Abstract

A sensitive high-resolution sub-Doppler detecting spectrometer, based on noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS), for trace gas detection of species whose transitions have severe spectral overlap with abundant concomitant species is presented. It is designed around a NICE-OHMS instrumentation utilizing balanced detection that provides shot-noise limited Doppler-broadened (Db) detection. By synchronous dithering the positions of the two cavity mirrors, the effect of residual etalons between the cavity and other surfaces in the system could be reduced. An Allan deviation of the absorption coefficient of 2.2 × 10−13 cm−1 at 60 s, which, for the targeted transition in C2H2, corresponds to a 3σ detection sensitivity of 130 ppt, is demonstrated. It is shown that despite significant spectral interference from CO2 at the targeted transition, which precludes Db detection of C2H2, acetylene could be detected in exhaled breath of healthy smokers.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 in the parts per trillion range

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2018 (2)

B. Henderson, A. Khodabakhsh, M. Metsälä, I. Ventrillard, F. M. Schmidt, D. Romanini, G. A. D. Ritchie, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, R. Briot, T. Risby, N. Marczin, F. J. M. Harren, and S. M. Cristescu, “Laser spectroscopy for breath analysis: towards clinical implementation,” Appl. Phys. B 124(8), 161 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhao, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Shot-noise-limited Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 715–718 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (5)

G. Zhao, T. Hausmaninger, W. G. Ma, and O. Axner, “Differential noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy for improvement of the detection sensitivity by reduction of drifts from background signals,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29454–29471 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. R. Markus, A. J. Perry, J. N. Hodges, and B. J. McCall, “Improving cavity-enhanced spectroscopy of molecular ions in the mid-infrared with up-conversion detection and Brewster-plate spoilers,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3709–3721 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Azhar, J. Mandon, A. H. Neerincx, Z. Liu, J. Mink, P. J. F. M. Merkus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “A widely tunable, near-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection in exhaled breath,” Appl. Phys. B 123(11), 268 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Infrared laser-absorption sensing for combustion gases,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 60, 132–176 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. C. Meier, K. D. Benkstein, W. S. Hurst, and P. M. Chu, “Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications,” J. Test. Eval. 45(3), 922–932 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

D. Gatti, R. Gotti, A. Gambetta, M. Belmonte, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni, “Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27183 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. L. Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry down to 4 × 10−13 cm−1 Hz-1/2: implementation of a 50,000 finesse cavity,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2004–2007 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Dinesan, E. Fasci, A. D’Addio, A. Castrillo, and L. Gianfrani, “Characterization of the frequency stability of an optical frequency standard at 1.39 µm based upon noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1757–1766 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, “Model for in-coupling of etalons into signal strengths extracted from spectral line shape fitting and methodology for predicting the optimum scanning range-demonstration of Doppler-broadened, noise-immune, cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy down to 9 x 10−14 cm−1,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(10), 2104–2114 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Centeno, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, O. Axner, and F. J. M. Harren, “External cavity diode laser-based detection of trace gases with NICE-OHMS using current modulation,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6277–6282 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

2013 (1)

O. Vaittinen, F. M. Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled Breath Biomonitoring Using Laser Spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of sub-Doppler hyperfine structure,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 064502 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, and C. D. Carter, “Diode laser-based detection of combustor instabilities with application to a scramjet engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32(1), 831–838 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. L. Bell, G. Hancock, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, J. H. van Helden, and N. J. van Leeuwen, “Characterization of an external cavity diode laser based ring cavity NICE-OHMS system,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9834–9839 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14689–14702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 91(3-4), 397–414 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Axner, W. Ma, and A. Foltynowicz, “Sub-Doppler dispersion and noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy revised,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 1166–1177 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 1027–1038 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 617–625 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. van Leeuwen and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of pressure-broadened, ultraweak transitions with noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(10), 1713–1721 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. M. Baum, S. Kumar, A. M. Lappas, and P. D. Wagner, “Measurement of acetylene in breath by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy: Potential for noninvasive cardiac output monitoring,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(6), 3104–3110 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. S. Baer, J. B. Paul, J. B. Gupta, and A. O’Keefe, “Sensitive absorption measurements in the near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 261–265 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 34(12), 2380–2387 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Gagliardi, G. Rusciano, and L. Gianfrani, “Narrow (H218O) lines and new absolute frequency references in the near-IR,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(4), 310–313 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Near-infrared laser spectrometer with sub-Doppler resolution, high sensitivity, and wide tunability: A case study in the 1.65 µm region of CH3I spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 200(1), 147–149 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: History, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97(1), 25–52 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

K. K. Lehmann and D. Romanini, “The superposition principle and cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 105(23), 10263–10277 (1996).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

K. A. Persson, S. Berg, M. Törnqvist, G. P. Scalia-Tomba, L. Ehrenberg, J.-E. Berg, M. Bartók, I. Pelczer, and G. Dombi, “Note on ethene and other low-molecular weight hydrocarbons in environmental tobacco smoke,” Acta Chem. Scand., B, Org. Chem. Biochem. 42(10), 690–696 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, “Laser-frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A 30(5), 2827–2829 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency-modulation (fm) spectroscopy - theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32(3), 145–152 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers - Comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26(3), 203–210 (1981).
[Crossref]

Axner, O.

G. Zhao, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Shot-noise-limited Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 715–718 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhao, T. Hausmaninger, W. G. Ma, and O. Axner, “Differential noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy for improvement of the detection sensitivity by reduction of drifts from background signals,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29454–29471 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, “Model for in-coupling of etalons into signal strengths extracted from spectral line shape fitting and methodology for predicting the optimum scanning range-demonstration of Doppler-broadened, noise-immune, cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy down to 9 x 10−14 cm−1,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(10), 2104–2114 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Centeno, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, O. Axner, and F. J. M. Harren, “External cavity diode laser-based detection of trace gases with NICE-OHMS using current modulation,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6277–6282 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry down to 4 × 10−13 cm−1 Hz-1/2: implementation of a 50,000 finesse cavity,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2004–2007 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ehlers, A. C. Johansson, I. Silander, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Use of etalon-immune distances to reduce the influence of background signals in frequency-modulation spectroscopy and noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(12), 2938–2945 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Doppler broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: optimum modulation and demodulation conditions, cavity length, and modulation order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(9), 2051–2060 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Frequency modulation background signals from fiber-based electro optic modulators are caused by crosstalk,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(5), 916–923 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Ehlers, I. Silander, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry instrumentation for Doppler-broadened detection in the 10−12 cm−1 Hz-1/2 region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1305–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Reduction of background signals in fiber-based NICE-OHMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2797–2805 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Axner, W. Ma, and A. Foltynowicz, “Sub-Doppler dispersion and noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy revised,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 1166–1177 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14689–14702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, T. Lock, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened fiber-laser-based NICE-OHMS - Improved detectability,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10822–10831 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 in the parts per trillion range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(6), 1392–1405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Azhar, M.

M. Azhar, J. Mandon, A. H. Neerincx, Z. Liu, J. Mink, P. J. F. M. Merkus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “A widely tunable, near-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection in exhaled breath,” Appl. Phys. B 123(11), 268 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baer, D. S.

D. S. Baer, J. B. Paul, J. B. Gupta, and A. O’Keefe, “Sensitive absorption measurements in the near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 261–265 (2002).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bartók, M.

K. A. Persson, S. Berg, M. Törnqvist, G. P. Scalia-Tomba, L. Ehrenberg, J.-E. Berg, M. Bartók, I. Pelczer, and G. Dombi, “Note on ethene and other low-molecular weight hydrocarbons in environmental tobacco smoke,” Acta Chem. Scand., B, Org. Chem. Biochem. 42(10), 690–696 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baum, M. M.

M. M. Baum, S. Kumar, A. M. Lappas, and P. D. Wagner, “Measurement of acetylene in breath by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy: Potential for noninvasive cardiac output monitoring,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(6), 3104–3110 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bell, C. L.

Belmonte, M.

D. Gatti, R. Gotti, A. Gambetta, M. Belmonte, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni, “Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27183 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benkstein, K. D.

D. C. Meier, K. D. Benkstein, W. S. Hurst, and P. M. Chu, “Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications,” J. Test. Eval. 45(3), 922–932 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berg, J.-E.

K. A. Persson, S. Berg, M. Törnqvist, G. P. Scalia-Tomba, L. Ehrenberg, J.-E. Berg, M. Bartók, I. Pelczer, and G. Dombi, “Note on ethene and other low-molecular weight hydrocarbons in environmental tobacco smoke,” Acta Chem. Scand., B, Org. Chem. Biochem. 42(10), 690–696 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berg, S.

K. A. Persson, S. Berg, M. Törnqvist, G. P. Scalia-Tomba, L. Ehrenberg, J.-E. Berg, M. Bartók, I. Pelczer, and G. Dombi, “Note on ethene and other low-molecular weight hydrocarbons in environmental tobacco smoke,” Acta Chem. Scand., B, Org. Chem. Biochem. 42(10), 690–696 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernath, P. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency-modulation (fm) spectroscopy - theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32(3), 145–152 (1983).
[Crossref]

Boerkamp, M.

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. L. Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bood, J.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brewer, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, “Laser-frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A 30(5), 2827–2829 (1984).
[Crossref]

Briot, R.

B. Henderson, A. Khodabakhsh, M. Metsälä, I. Ventrillard, F. M. Schmidt, D. Romanini, G. A. D. Ritchie, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, R. Briot, T. Risby, N. Marczin, F. J. M. Harren, and S. M. Cristescu, “Laser spectroscopy for breath analysis: towards clinical implementation,” Appl. Phys. B 124(8), 161 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cannon, B. D.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carter, C. D.

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, and C. D. Carter, “Diode laser-based detection of combustor instabilities with application to a scramjet engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32(1), 831–838 (2009).
[Crossref]

Castrillo, A.

Centeno, R.

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chenevier, M.

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 1027–1038 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. M.

D. C. Meier, K. D. Benkstein, W. S. Hurst, and P. M. Chu, “Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications,” J. Test. Eval. 45(3), 922–932 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cristescu, S. M.

B. Henderson, A. Khodabakhsh, M. Metsälä, I. Ventrillard, F. M. Schmidt, D. Romanini, G. A. D. Ritchie, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, R. Briot, T. Risby, N. Marczin, F. J. M. Harren, and S. M. Cristescu, “Laser spectroscopy for breath analysis: towards clinical implementation,” Appl. Phys. B 124(8), 161 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Azhar, J. Mandon, A. H. Neerincx, Z. Liu, J. Mink, P. J. F. M. Merkus, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “A widely tunable, near-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection in exhaled breath,” Appl. Phys. B 123(11), 268 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. L. Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
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D. S. Baer, J. B. Paul, J. B. Gupta, and A. O’Keefe, “Sensitive absorption measurements in the near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 261–265 (2002).
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van Leeuwen, N. J.

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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M. M. Baum, S. Kumar, A. M. Lappas, and P. D. Wagner, “Measurement of acetylene in breath by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy: Potential for noninvasive cardiac output monitoring,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(6), 3104–3110 (2003).
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Wang, C.

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
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Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
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M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
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D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, S. Wojtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Quantum-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 149–153 (2014).
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G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 617–625 (2005).
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Zahniser, M. S.

J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 34(12), 2380–2387 (2000).
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D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. L. Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (12)

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 1027–1038 (2005).
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D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, S. Wojtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Quantum-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 149–153 (2014).
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G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, and F. K. Tittel, “Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 617–625 (2005).
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B. Henderson, A. Khodabakhsh, M. Metsälä, I. Ventrillard, F. M. Schmidt, D. Romanini, G. A. D. Ritchie, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, R. Briot, T. Risby, N. Marczin, F. J. M. Harren, and S. M. Cristescu, “Laser spectroscopy for breath analysis: towards clinical implementation,” Appl. Phys. B 124(8), 161 (2018).
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D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. L. Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
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A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
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Chem. Rev. (1)

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: History, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97(1), 25–52 (1997).
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Curr. Anal. Chem. (1)

O. Vaittinen, F. M. Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled Breath Biomonitoring Using Laser Spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
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Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 34(12), 2380–2387 (2000).
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J. Breath Res. (1)

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
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J. Chem. Phys. (4)

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
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J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Near-infrared laser spectrometer with sub-Doppler resolution, high sensitivity, and wide tunability: A case study in the 1.65 µm region of CH3I spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 200(1), 147–149 (2000).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (13)

O. Axner, W. Ma, and A. Foltynowicz, “Sub-Doppler dispersion and noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy revised,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 1166–1177 (2008).
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L. Gianfrani, R. W. Fox, and L. Hollberg, “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of molecular oxygen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(12), 2247–2254 (1999).
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A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Reduction of background signals in fiber-based NICE-OHMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2797–2805 (2011).
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N. J. van Leeuwen and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of pressure-broadened, ultraweak transitions with noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(10), 1713–1721 (2004).
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F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 in the parts per trillion range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(6), 1392–1405 (2007).
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P. Ehlers, I. Silander, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry instrumentation for Doppler-broadened detection in the 10−12 cm−1 Hz-1/2 region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1305–1315 (2012).
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P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Doppler broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: optimum modulation and demodulation conditions, cavity length, and modulation order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(9), 2051–2060 (2014).
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I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, “Model for in-coupling of etalons into signal strengths extracted from spectral line shape fitting and methodology for predicting the optimum scanning range-demonstration of Doppler-broadened, noise-immune, cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy down to 9 x 10−14 cm−1,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(10), 2104–2114 (2015).
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P. Ehlers, A. C. Johansson, I. Silander, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, “Use of etalon-immune distances to reduce the influence of background signals in frequency-modulation spectroscopy and noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(12), 2938–2945 (2014).
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I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Frequency modulation background signals from fiber-based electro optic modulators are caused by crosstalk,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(5), 916–923 (2012).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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J. Test. Eval. (1)

D. C. Meier, K. D. Benkstein, W. S. Hurst, and P. M. Chu, “Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications,” J. Test. Eval. 45(3), 922–932 (2017).
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Opt. Express (8)

R. Centeno, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Sensitivity enhancement in off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27985–27991 (2014).
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G. Zhao, T. Hausmaninger, W. G. Ma, and O. Axner, “Differential noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy for improvement of the detection sensitivity by reduction of drifts from background signals,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29454–29471 (2017).
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C. R. Markus, A. J. Perry, J. N. Hodges, and B. J. McCall, “Improving cavity-enhanced spectroscopy of molecular ions in the mid-infrared with up-conversion detection and Brewster-plate spoilers,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3709–3721 (2017).
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R. Centeno, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, O. Axner, and F. J. M. Harren, “External cavity diode laser-based detection of trace gases with NICE-OHMS using current modulation,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6277–6282 (2015).
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F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, T. Lock, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened fiber-laser-based NICE-OHMS - Improved detectability,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10822–10831 (2007).
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H. P. Loock and G. Gagliardi, eds., Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy and Sensing (Springer Verlag, 2014).

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M. E. Webber, “Diode laser measurements of NH3 and CO2 for bombustion and bioreactor applications,” Doctoral thesis, Stanford University, 2001.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup. EDFL, erbium-doped fiber laser; f-AOM, fiber-coupled acousto-optic modulator; f -POL, fiber-coupled polarizer; f -EOM, fiber-coupled electro-optic modulator; f -C, fiber-coupled collimator; ISO, isolator; λ/2; half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; λ/4, quarter-wave plate; PD1, PD2, and PD3, photodiodes; PS, power splitter; DBM, double balanced mixer; Sub, subtraction.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The drift of the background signal for three modes of detection: (a) detection in transmission without dithering [case i)]; (b) balanced detection without dithering [case ii)]; and (c) balanced detection with dithering [case iii)].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The Allan-Werle plot of the absorption coefficient for sD NICE-OHMS for the case with: (a) detection in transmission without dithering [case i)]; (b) balanced detection without dithering [case ii)]; and (c) balanced detection with dithering [case iii)]. The dashed line represents the estimated white-noise contribution to the case with balanced detection with dithering [case iii)].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Red curves: Simulations of expected typical NICE-OHMS signals from smokers’ breath, with 10 ppb C2H2 and 4% CO2 in the vicinity of the C2H2 transition addressed. Dotted curves: The expected response in the absence of C2H2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS signals of C2H2 in smoker’s breath (red) with the corresponding fits (black) under pressure of 300 mTorr. The two panels represent the two individuals.