassen and J. Alferdinck, “Dynamic Simulation of Color Blindness for Studying Color Vision Requirements in Practice,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, CGIV 2006, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), 355–358.

Barbur, J. L.

J. L. Barbur and M. Rodriguez-Carmona, “Ranking The Severity Of Colour Vision Loss In Congenital Deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4137 (2012).

Birch, J.

J. Birch, “Worldwide prevalence of red-green color deficiency,” JOSA A 29, 313–320 (2012).

J. Birch, “Failure of concordance of the Farnsworth D15 test and the Nagel anomaloscope matching range in anomalous trichromatism,” Vis. Neurosci. 25(3), 451–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brill, M. H.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

Carroll, J.

R. Mastey, E. J. Patterson, P. Summerfelt, J. Luther, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Effect of “color-correcting glasses” on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital color vision deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 192 (2016).

Cole, B. L.

B. L. Cole, “The handicap of abnormal colour vision,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87(4-5), 258–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davidoff, C.

C. Davidoff, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Genetic Testing as a New Standard for Clinical Diagnosis of Color Vision Deficiencies,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Techn. 5, 2 (2016).

Fairman, H. S.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gómez-Robledo, L.

Hemmendinger, H.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hernández-Andrés, J.

Honson, M.

D. Y. Lee and M. Honson, “Chromatic variation of Ishihara diagnostic plates,” Color Res. Appl. 28(4), 267–276 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hovis, J. K.

J. K. Hovis, “Long wavelength pass filters designed for the management of color vision deficiencies,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(4), 222–230 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huertas, R.

Jagle, H.

L. T. Sharpe and H. Jagle, “I used to be color blind,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S269–S272 (2001).
[Crossref]

King-Smith, P. E.

A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A Quantitative Scoring Technique for Panel Tests of Color Vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29(1), 50–63 (1988).
[PubMed]

Lee, D. Y.

D. Y. Lee and M. Honson, “Chromatic variation of Ishihara diagnostic plates,” Color Res. Appl. 28(4), 267–276 (2003).
[Crossref]

Louveton, N.

A. Popleteev, N. Louveton, and R. McCall, “Colorizer: smart glasses aid for the colorblind,” in Workshop on Wearable Systems and Applications (Wearsys ’15), (ACM, 2015), 7–8.
[Crossref]

Lucassen, M.

M. Lucassen and J. Alferdinck, “Dynamic Simulation of Color Blindness for Studying Color Vision Requirements in Practice,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, CGIV 2006, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), 355–358.

Luther, J.

R. Mastey, E. J. Patterson, P. Summerfelt, J. Luther, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Effect of “color-correcting glasses” on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital color vision deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 192 (2016).

Martínez-Domingo, M. A.

Mastey, R.

R. Mastey, E. J. Patterson, P. Summerfelt, J. Luther, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Effect of “color-correcting glasses” on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital color vision deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 192 (2016).

Maxwell, J.

J. Maxwell, “XVIII.—Experiments on Colour, as perceived by the Eye, with Remarks on Colour-Blindness,” Trans. R. Soc. Edinb. 21(02), 275–298 (1857).
[Crossref]

McCall, R.

A. Popleteev, N. Louveton, and R. McCall, “Colorizer: smart glasses aid for the colorblind,” in Workshop on Wearable Systems and Applications (Wearsys ’15), (ACM, 2015), 7–8.
[Crossref]

Neitz, J.

R. Mastey, E. J. Patterson, P. Summerfelt, J. Luther, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Effect of “color-correcting glasses” on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital color vision deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 192 (2016).

C. Davidoff, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Genetic Testing as a New Standard for Clinical Diagnosis of Color Vision Deficiencies,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Techn. 5, 2 (2016).

Neitz, M.

C. Davidoff, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Genetic Testing as a New Standard for Clinical Diagnosis of Color Vision Deficiencies,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Techn. 5, 2 (2016).

R. Mastey, E. J. Patterson, P. Summerfelt, J. Luther, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Effect of “color-correcting glasses” on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital color vision deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 192 (2016).

Nguyen, P.

H. A. Swarbrick, P. Nguyen, T. Nguyen, and P. Pham, “The ChromaGen contact lens system: colour vision test results and subjective responses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21(3), 182–196 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T.

H. A. Swarbrick, P. Nguyen, T. Nguyen, and P. Pham, “The ChromaGen contact lens system: colour vision test results and subjective responses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21(3), 182–196 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patterson, E. J.

R. Mastey, E. J. Patterson, P. Summerfelt, J. Luther, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Effect of “color-correcting glasses” on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital color vision deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 192 (2016).

E. J. Patterson, “Glasses for the colorblind: their effect on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital red-green color vision deficiency,” in International Conference on Computer Vision Systems (ICVS), 2017)

Pham, P.

H. A. Swarbrick, P. Nguyen, T. Nguyen, and P. Pham, “The ChromaGen contact lens system: colour vision test results and subjective responses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21(3), 182–196 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popleteev, A.

A. Popleteev, N. Louveton, and R. McCall, “Colorizer: smart glasses aid for the colorblind,” in Workshop on Wearable Systems and Applications (Wearsys ’15), (ACM, 2015), 7–8.
[Crossref]

Rodriguez-Carmona, M.

J. L. Barbur and M. Rodriguez-Carmona, “Ranking The Severity Of Colour Vision Loss In Congenital Deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4137 (2012).

Seebeck, A.

A. Seebeck, “Ueber den bei manchen Personen vorkommenden Mangel an Farbensinn,” Ann. Phys. 118(10), 177–233 (1837).
[Crossref]

Sharpe, L. T.

L. T. Sharpe and H. Jagle, “I used to be color blind,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S269–S272 (2001).
[Crossref]

Siegel, I. M.

I. M. Siegel, “The X-Chrom Lens. On Seeing Red,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 25(5), 312–324 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simunovic, M. P.

M. P. Simunovic, “Colour vision deficiency,” Eye (Lond.) 24(5), 747–755 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Summerfelt, P.

R. Mastey, E. J. Patterson, P. Summerfelt, J. Luther, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Effect of “color-correcting glasses” on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital color vision deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 192 (2016).

Swarbrick, H. A.

H. A. Swarbrick, P. Nguyen, T. Nguyen, and P. Pham, “The ChromaGen contact lens system: colour vision test results and subjective responses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21(3), 182–196 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valero, E. M.

Vingrys, A. J.

A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A Quantitative Scoring Technique for Panel Tests of Color Vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29(1), 50–63 (1988).
[PubMed]

Yap, M.

M. Yap, “The Effect of a Yellow Filter on Contrast Sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 4(3), 227–232 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys. (1)

A. Seebeck, “Ueber den bei manchen Personen vorkommenden Mangel an Farbensinn,” Ann. Phys. 118(10), 177–233 (1837).
[Crossref]

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

B. L. Cole, “The handicap of abnormal colour vision,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87(4-5), 258–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (3)

L. T. Sharpe and H. Jagle, “I used to be color blind,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S269–S272 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Lee and M. Honson, “Chromatic variation of Ishihara diagnostic plates,” Color Res. Appl. 28(4), 267–276 (2003).
[Crossref]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

M. P. Simunovic, “Colour vision deficiency,” Eye (Lond.) 24(5), 747–755 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

R. Mastey, E. J. Patterson, P. Summerfelt, J. Luther, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Effect of “color-correcting glasses” on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital color vision deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, 192 (2016).

A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A Quantitative Scoring Technique for Panel Tests of Color Vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29(1), 50–63 (1988).
[PubMed]

J. L. Barbur and M. Rodriguez-Carmona, “Ranking The Severity Of Colour Vision Loss In Congenital Deficiency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4137 (2012).

JOSA A (1)

J. Birch, “Worldwide prevalence of red-green color deficiency,” JOSA A 29, 313–320 (2012).

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (2)

H. A. Swarbrick, P. Nguyen, T. Nguyen, and P. Pham, “The ChromaGen contact lens system: colour vision test results and subjective responses,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21(3), 182–196 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yap, “The Effect of a Yellow Filter on Contrast Sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 4(3), 227–232 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

J. K. Hovis, “Long wavelength pass filters designed for the management of color vision deficiencies,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 74(4), 222–230 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

I. M. Siegel, “The X-Chrom Lens. On Seeing Red,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 25(5), 312–324 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trans. R. Soc. Edinb. (1)

J. Maxwell, “XVIII.—Experiments on Colour, as perceived by the Eye, with Remarks on Colour-Blindness,” Trans. R. Soc. Edinb. 21(02), 275–298 (1857).
[Crossref]

Transl. Vis. Sci. Techn. (1)

C. Davidoff, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Genetic Testing as a New Standard for Clinical Diagnosis of Color Vision Deficiencies,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Techn. 5, 2 (2016).

Vis. Neurosci. (1)

J. Birch, “Failure of concordance of the Farnsworth D15 test and the Nagel anomaloscope matching range in anomalous trichromatism,” Vis. Neurosci. 25(3), 451–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (14)

N. I. Fisher, Statistical Analysis of Circular Data (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (U.K.), 1993).

B. Arad and O. Ben-Shahar, “Sparse recovery of hyperspectral signal from natural RGB images,” in European Conference on Computer Vision – ECCV 2016, (Springer, Cham, 2016), 19–34.
[Crossref]

M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models (Wiley, 2005).

M. Lucassen and J. Alferdinck, “Dynamic Simulation of Color Blindness for Studying Color Vision Requirements in Practice,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, CGIV 2006, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), 355–358.

S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-Blindness (Kanehara Shuppen Company, Ltd., Tokyo, 1977).

I. X-Rite, “FM 100 Hue Color Vision Test. 100 Hue Test Scoring Tool, Version 3.0” (2006), retrieved http://www.munsell.com .

B. Berlin and P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California Press, 1969).

X–Chrom, retrieved https://www.artoptical.com/lenses/specialty-gp-lenses/special-lens-options/x-chrom/ .

ChromaGen, retrieved https://www.chromagen.us/ .

A. Popleteev, N. Louveton, and R. McCall, “Colorizer: smart glasses aid for the colorblind,” in Workshop on Wearable Systems and Applications (Wearsys ’15), (ACM, 2015), 7–8.
[Crossref]

EnChroma, retrieved http://enchroma.com .

VINO, retrieved https://www.vino.vi .

E. J. Patterson, “Glasses for the colorblind: their effect on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital red-green color vision deficiency,” in International Conference on Computer Vision Systems (ICVS), 2017)

N. Almutairi, J. Kundart, N. Muthuramalingam, J. Hayes, K. Citek, and S. Aljohani, “Assessment of Enchroma Filter for Correcting Color Vision Deficiency,” (Pacific University (Oregon), 2017).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Spectral transmittance of O2 Amp Oxy-Iso VINO glasses (measured and provided by manufacturer) and LMS cone spectral responsivity of CIE31 2° Standard Observer (relative units) [19].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Example of a simulated scene for mild conditions (d = 0.3) in upper row, for medium severity conditions (d = 0.6) in middle row and for dichromats (d = 1.0) in lower row. Protan and deutan subjects, with VINO glasses off and on in columns.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Spectral transmittances of the two glasses compared VINO O2 Oxy-Iso (magenta) and EnChroma CX-65 (blue). Luminous efficiency curve included (black).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation of two captured Ishihara plates as seen by deutan subjects with different levels of severity (columns) without glasses (GO), with EnChroma glasses (EN), and with VINO (VI) glasses. Normal subjects included as reference (left column).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulation of two captured Ishihara plates as seen by protan subjects with different levels of severity (columns) without glasses (GO), with EnChroma glasses (EN), and VINO (VI) glasses. Normal subjects included as reference (left column).

Tables (9)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean values and standard deviation (SD) of the Ishihara, FM100, and color naming tests results without and with VINO glasses for the different groups

Tables Icon

Table 2 CIECAM02 parameters for samples in data set D1 and the images in data set D2, for VINO and EnChroma glasses “on” and “off”

Tables Icon

Table 3 Median and standard deviation (SD) for the Lightness (J) attribute for VINO glasses “on” and “off”, and for each simulated CVD condition (data sets D1 and D2)

Tables Icon

Table 4 Median and standard deviation (SD) for the Chroma (C) attribute for VINO glasses “on” and “off”, and for each simulated CVD condition (data sets D1 and D2)

Tables Icon

Table 5 Mean angular direction and standard deviation (SD), in degrees, for the hue (h) attribute for glasses on and off, and for each simulated CVD condition (data sets D1 and D2)

Tables Icon

Table 6 Mean difference of the Ishihara, FM100 parameters, and mean number of name changes computed taking session 2 for EnChroma glasses as reference

Tables Icon

Table 7 Median and standard deviation (SD) for the Lightness (J) attribute for EnChroma Cx-65 glasses “on” and “off”, and for each simulated CVD condition (data sets D1 and D2)

Tables Icon

Table 8 Median and standard deviation (SD) for the Chroma (C) attribute for EnChroma Cx-65 glasses “on” and “off”, and for each simulated CVD condition (data sets D1 and D2)

Tables Icon

Table 9 Mean angular direction and standard deviation (SD), in degrees, for the hue (h) attribute for EnChroma Cx-65 glasses on and off, and for each simulated CVD condition (data sets D1 and D2)

Metrics