Abstract

The performance of AlGaN-based mid and deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs) is severely limited by electron overflow and by the poor hole injection into the device active region. We have studied the effect of various electron blocking layers on the performance of AlGaN LEDs operating at ~280 nm. It is observed that, compared to conventional p-type electron blocking layer, the incorporation of an n-type AlN/AlGaN superlattice electron blocking layer before the active region can significantly improve the device performance by reducing electron overflow without compromising hole injection. Direct on-wafer measurement showed an external quantum efficiency ~4.4% and wall-plug efficiency ~2.8% by optimizing the design of n-type AlN/AlGaN superlattice electron blocking layer, which is nearly a factor of five to ten times better than identical devices but with the incorporation of a conventional p-type electron blocking layer.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (3)

D. A. Laleyan, X. Liu, A. Pandey, W. J. Shin, E. T. Reid, K. Mashooq, M. Soltani, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of Al0.6Ga0.4N epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 507, 87–92 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Aiello, A. Pandey, A. Bhattacharya, J. Gim, X. Liu, D. A. Laleyan, R. Hovden, Z. Mi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Optical and interface characteristics of Al0.56Ga0.44N/Al0.62Ga0.38N multiquantum wells with ∼280 nm emission grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 508, 66–71 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. A. Khan, N. Maeda, M. Jo, Y. Akamatsu, R. Tanabe, Y. Yamada, and H. Hirayama, “13 mW operation of a 295–310 nm AlGaN UV-B LED with a p-AlGaN transparent contact layer for real world applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 7(1), 143–152 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (8)

N. Maeda, M. Jo, and H. Hirayama, “Improving the efficiency of AlGaN deep-UV LEDs by using highly reflective Ni/Al p-type electrodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(8), 1700435 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Liang and E. Towe, “Heavy Mg-doping of (Al,Ga)N films for potential applications in deep ultraviolet light-emitting structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(9), 095303 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, Y. Osada, H. Takagi, and H. Hirayama, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, A. Pandey, D. A. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. T. Reid, W. J. Shin, and Z. Mi, “Charge carrier transport properties of Mg-doped Al 0.6 Ga 0.4 N grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(8), 085005 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Ebata, J. Nishinaka, Y. Taniyasu, and K. Kumakura, “High hole concentration in Mg-doped AlN/AlGaN superlattices with high Al content,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(4S), 04FH09 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Liang and E. Towe, “Progress in efficient doping of high aluminum-containing group III-nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 5(1), 011107 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. So, J. Kim, E. Shin, T. Kwak, T. Kim, and O. Nam, “Efficiency improvement of deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with gradient electron blocking layers,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700677 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

L. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, W. Bi, Z.-H. Zhang, and H.-C. Kuo, “On the hole injection for III-nitride based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(10), 1221 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S.-W. Huang Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Li, S.-W. Wang, K. Tian, C. Chu, M. Fang, H.-C. Kuo, and W. Bi, “Hole transport manipulation to improve the hole injection for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1846–1850 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, J. Rass, H. K. Cho, S. Hagedorn, S. Einfeldt, M. Kneissl, and M. Weyers, “Effect of electron blocking layer doping and composition on the performance of 310 nm light emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(12), 1396 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Fischer, S. Wang, F. A. Ponce, B. P. Gunning, C. M. Fabien, and W. A. Doolittle, “Origin of high hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN films,” Phys. Status Solidi 254(8), 1600668 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. T. Tran and H. Hirayama, “Growth and fabrication of high external quantum efficiency AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on pattern Si substrate,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12176 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, B. H. Le, S. Y. Woo, S. Zhao, A. Pofelski, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Selective area epitaxy of AlGaN nanowire arrays across nearly the entire compositional range for deep ultraviolet photonics,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30494–30502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

T. D. Moustakas, “Ultraviolet optoelectronic devices based on AlGaN alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” MRS Commun. 6(3), 247–269 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Electrical properties of n-type AlGaN with high Si concentration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(5S), 05FE02 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Alahyarizadeh, M. Amirhoseiny, and Z. Hassan, “Effect of different EBL structures on deep violet InGaN laser diodes performance,” Opt. Laser Technol. 76, 106–112 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. C. Zheng, W. Lin, R. Liu, D. J. Cai, J. C. Li, S. P. Li, and J. Y. Kang, “Improved p-type conductivity in Al-rich AlGaN using multidimensional Mg-doped superlattices,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21897 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

Y. Chen, H. Wu, E. Han, G. Yue, Z. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “High hole concentration in p-type AlGaN by indium-surfactant-assisted Mg-delta doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 162102 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Jo, N. Maeda, and H. Hirayama, “Enhanced light extraction in 260 nm light-emitting diode with a highly transparent p-AlGaN layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(1), 012102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, J. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Han, Y. Xia, Y. Huang, J. Yin, and S. Hu, “High conductivity of Mg-Doped Al0.3Ga0.7N with Al0.4Ga0.6N/AlN superlattice structure,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2014, 784918 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Liu, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, B. Zhu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “On the origin of the electron blocking effect by an n-type AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 073511 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: Challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, Y. Gao, M. He, J. Zhou, Y. Lei, L. Zhang, K. Zhu, and Y. Chen, “Effect of polarization-matched n-type AlGaInN electron-blocking layer on the optoelectronic properties of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 244–248 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Gang Ju, X. Liang Zhang, W. Liu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “Influence of n-type versus p-type AlGaN electron-blocking layer on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 053512 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Sun and T. D. Moustakas, “UV emitters based on an AlGaN p–n junction in the form of graded-index separate confinement heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(1), 012104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

M.-H. Chang, D. Das, P. V. Varde, and M. Pecht, “Light emitting diodes reliability review,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 762–782 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Ma, X. Yi, E. Guo, L. Wang, J. Wang, N. Lu, J. Li, I. Ferguson, and A. Melton, “p-InGaN/AlGaN electron blocking layer for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(26), 261106 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Sheng, W. D. Hu, and L. W. Cheng, “Efficiency enhancement of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with an AlGaN-GaN-AlGaN electron blocking layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094503 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. D. Moustakas and A. Bhattacharyya, “The role of liquid phase epitaxy during growth of AlGaN by MBE,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3–4), 580–583 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Y. Liao, C. Thomidis, C. Kao, and T. D. Moustakas, “AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes with high internal quantum efficiency grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081110 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. J. Parbrook and T. Wang, “Light emitting and laser diodes in the ultraviolet,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1402–1411 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Collazo, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Progress on n-type doping of AlGaN alloys on AlN single crystal substrates for UV optoelectronic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2031–2033 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

A. Kakanakova‐Georgieva, D. Nilsson, M. Stattin, U. Forsberg, Å. Haglund, A. Larsson, and E. Janzén, “Mg-doped Al0.85Ga0.15N layers grown by hot-wall MOCVD with low resistivity at room temperature,” Physica Status Solidi (RRL) –. Rapid Research Letters 4(11), 311–313 (2010).

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Kemény, Z. Csoma, E. Bagdi, A. H. Banham, L. Krenács, and A. Koreck, “Targeted phototherapy of plaque-type psoriasis using ultraviolet B-light-emitting diodes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163(1), 167–173 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. Yen, M. Tsai, M. Tsai, Y. Shen, T. Hsu, and Y. Kuo, “Effect of n-type AlGaN layer on carrier transportation and efficiency droop of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(14), 975–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091903 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

T. M. Al tahtamouni, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Si-doped high Al-content AlGaN epilayers with improved quality and conductivity using indium as a surfactant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092105 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. D. Burnham, G. Namkoong, D. C. Look, B. Clafin, and W. A. Doolittle, “Reproducible increased Mg incorporation and large hole concentration in GaN using metal modulated epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 024902 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

K. B. Nam, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Mg acceptor level in AlN probed by deep ultraviolet photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 878–880 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and N. Kobayashi, “Intentional control of n-type conduction for Si-doped AlN and AlXGa1−XN (0.42⩽x<1),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1255–1257 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Theoretical investigation of native defects, impurities, and complexes in aluminum nitride,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(15), 155212 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273–274, 24–32 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Doping of AlxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 459–461 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aiello, A.

A. Aiello, A. Pandey, A. Bhattacharya, J. Gim, X. Liu, D. A. Laleyan, R. Hovden, Z. Mi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Optical and interface characteristics of Al0.56Ga0.44N/Al0.62Ga0.38N multiquantum wells with ∼280 nm emission grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 508, 66–71 (2019).
[Crossref]

Akamatsu, Y.

M. A. Khan, N. Maeda, M. Jo, Y. Akamatsu, R. Tanabe, Y. Yamada, and H. Hirayama, “13 mW operation of a 295–310 nm AlGaN UV-B LED with a p-AlGaN transparent contact layer for real world applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 7(1), 143–152 (2019).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Electrical properties of n-type AlGaN with high Si concentration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(5S), 05FE02 (2016).
[Crossref]

Akyol, F.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Al tahtamouni, T. M.

T. M. Al tahtamouni, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Si-doped high Al-content AlGaN epilayers with improved quality and conductivity using indium as a surfactant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alahyarizadeh, G.

G. Alahyarizadeh, M. Amirhoseiny, and Z. Hassan, “Effect of different EBL structures on deep violet InGaN laser diodes performance,” Opt. Laser Technol. 76, 106–112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Allerman, A. A.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amirhoseiny, M.

G. Alahyarizadeh, M. Amirhoseiny, and Z. Hassan, “Effect of different EBL structures on deep violet InGaN laser diodes performance,” Opt. Laser Technol. 76, 106–112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, A. M.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bagdi, E.

L. Kemény, Z. Csoma, E. Bagdi, A. H. Banham, L. Krenács, and A. Koreck, “Targeted phototherapy of plaque-type psoriasis using ultraviolet B-light-emitting diodes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163(1), 167–173 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajaj, S.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Banham, A. H.

L. Kemény, Z. Csoma, E. Bagdi, A. H. Banham, L. Krenács, and A. Koreck, “Targeted phototherapy of plaque-type psoriasis using ultraviolet B-light-emitting diodes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163(1), 167–173 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, A.

A. Aiello, A. Pandey, A. Bhattacharya, J. Gim, X. Liu, D. A. Laleyan, R. Hovden, Z. Mi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Optical and interface characteristics of Al0.56Ga0.44N/Al0.62Ga0.38N multiquantum wells with ∼280 nm emission grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 508, 66–71 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, P.

A. Aiello, A. Pandey, A. Bhattacharya, J. Gim, X. Liu, D. A. Laleyan, R. Hovden, Z. Mi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Optical and interface characteristics of Al0.56Ga0.44N/Al0.62Ga0.38N multiquantum wells with ∼280 nm emission grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 508, 66–71 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharyya, A.

T. D. Moustakas and A. Bhattacharyya, “The role of liquid phase epitaxy during growth of AlGaN by MBE,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 9(3–4), 580–583 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bi, W.

Z.-H. Zhang, S.-W. Huang Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Li, S.-W. Wang, K. Tian, C. Chu, M. Fang, H.-C. Kuo, and W. Bi, “Hole transport manipulation to improve the hole injection for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1846–1850 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, W. Bi, Z.-H. Zhang, and H.-C. Kuo, “On the hole injection for III-nitride based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(10), 1221 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botton, G. A.

Burnham, S. D.

S. D. Burnham, G. Namkoong, D. C. Look, B. Clafin, and W. A. Doolittle, “Reproducible increased Mg incorporation and large hole concentration in GaN using metal modulated epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 024902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cai, D. J.

T. C. Zheng, W. Lin, R. Liu, D. J. Cai, J. C. Li, S. P. Li, and J. Y. Kang, “Improved p-type conductivity in Al-rich AlGaN using multidimensional Mg-doped superlattices,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21897 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calderon, G.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chang, M.-H.

M.-H. Chang, D. Das, P. V. Varde, and M. Pecht, “Light emitting diodes reliability review,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 762–782 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, R.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Wu, E. Han, G. Yue, Z. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “High hole concentration in p-type AlGaN by indium-surfactant-assisted Mg-delta doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 162102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, Y. Gao, M. He, J. Zhou, Y. Lei, L. Zhang, K. Zhu, and Y. Chen, “Effect of polarization-matched n-type AlGaInN electron-blocking layer on the optoelectronic properties of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 244–248 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Y. Chen, H. Wu, E. Han, G. Yue, Z. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “High hole concentration in p-type AlGaN by indium-surfactant-assisted Mg-delta doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 162102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L. W.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Sheng, W. D. Hu, and L. W. Cheng, “Efficiency enhancement of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with an AlGaN-GaN-AlGaN electron blocking layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chhajed, S.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.-Y.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, H. K.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, J. Rass, H. K. Cho, S. Hagedorn, S. Einfeldt, M. Kneissl, and M. Weyers, “Effect of electron blocking layer doping and composition on the performance of 310 nm light emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(12), 1396 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, J.

J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: Challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chu, C.

Z.-H. Zhang, S.-W. Huang Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Li, S.-W. Wang, K. Tian, C. Chu, M. Fang, H.-C. Kuo, and W. Bi, “Hole transport manipulation to improve the hole injection for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1846–1850 (2017).
[Crossref]

Clafin, B.

S. D. Burnham, G. Namkoong, D. C. Look, B. Clafin, and W. A. Doolittle, “Reproducible increased Mg incorporation and large hole concentration in GaN using metal modulated epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 024902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Collazo, R.

R. Collazo, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Progress on n-type doping of AlGaN alloys on AlN single crystal substrates for UV optoelectronic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2031–2033 (2011).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Csoma, Z.

L. Kemény, Z. Csoma, E. Bagdi, A. H. Banham, L. Krenács, and A. Koreck, “Targeted phototherapy of plaque-type psoriasis using ultraviolet B-light-emitting diodes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163(1), 167–173 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, Q.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dalmau, R.

R. Collazo, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Progress on n-type doping of AlGaN alloys on AlN single crystal substrates for UV optoelectronic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2031–2033 (2011).
[Crossref]

Das, D.

M.-H. Chang, D. Das, P. V. Varde, and M. Pecht, “Light emitting diodes reliability review,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 762–782 (2012).
[Crossref]

Davitt, K.

Doolittle, W. A.

A. M. Fischer, S. Wang, F. A. Ponce, B. P. Gunning, C. M. Fabien, and W. A. Doolittle, “Origin of high hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN films,” Phys. Status Solidi 254(8), 1600668 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. D. Burnham, G. Namkoong, D. C. Look, B. Clafin, and W. A. Doolittle, “Reproducible increased Mg incorporation and large hole concentration in GaN using metal modulated epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 024902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ebata, K.

K. Ebata, J. Nishinaka, Y. Taniyasu, and K. Kumakura, “High hole concentration in Mg-doped AlN/AlGaN superlattices with high Al content,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(4S), 04FH09 (2018).
[Crossref]

Einfeldt, S.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, J. Rass, H. K. Cho, S. Hagedorn, S. Einfeldt, M. Kneissl, and M. Weyers, “Effect of electron blocking layer doping and composition on the performance of 310 nm light emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(12), 1396 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabien, C. M.

A. M. Fischer, S. Wang, F. A. Ponce, B. P. Gunning, C. M. Fabien, and W. A. Doolittle, “Origin of high hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN films,” Phys. Status Solidi 254(8), 1600668 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fang, M.

Z.-H. Zhang, S.-W. Huang Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Li, S.-W. Wang, K. Tian, C. Chu, M. Fang, H.-C. Kuo, and W. Bi, “Hole transport manipulation to improve the hole injection for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1846–1850 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, I.

Z. Liu, J. Ma, X. Yi, E. Guo, L. Wang, J. Wang, N. Lu, J. Li, I. Ferguson, and A. Melton, “p-InGaN/AlGaN electron blocking layer for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(26), 261106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. M.

A. M. Fischer, S. Wang, F. A. Ponce, B. P. Gunning, C. M. Fabien, and W. A. Doolittle, “Origin of high hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN films,” Phys. Status Solidi 254(8), 1600668 (2017).
[Crossref]

Forsberg, U.

A. Kakanakova‐Georgieva, D. Nilsson, M. Stattin, U. Forsberg, Å. Haglund, A. Larsson, and E. Janzén, “Mg-doped Al0.85Ga0.15N layers grown by hot-wall MOCVD with low resistivity at room temperature,” Physica Status Solidi (RRL) –. Rapid Research Letters 4(11), 311–313 (2010).

Fujikawa, S.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gang Ju, Z.

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Gang Ju, X. Liang Zhang, W. Liu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “Influence of n-type versus p-type AlGaN electron-blocking layer on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 053512 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Gao, M. He, J. Zhou, Y. Lei, L. Zhang, K. Zhu, and Y. Chen, “Effect of polarization-matched n-type AlGaInN electron-blocking layer on the optoelectronic properties of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 244–248 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gherasimova, M.

Gim, J.

A. Aiello, A. Pandey, A. Bhattacharya, J. Gim, X. Liu, D. A. Laleyan, R. Hovden, Z. Mi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Optical and interface characteristics of Al0.56Ga0.44N/Al0.62Ga0.38N multiquantum wells with ∼280 nm emission grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 508, 66–71 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gunning, B. P.

A. M. Fischer, S. Wang, F. A. Ponce, B. P. Gunning, C. M. Fabien, and W. A. Doolittle, “Origin of high hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN films,” Phys. Status Solidi 254(8), 1600668 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, E.

Z. Liu, J. Ma, X. Yi, E. Guo, L. Wang, J. Wang, N. Lu, J. Li, I. Ferguson, and A. Melton, “p-InGaN/AlGaN electron blocking layer for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(26), 261106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hagedorn, S.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, J. Rass, H. K. Cho, S. Hagedorn, S. Einfeldt, M. Kneissl, and M. Weyers, “Effect of electron blocking layer doping and composition on the performance of 310 nm light emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(12), 1396 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haglund, Å.

A. Kakanakova‐Georgieva, D. Nilsson, M. Stattin, U. Forsberg, Å. Haglund, A. Larsson, and E. Janzén, “Mg-doped Al0.85Ga0.15N layers grown by hot-wall MOCVD with low resistivity at room temperature,” Physica Status Solidi (RRL) –. Rapid Research Letters 4(11), 311–313 (2010).

Han, E.

Y. Chen, H. Wu, E. Han, G. Yue, Z. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “High hole concentration in p-type AlGaN by indium-surfactant-assisted Mg-delta doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 162102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

Han, S.-H.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, Y.

Z. Li, J. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Han, Y. Xia, Y. Huang, J. Yin, and S. Hu, “High conductivity of Mg-Doped Al0.3Ga0.7N with Al0.4Ga0.6N/AlN superlattice structure,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2014, 784918 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hasanov, N.

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Liu, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, B. Zhu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “On the origin of the electron blocking effect by an n-type AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 073511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hassan, Z.

G. Alahyarizadeh, M. Amirhoseiny, and Z. Hassan, “Effect of different EBL structures on deep violet InGaN laser diodes performance,” Opt. Laser Technol. 76, 106–112 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, M.

Y. Li, Y. Gao, M. He, J. Zhou, Y. Lei, L. Zhang, K. Zhu, and Y. Chen, “Effect of polarization-matched n-type AlGaInN electron-blocking layer on the optoelectronic properties of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 244–248 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, H.

M. A. Khan, N. Maeda, M. Jo, Y. Akamatsu, R. Tanabe, Y. Yamada, and H. Hirayama, “13 mW operation of a 295–310 nm AlGaN UV-B LED with a p-AlGaN transparent contact layer for real world applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 7(1), 143–152 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Maeda, M. Jo, and H. Hirayama, “Improving the efficiency of AlGaN deep-UV LEDs by using highly reflective Ni/Al p-type electrodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(8), 1700435 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, Y. Osada, H. Takagi, and H. Hirayama, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. T. Tran and H. Hirayama, “Growth and fabrication of high external quantum efficiency AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on pattern Si substrate,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12176 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jo, N. Maeda, and H. Hirayama, “Enhanced light extraction in 260 nm light-emitting diode with a highly transparent p-AlGaN layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(1), 012102 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hovden, R.

A. Aiello, A. Pandey, A. Bhattacharya, J. Gim, X. Liu, D. A. Laleyan, R. Hovden, Z. Mi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Optical and interface characteristics of Al0.56Ga0.44N/Al0.62Ga0.38N multiquantum wells with ∼280 nm emission grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 508, 66–71 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T.

S. Yen, M. Tsai, M. Tsai, Y. Shen, T. Hsu, and Y. Kuo, “Effect of n-type AlGaN layer on carrier transportation and efficiency droop of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(14), 975–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hu, S.

Z. Li, J. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Han, Y. Xia, Y. Huang, J. Yin, and S. Hu, “High conductivity of Mg-Doped Al0.3Ga0.7N with Al0.4Ga0.6N/AlN superlattice structure,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2014, 784918 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, W. D.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Sheng, W. D. Hu, and L. W. Cheng, “Efficiency enhancement of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with an AlGaN-GaN-AlGaN electron blocking layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Z. Li, J. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Han, Y. Xia, Y. Huang, J. Yin, and S. Hu, “High conductivity of Mg-Doped Al0.3Ga0.7N with Al0.4Ga0.6N/AlN superlattice structure,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2014, 784918 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang Chen, S.-W.

Z.-H. Zhang, S.-W. Huang Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Li, S.-W. Wang, K. Tian, C. Chu, M. Fang, H.-C. Kuo, and W. Bi, “Hole transport manipulation to improve the hole injection for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1846–1850 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Inoue, S.

S. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Iwai, T.

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, Y. Osada, H. Takagi, and H. Hirayama, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Iwaya, M.

K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Electrical properties of n-type AlGaN with high Si concentration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(5S), 05FE02 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jamal-Eddine, Z.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Janzén, E.

A. Kakanakova‐Georgieva, D. Nilsson, M. Stattin, U. Forsberg, Å. Haglund, A. Larsson, and E. Janzén, “Mg-doped Al0.85Ga0.15N layers grown by hot-wall MOCVD with low resistivity at room temperature,” Physica Status Solidi (RRL) –. Rapid Research Letters 4(11), 311–313 (2010).

Ji, Y.

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Liu, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, B. Zhu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “On the origin of the electron blocking effect by an n-type AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 073511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Gang Ju, X. Liang Zhang, W. Liu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “Influence of n-type versus p-type AlGaN electron-blocking layer on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 053512 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Y. Chen, H. Wu, E. Han, G. Yue, Z. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “High hole concentration in p-type AlGaN by indium-surfactant-assisted Mg-delta doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 162102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, J. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Han, Y. Xia, Y. Huang, J. Yin, and S. Hu, “High conductivity of Mg-Doped Al0.3Ga0.7N with Al0.4Ga0.6N/AlN superlattice structure,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2014, 784918 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091903 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. M. Al tahtamouni, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Si-doped high Al-content AlGaN epilayers with improved quality and conductivity using indium as a surfactant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092105 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. B. Nam, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Mg acceptor level in AlN probed by deep ultraviolet photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 878–880 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jo, M.

M. A. Khan, N. Maeda, M. Jo, Y. Akamatsu, R. Tanabe, Y. Yamada, and H. Hirayama, “13 mW operation of a 295–310 nm AlGaN UV-B LED with a p-AlGaN transparent contact layer for real world applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 7(1), 143–152 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Maeda, M. Jo, and H. Hirayama, “Improving the efficiency of AlGaN deep-UV LEDs by using highly reflective Ni/Al p-type electrodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(8), 1700435 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, Y. Osada, H. Takagi, and H. Hirayama, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Jo, N. Maeda, and H. Hirayama, “Enhanced light extraction in 260 nm light-emitting diode with a highly transparent p-AlGaN layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(1), 012102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Johnson, J. M.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ju, Z.

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Liu, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, B. Zhu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “On the origin of the electron blocking effect by an n-type AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 073511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kakanakova-Georgieva, A.

A. Kakanakova‐Georgieva, D. Nilsson, M. Stattin, U. Forsberg, Å. Haglund, A. Larsson, and E. Janzén, “Mg-doped Al0.85Ga0.15N layers grown by hot-wall MOCVD with low resistivity at room temperature,” Physica Status Solidi (RRL) –. Rapid Research Letters 4(11), 311–313 (2010).

Kamata, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kamimura, R.

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, Y. Osada, H. Takagi, and H. Hirayama, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, S.

K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Electrical properties of n-type AlGaN with high Si concentration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(5S), 05FE02 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. Y.

T. C. Zheng, W. Lin, R. Liu, D. J. Cai, J. C. Li, S. P. Li, and J. Y. Kang, “Improved p-type conductivity in Al-rich AlGaN using multidimensional Mg-doped superlattices,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21897 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kao, C.

Y. Liao, C. Thomidis, C. Kao, and T. D. Moustakas, “AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes with high internal quantum efficiency grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kashima, Y.

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, Y. Osada, H. Takagi, and H. Hirayama, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kasu, M.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and N. Kobayashi, “Intentional control of n-type conduction for Si-doped AlN and AlXGa1−XN (0.42⩽x<1),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1255–1257 (2002).
[Crossref]

Katona, T.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kemény, L.

L. Kemény, Z. Csoma, E. Bagdi, A. H. Banham, L. Krenács, and A. Koreck, “Targeted phototherapy of plaque-type psoriasis using ultraviolet B-light-emitting diodes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163(1), 167–173 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, A.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. A.

M. A. Khan, N. Maeda, M. Jo, Y. Akamatsu, R. Tanabe, Y. Yamada, and H. Hirayama, “13 mW operation of a 295–310 nm AlGaN UV-B LED with a p-AlGaN transparent contact layer for real world applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 7(1), 143–152 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-J.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

B. So, J. Kim, E. Shin, T. Kwak, T. Kim, and O. Nam, “Efficiency improvement of deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with gradient electron blocking layers,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700677 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: Challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.-H.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.

B. So, J. Kim, E. Shin, T. Kwak, T. Kim, and O. Nam, “Efficiency improvement of deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with gradient electron blocking layers,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700677 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. C.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kinoshita, T.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, J. Rass, H. K. Cho, S. Hagedorn, S. Einfeldt, M. Kneissl, and M. Weyers, “Effect of electron blocking layer doping and composition on the performance of 310 nm light emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(12), 1396 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kneissl, M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, J. Rass, H. K. Cho, S. Hagedorn, S. Einfeldt, M. Kneissl, and M. Weyers, “Effect of electron blocking layer doping and composition on the performance of 310 nm light emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(12), 1396 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, N.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and N. Kobayashi, “Intentional control of n-type conduction for Si-doped AlN and AlXGa1−XN (0.42⩽x<1),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1255–1257 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kokubo, M.

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, Y. Osada, H. Takagi, and H. Hirayama, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, T.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, J. Rass, H. K. Cho, S. Hagedorn, S. Einfeldt, M. Kneissl, and M. Weyers, “Effect of electron blocking layer doping and composition on the performance of 310 nm light emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(12), 1396 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koleske, D. D.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M.-H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koreck, A.

L. Kemény, Z. Csoma, E. Bagdi, A. H. Banham, L. Krenács, and A. Koreck, “Targeted phototherapy of plaque-type psoriasis using ultraviolet B-light-emitting diodes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163(1), 167–173 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koukitu, A.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krenács, L.

L. Kemény, Z. Csoma, E. Bagdi, A. H. Banham, L. Krenács, and A. Koreck, “Targeted phototherapy of plaque-type psoriasis using ultraviolet B-light-emitting diodes,” Br. J. Dermatol. 163(1), 167–173 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumagai, Y.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kumakura, K.

K. Ebata, J. Nishinaka, Y. Taniyasu, and K. Kumakura, “High hole concentration in Mg-doped AlN/AlGaN superlattices with high Al content,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(4S), 04FH09 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

L. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, W. Bi, Z.-H. Zhang, and H.-C. Kuo, “On the hole injection for III-nitride based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(10), 1221 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S.-W. Huang Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Li, S.-W. Wang, K. Tian, C. Chu, M. Fang, H.-C. Kuo, and W. Bi, “Hole transport manipulation to improve the hole injection for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1846–1850 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.

S. Yen, M. Tsai, M. Tsai, Y. Shen, T. Hsu, and Y. Kuo, “Effect of n-type AlGaN layer on carrier transportation and efficiency droop of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(14), 975–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kwak, T.

B. So, J. Kim, E. Shin, T. Kwak, T. Kim, and O. Nam, “Efficiency improvement of deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with gradient electron blocking layers,” Phys. Status Solidi 215(10), 1700677 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kwon, M.-K.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kyaw, Z.

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Liu, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, B. Zhu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “On the origin of the electron blocking effect by an n-type AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 073511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Gang Ju, X. Liang Zhang, W. Liu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “Influence of n-type versus p-type AlGaN electron-blocking layer on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 053512 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laleyan, D. A.

A. Aiello, A. Pandey, A. Bhattacharya, J. Gim, X. Liu, D. A. Laleyan, R. Hovden, Z. Mi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Optical and interface characteristics of Al0.56Ga0.44N/Al0.62Ga0.38N multiquantum wells with ∼280 nm emission grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 508, 66–71 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. A. Laleyan, X. Liu, A. Pandey, W. J. Shin, E. T. Reid, K. Mashooq, M. Soltani, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of Al0.6Ga0.4N epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 507, 87–92 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, A. Pandey, D. A. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. T. Reid, W. J. Shin, and Z. Mi, “Charge carrier transport properties of Mg-doped Al 0.6 Ga 0.4 N grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(8), 085005 (2018).
[Crossref]

Larsson, A.

A. Kakanakova‐Georgieva, D. Nilsson, M. Stattin, U. Forsberg, Å. Haglund, A. Larsson, and E. Janzén, “Mg-doped Al0.85Ga0.15N layers grown by hot-wall MOCVD with low resistivity at room temperature,” Physica Status Solidi (RRL) –. Rapid Research Letters 4(11), 311–313 (2010).

Le, B. H.

Lee, D.-Y.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. P.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-J.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lei, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Gao, M. He, J. Zhou, Y. Lei, L. Zhang, K. Zhu, and Y. Chen, “Effect of polarization-matched n-type AlGaInN electron-blocking layer on the optoelectronic properties of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 244–248 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Z. Li, J. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Han, Y. Xia, Y. Huang, J. Yin, and S. Hu, “High conductivity of Mg-Doped Al0.3Ga0.7N with Al0.4Ga0.6N/AlN superlattice structure,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2014, 784918 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Ma, X. Yi, E. Guo, L. Wang, J. Wang, N. Lu, J. Li, I. Ferguson, and A. Melton, “p-InGaN/AlGaN electron blocking layer for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(26), 261106 (2012).
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K. B. Nam, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Mg acceptor level in AlN probed by deep ultraviolet photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 878–880 (2003).
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H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
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Tweedie, J.

R. Collazo, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Progress on n-type doping of AlGaN alloys on AlN single crystal substrates for UV optoelectronic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2031–2033 (2011).
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Van de Walle, C. G.

C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Theoretical investigation of native defects, impurities, and complexes in aluminum nitride,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(15), 155212 (2002).
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C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Doping of AlxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 459–461 (1998).
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Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Gang Ju, X. Liang Zhang, W. Liu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “Influence of n-type versus p-type AlGaN electron-blocking layer on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 053512 (2013).
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Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Gang Ju, X. Liang Zhang, W. Liu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “Influence of n-type versus p-type AlGaN electron-blocking layer on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 053512 (2013).
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Xie, J.

R. Collazo, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Progress on n-type doping of AlGaN alloys on AlN single crystal substrates for UV optoelectronic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2031–2033 (2011).
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L. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, W. Bi, Z.-H. Zhang, and H.-C. Kuo, “On the hole injection for III-nitride based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(10), 1221 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, Y.

M. A. Khan, N. Maeda, M. Jo, Y. Akamatsu, R. Tanabe, Y. Yamada, and H. Hirayama, “13 mW operation of a 295–310 nm AlGaN UV-B LED with a p-AlGaN transparent contact layer for real world applications,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 7(1), 143–152 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yanagi, H.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yen, S.

S. Yen, M. Tsai, M. Tsai, Y. Shen, T. Hsu, and Y. Kuo, “Effect of n-type AlGaN layer on carrier transportation and efficiency droop of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(14), 975–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yi, X.

Z. Liu, J. Ma, X. Yi, E. Guo, L. Wang, J. Wang, N. Lu, J. Li, I. Ferguson, and A. Melton, “p-InGaN/AlGaN electron blocking layer for InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(26), 261106 (2012).
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Y. Chen, H. Wu, E. Han, G. Yue, Z. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “High hole concentration in p-type AlGaN by indium-surfactant-assisted Mg-delta doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 162102 (2015).
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Zhang, L.

Y. Li, Y. Gao, M. He, J. Zhou, Y. Lei, L. Zhang, K. Zhu, and Y. Chen, “Effect of polarization-matched n-type AlGaInN electron-blocking layer on the optoelectronic properties of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 244–248 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Liu, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, B. Zhu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “On the origin of the electron blocking effect by an n-type AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 073511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S.-W. Huang Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Li, S.-W. Wang, K. Tian, C. Chu, M. Fang, H.-C. Kuo, and W. Bi, “Hole transport manipulation to improve the hole injection for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1846–1850 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, W. Bi, Z.-H. Zhang, and H.-C. Kuo, “On the hole injection for III-nitride based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(10), 1221 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Liu, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, B. Zhu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “On the origin of the electron blocking effect by an n-type AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 073511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. H.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Sheng, W. D. Hu, and L. W. Cheng, “Efficiency enhancement of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with an AlGaN-GaN-AlGaN electron blocking layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.-H.

L. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, W. Bi, Z.-H. Zhang, and H.-C. Kuo, “On the hole injection for III-nitride based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Materials (Basel) 10(10), 1221 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S.-W. Huang Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Li, S.-W. Wang, K. Tian, C. Chu, M. Fang, H.-C. Kuo, and W. Bi, “Hole transport manipulation to improve the hole injection for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1846–1850 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Liu, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, B. Zhu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “On the origin of the electron blocking effect by an n-type AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 073511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Gang Ju, X. Liang Zhang, W. Liu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “Influence of n-type versus p-type AlGaN electron-blocking layer on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 053512 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

Zheng, T. C.

T. C. Zheng, W. Lin, R. Liu, D. J. Cai, J. C. Li, S. P. Li, and J. Y. Kang, “Improved p-type conductivity in Al-rich AlGaN using multidimensional Mg-doped superlattices,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21897 (2016).
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Zhou, J.

Y. Li, Y. Gao, M. He, J. Zhou, Y. Lei, L. Zhang, K. Zhu, and Y. Chen, “Effect of polarization-matched n-type AlGaInN electron-blocking layer on the optoelectronic properties of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 244–248 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Liu, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, B. Zhu, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “On the origin of the electron blocking effect by an n-type AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(7), 073511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, K.

Y. Li, Y. Gao, M. He, J. Zhou, Y. Lei, L. Zhang, K. Zhu, and Y. Chen, “Effect of polarization-matched n-type AlGaInN electron-blocking layer on the optoelectronic properties of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 244–248 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

Z.-H. Zhang, S.-W. Huang Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Li, S.-W. Wang, K. Tian, C. Chu, M. Fang, H.-C. Kuo, and W. Bi, “Hole transport manipulation to improve the hole injection for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1846–1850 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. (1)

Z. Li, J. Li, H. Jiang, Y. Han, Y. Xia, Y. Huang, J. Yin, and S. Hu, “High conductivity of Mg-Doped Al0.3Ga0.7N with Al0.4Ga0.6N/AlN superlattice structure,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2014, 784918 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (5)

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Sun and T. D. Moustakas, “UV emitters based on an AlGaN p–n junction in the form of graded-index separate confinement heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(1), 012104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, Y. Osada, H. Takagi, and H. Hirayama, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Jo, N. Maeda, and H. Hirayama, “Enhanced light extraction in 260 nm light-emitting diode with a highly transparent p-AlGaN layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(1), 012102 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 141106 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Doping of AlxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 459–461 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Wu, E. Han, G. Yue, Z. Chen, Z. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “High hole concentration in p-type AlGaN by indium-surfactant-assisted Mg-delta doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 162102 (2015).
[Crossref]

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See http://my.ece.ucsb.edu/mgrundmann/bandeng.htm for one-dimensional Poisson-Schrödinger solver.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of AlGaN mid-UV LEDs with the incorporation of (a) a p-type AlN/AlGaN superlattice electron blocking layer (EBL) and (b) an n-type AlN/AlGaN superlattice EBL. Equilibrium energy band diagram for the LED heterostructures with (c) a p-type AlN/AlGaN superlattice EBL and (d) an n-type AlN/AlGaN superlattice EBL.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 I-V characteristics for AlGaN mid-UV LEDs measured at room temperature. Blue curve: LED A with 10 × p-AlN/Al0.7Ga0.3N superlattice EBL; Black curve: LED B with 10 × n-AlN/Al0.7Ga0.3N superlattice EBL; Red curve: LED C with 20 × n-AlN/Al0.7Ga0.3N superlattice EBL. The inset shows a top-emitting 100 μm × 100 μm device from sample B at a current density of ~50 A/cm2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Normalized electroluminescence spectra measured at 100 A/cm2 at room temperature for LED A (10 × p-AlN/Al0.7Ga0.3N superlattice EBL) and LED B (10 × n-AlN/Al0.7Ga0.3N superlattice EBL). (b) Spectral linewidths versus current density for LEDs A and B. (c) Peak wavelength versus current density for LEDs A and B. The measurement error bars are also shown in (b) and (c).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) External quantum efficiency (EQE), (b) power density, and (c) wall-plug efficiency (WPE) versus current density measured at room temperature for LED A (10 × p-AlN/Al0.7Ga0.3N superlattice EBL), LED B (10 × n-AlN/Al0.7Ga0.3N superlattice EBL), and LED C (20 × n-AlN/Al0.7Ga0.3N superlattice EBL).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 List of AlGaN mid-UV LED samples with different electron blocking layer (EBL) designs.

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