Abstract

A silver grating containing three grooves with different depths in one period was proposed as the back electrode for improving light absorption in organic solar cells. We found that the broadband absorption enhancement of the active layer covering the visible and near-infrared bands can be obtained due to the excitation of surface plasmon resonance and the multiple resonances of cavity mode. The integrated absorption efficiency of the proposed structure under TM polarization between 350 nm to 900 nm is 57.4%, with consideration of the weight of AM 1.5G solar spectrum, and is increased by 13.4% with respect to the equivalent planar device. Besides, the wide-angle absorption in proposed structure can be observed in the range from 0 to 50 degrees. These findings are of great importance for rationally designing composite nanostructures of metal gratings–based absorbers for sensing and photon-detecting applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

B. Godefroid and G. Kozyreff, “Photonic enhancement of parallel homo-tandem solar cells through the central electrode,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 193, 73–79 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

K. Xu, “Monolithically integrated Si gate-controlled light-emitting device: science and properties,” J. Opt. 20(2), 024014 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Xu, L. Huang, Z. Zhang, J. Zhao, Z. Zhang, L. W. Snyman, and J. W. Swart, “Light emission from a poly-silicon device with carrier injection engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 231, 28–31 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

Y. Zhang, Y. X. Cui, T. Ji, Y. Y. Hao, and F. R. Zhu, “Absorption enhancement in thin organic solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent anode based on short-pitched metallic grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 8400207 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Wu, J. Lai, S. Wang, X. Li, and Y. Huang, “UV-visible broadband wide-angle polarization-insensitive absorber based on metal groove structures with multiple depths,” Appl. Opt. 56(21), 5844–5848 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Liu, Q. B. Liang, G. H. Li, X. Y. Gao, W. Y. Wang, Q. Q. Zhan, T. Ji, Y. Y. Hao, and Y. X. Cui, “Improved efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells by incorporation of AuAg-alloyed nanoprisms,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 7(4), 1036–1041 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Hao, Y. Hao, Q. Sun, Y. Cui, Z. Li, T. Ji, H. Wang, and F. Zhu, “Broadband EQE enhancement in organic solar cells with multiple-shaped silver nanoparticles: Optical coupling and interfacial engineering,” Mater. Today Energy 3, 84–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. T. Dang, T. K. Nguyen, and K. Q. Le, “Revisited design optimization of metallic gratings for plasmonic light-trapping enhancement in thin organic solar cells,” Opt. Commun. 382, 241–245 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

C. R. Singh, T. Honold, T. P. Gujar, M. Retsch, A. Fery, M. Karg, and M. Thelakkat, “The role of colloidal plasmonic nanostructures in organic solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(33), 23155–23163 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mariano, G. Kozyreff, L. G. Gerling, P. Romero-Gomez, J. Puigdollers, J. Bravo-Abad, and J. Martorell, “Intermittent chaos for ergodic light trapping in a photonic fiber plate,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(12), e16216 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Luo, X. Ren, S. Zhang, H. Wu, W. C. H. Choy, Z. He, and Y. Cao, “Recent advances in organic photovoltaics: Device structure and optical engineering optimization on the nanoscale,” Small 12(12), 1547–1571 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Hao, W. Y. Wang, Y. X. Cui, Q. J. Sun, T. Ji, Z. F. Li, H. Wang, and F. R. Zhu, “Incorporating silver-SiO2 core-shell nanocubes for simultaneous broadband absorption and charge collection enhancements in organic solar cells,” Synth. Met. 220, 612–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Lampande, G. W. Kim, M. J. Park, B. Y. Kang, and J. H. Kwon, “Efficient light harvesting in inverted polymer solar cells using polymeric 2D-microstructures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 151, 162–168 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, J. D. Chen, S. Shen, J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, and S. T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Agarwal, K. Xiu, M. Bajaj, J. B. Johnson, S. Furkay, P. Oldiges, and K. V. R. M. Murali, “Finite element based three dimensional Schrödinger solver for nano-scale devices,” J. Comput. Electron. 14(1), 163–166 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tian, Y. Y. Hao, Y. Zhang, Y. X. Cui, T. Ji, H. Wang, B. Wei, and W. Huang, “Omnidirectional and broadband optical absorption enhancement in small molecule organic solar cells by a patterned MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent anode,” Opt. Commun. 338, 226–232 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. X. Cui, W. Y. Wang, K. H. Fung, T. Ji, Y. Y. Hao, and F. R. Zhu, “Absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with a built-in short-pitch plasmonic grating,” Plasmonics 10(4), 773–781 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mariano, F. J. Rodríguez, P. Romero-Gomez, G. Kozyreff, and J. Martorell, “Light coupling into the Whispering Gallery Modes of a fiber array thin film solar cell for fixed partial Sun tracking,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4959 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Yang, Y. Zhang, Y. Hao, Y. Cui, W. Wang, T. Ji, F. Shi, and B. Wei, “Visibly transparent organic photovoltaic with improved transparency and absorption based on tandem photonic crystal for greenhouse application,” Appl. Opt. 54(34), 10232–10239 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hao, J. C. Song, F. Yang, Y. Y. Hao, Q. J. Sun, J. J. Guo, Y. X. Cui, H. Wang, and F. R. Zhu, “Improved performance of organic solar cells by incorporating silica-coated silver nanoparticles in the buffer layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(5), 1082–1090 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tian, Y. Zhang, Y. Y. Hao, Y. X. Cui, W. Y. Wang, F. Shi, H. Wang, B. Wei, and W. Huang, “Semitransparent inverted organic solar cell with improved absorption and reasonable transparency perception based on the nanopatterned MoO3/Ag/MoO3 anode,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093043 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lee, J. Lim, N. Lee, H. I. Park, K. E. Lee, T. Jeon, S. A. Nam, J. Kim, J. Shin, and S. O. Kim, “Synergistic concurrent enhancement of charge generation, dissociation, and transport in organic solar cells with plasmonic metal-carbon nanotube hybrids,” Adv. Mater. 27(9), 1519–1525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

Y. Long, Y. Li, and R. Su, “Simultaneously improving optical absorption of both transverse-electric polarized and transverse-magnetic polarized light for organic solar cells with Ag grating used as transparent electrode,” AIP Adv. 4(8), 087143 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Jung, H. J. Song, G. Lee, Y. Ko, K. Ahn, H. Choi, J. Y. Kim, K. Ha, J. Song, J. K. Lee, C. Lee, and M. Choi, “Plasmonic organic solar cells employing nanobump assembly via aerosol-derived nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 8(3), 2590–2601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. F. König, P. A. Ledin, J. Kerszulis, M. A. Mahmoud, M. A. El-Sayed, J. R. Reynolds, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Electrically tunable plasmonic behavior of nanocube-polymer nanomaterials induced by a redox-active electrochromic polymer,” ACS Nano 8(6), 6182–6192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Hao, Y. X. Cui, X. M. Tian, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, F. Shi, B. Wei, and W. Huang, “High-efficiency, broad-band and wide-angle optical absorption in ultra-thin organic photovoltaic devices,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A376–A385 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tian, W. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Hao, Y. Y. Lin, Y. X. Cui, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, B. Wei, and B. S. Xu, “Omnidirectional and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement in an organic photovoltaic device using a one-dimensional nanograting,” J. Mod. Opt. 61(21), 1714–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

X. L. Zhang, J. F. Song, X. B. Li, J. Feng, and H. B. Sun, “Anti-reflection resonance in distributed Bragg reflectors-based ultrathin highly absorbing dielectric and its application in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 103901 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. D. G. I. Jayawardena, L. J. Rozanski, C. A. Mills, M. J. Beliatis, N. A. Nismy, and S. R. P. Silva, “‘Inorganics-in-organics’: recent developments and outlook for 4G polymer solar cells,” Nanoscale 5(18), 8411–8427 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. B. Zeng, Q. Q. Gan, Z. H. Kafafi, and F. J. Bartoli, “Polymeric photovoltaics with various metallic plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063109 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, C. C. Chueh, C. Z. Li, H. L. Yip, P. P. Yin, H. Z. Chen, W. C. Chen, and A. K. Y. Jen, “High-efficiency polymer solar cells achieved by doping plasmonic metallic nanoparticles into dual charge selecting interfacial layers to enhance light trapping,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 666–673 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Janković, Y. M. Yang, J. You, L. Dou, Y. Liu, P. Cheung, J. P. Chang, and Y. Yang, “Active layer-incorporated, spectrally tuned Au/SiO2 core/shell nanorod-based light trapping for organic photovoltaics,” ACS Nano 7(5), 3815–3822 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Plasmonic-enhanced organic photovoltaics: Breaking the 10% efficiency barrier,” Adv. Mater. 25(17), 2385–2396 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lu, Z. Luo, T. Xu, and L. Yu, “Cooperative plasmonic effect of Ag and Au nanoparticles on enhancing performance of polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 59–64 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

Y. S. Hsiao, S. Charan, F. Y. Wu, F. C. Chien, C. W. Chu, P. L. Chen, and F. C. Chen, “Improving the light trapping efficiency of plasmonic polymer solar cells through photon management,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(39), 20731–20737 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. B. You, X. H. Li, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, and Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low-bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. W. Liu and Z. J. Sun, “Plasmon resonances in deep nanogrooves of reflective metal gratings,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(1), 119–125 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. L. Li, “Metal assisted chemical etching for high aspect ratio nanostructures: A review of characteristics and applications in photovoltaics,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 16(2), 71–81 (2012).
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H.-L. Yip and A. K. Y. Jen, “Recent advances in solution-processed interfacial materials for efficient and stable polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(3), 5994–6011 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Søndergaard, M. Hösel, D. Angmo, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, and F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-roll fabrication of polymer solar cells,” Mater. Today 15(1-2), 36–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Q. Le, A. Abass, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, and A. Alù, “Comparing plasmonic and dielectric gratings for absorption enhancement in thin-film organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 20, A39–A50 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ye, S. Chaudhary, P. Kuang, and K.-M. Ho, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in polymer photovoltaics using metal nanowall gratings as transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12213–12221 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

A. Abass, H. H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023111 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
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Y. F. Liu and J. Kim, “Polarization-diverse broadband absorption enhancement in thin-film photovoltaic devices using long-pitch metallic gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(8), 1934–1939 (2011).
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M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic backcontact grating for P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells enabling strong optical absorption increased in all polarizations,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14200–14209 (2011).
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2010 (4)

J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1457–1464 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

D. Felbacq, G. Bouchitte, B. Guizal, and A. Moreau, “Two-scale approach to the homogenization of membrane photonic crystals,” J. Nanophoton 2, 023501 (2008).

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. Günes, H. Neugebauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Conjugated polymer-based organic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1324–1338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. K. Popov, N. Bonod, and S. Enoch, “Comparison of plasmon surface waves on shallow and deep metallic 1D and 2D gratings,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4224–4237 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, K. Lee, W. L. Ma, X. Gong, and A. J. Heeger, “New architecture for high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells using solution-based titanium oxide as an optical spacer,” Adv. Mater. 18(5), 572–576 (2006).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Abass, A.

K. Q. Le, A. Abass, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, and A. Alù, “Comparing plasmonic and dielectric gratings for absorption enhancement in thin-film organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 20, A39–A50 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Abass, H. H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, S.

S. Agarwal, K. Xiu, M. Bajaj, J. B. Johnson, S. Furkay, P. Oldiges, and K. V. R. M. Murali, “Finite element based three dimensional Schrödinger solver for nano-scale devices,” J. Comput. Electron. 14(1), 163–166 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ahn, K.

K. Jung, H. J. Song, G. Lee, Y. Ko, K. Ahn, H. Choi, J. Y. Kim, K. Ha, J. Song, J. K. Lee, C. Lee, and M. Choi, “Plasmonic organic solar cells employing nanobump assembly via aerosol-derived nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 8(3), 2590–2601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

Angmo, D.

R. Søndergaard, M. Hösel, D. Angmo, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, and F. C. Krebs, “Roll-to-roll fabrication of polymer solar cells,” Mater. Today 15(1-2), 36–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajaj, M.

S. Agarwal, K. Xiu, M. Bajaj, J. B. Johnson, S. Furkay, P. Oldiges, and K. V. R. M. Murali, “Finite element based three dimensional Schrödinger solver for nano-scale devices,” J. Comput. Electron. 14(1), 163–166 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bartoli, F. J.

B. B. Zeng, Q. Q. Gan, Z. H. Kafafi, and F. J. Bartoli, “Polymeric photovoltaics with various metallic plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Gan, F. J. Bartoli, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Plasmonic-enhanced organic photovoltaics: Breaking the 10% efficiency barrier,” Adv. Mater. 25(17), 2385–2396 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beermann, J.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behymer, E. M.

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beliatis, M. J.

K. D. G. I. Jayawardena, L. J. Rozanski, C. A. Mills, M. J. Beliatis, N. A. Nismy, and S. R. P. Silva, “‘Inorganics-in-organics’: recent developments and outlook for 4G polymer solar cells,” Nanoscale 5(18), 8411–8427 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

K. Q. Le, A. Abass, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, and A. Alù, “Comparing plasmonic and dielectric gratings for absorption enhancement in thin-film organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 20, A39–A50 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Abass, H. H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bond, T. C.

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonod, N.

Bora, M.

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borghs, G.

J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1457–1464 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouchitte, G.

D. Felbacq, G. Bouchitte, B. Guizal, and A. Moreau, “Two-scale approach to the homogenization of membrane photonic crystals,” J. Nanophoton 2, 023501 (2008).

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bravo-Abad, J.

M. Mariano, G. Kozyreff, L. G. Gerling, P. Romero-Gomez, J. Puigdollers, J. Bravo-Abad, and J. Martorell, “Intermittent chaos for ergodic light trapping in a photonic fiber plate,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(12), e16216 (2016).
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Britten, J. A.

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

G. Luo, X. Ren, S. Zhang, H. Wu, W. C. H. Choy, Z. He, and Y. Cao, “Recent advances in organic photovoltaics: Device structure and optical engineering optimization on the nanoscale,” Small 12(12), 1547–1571 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Catchpole, K. R.

Chan, J. W.

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, A. S. P.

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, J. P.

V. Janković, Y. M. Yang, J. You, L. Dou, Y. Liu, P. Cheung, J. P. Chang, and Y. Yang, “Active layer-incorporated, spectrally tuned Au/SiO2 core/shell nanorod-based light trapping for organic photovoltaics,” ACS Nano 7(5), 3815–3822 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charan, S.

Y. S. Hsiao, S. Charan, F. Y. Wu, F. C. Chien, C. W. Chu, P. L. Chen, and F. C. Chen, “Improving the light trapping efficiency of plasmonic polymer solar cells through photon management,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(39), 20731–20737 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chaudhary, S.

Chen, F. C.

Y. S. Hsiao, S. Charan, F. Y. Wu, F. C. Chien, C. W. Chu, P. L. Chen, and F. C. Chen, “Improving the light trapping efficiency of plasmonic polymer solar cells through photon management,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(39), 20731–20737 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. Z.

X. Yang, C. C. Chueh, C. Z. Li, H. L. Yip, P. P. Yin, H. Z. Chen, W. C. Chen, and A. K. Y. Jen, “High-efficiency polymer solar cells achieved by doping plasmonic metallic nanoparticles into dual charge selecting interfacial layers to enhance light trapping,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 666–673 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. D.

L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, J. D. Chen, S. Shen, J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, and S. T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2015).
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Chen, P. L.

Y. S. Hsiao, S. Charan, F. Y. Wu, F. C. Chien, C. W. Chu, P. L. Chen, and F. C. Chen, “Improving the light trapping efficiency of plasmonic polymer solar cells through photon management,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(39), 20731–20737 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. C.

X. Yang, C. C. Chueh, C. Z. Li, H. L. Yip, P. P. Yin, H. Z. Chen, W. C. Chen, and A. K. Y. Jen, “High-efficiency polymer solar cells achieved by doping plasmonic metallic nanoparticles into dual charge selecting interfacial layers to enhance light trapping,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 666–673 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheung, P.

V. Janković, Y. M. Yang, J. You, L. Dou, Y. Liu, P. Cheung, J. P. Chang, and Y. Yang, “Active layer-incorporated, spectrally tuned Au/SiO2 core/shell nanorod-based light trapping for organic photovoltaics,” ACS Nano 7(5), 3815–3822 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chien, F. C.

Y. S. Hsiao, S. Charan, F. Y. Wu, F. C. Chien, C. W. Chu, P. L. Chen, and F. C. Chen, “Improving the light trapping efficiency of plasmonic polymer solar cells through photon management,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(39), 20731–20737 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

K. Jung, H. J. Song, G. Lee, Y. Ko, K. Ahn, H. Choi, J. Y. Kim, K. Ha, J. Song, J. K. Lee, C. Lee, and M. Choi, “Plasmonic organic solar cells employing nanobump assembly via aerosol-derived nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 8(3), 2590–2601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

K. Jung, H. J. Song, G. Lee, Y. Ko, K. Ahn, H. Choi, J. Y. Kim, K. Ha, J. Song, J. K. Lee, C. Lee, and M. Choi, “Plasmonic organic solar cells employing nanobump assembly via aerosol-derived nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 8(3), 2590–2601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choy, W. C. H.

G. Luo, X. Ren, S. Zhang, H. Wu, W. C. H. Choy, Z. He, and Y. Cao, “Recent advances in organic photovoltaics: Device structure and optical engineering optimization on the nanoscale,” Small 12(12), 1547–1571 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. You, X. H. Li, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, and Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low-bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chu, C. W.

Y. S. Hsiao, S. Charan, F. Y. Wu, F. C. Chien, C. W. Chu, P. L. Chen, and F. C. Chen, “Improving the light trapping efficiency of plasmonic polymer solar cells through photon management,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(39), 20731–20737 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chueh, C. C.

X. Yang, C. C. Chueh, C. Z. Li, H. L. Yip, P. P. Yin, H. Z. Chen, W. C. Chen, and A. K. Y. Jen, “High-efficiency polymer solar cells achieved by doping plasmonic metallic nanoparticles into dual charge selecting interfacial layers to enhance light trapping,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 666–673 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Y. Hao, Y. Hao, Q. Sun, Y. Cui, Z. Li, T. Ji, H. Wang, and F. Zhu, “Broadband EQE enhancement in organic solar cells with multiple-shaped silver nanoparticles: Optical coupling and interfacial engineering,” Mater. Today Energy 3, 84–91 (2017).
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F. Yang, Y. Zhang, Y. Hao, Y. Cui, W. Wang, T. Ji, F. Shi, and B. Wei, “Visibly transparent organic photovoltaic with improved transparency and absorption based on tandem photonic crystal for greenhouse application,” Appl. Opt. 54(34), 10232–10239 (2015).
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Cui, Y. X.

D. K. Liu, Q. B. Liang, G. H. Li, X. Y. Gao, W. Y. Wang, Q. Q. Zhan, T. Ji, Y. Y. Hao, and Y. X. Cui, “Improved efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells by incorporation of AuAg-alloyed nanoprisms,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 7(4), 1036–1041 (2017).
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Y. Zhang, Y. X. Cui, T. Ji, Y. Y. Hao, and F. R. Zhu, “Absorption enhancement in thin organic solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent anode based on short-pitched metallic grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 8400207 (2017).
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Z. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Hao, W. Y. Wang, Y. X. Cui, Q. J. Sun, T. Ji, Z. F. Li, H. Wang, and F. R. Zhu, “Incorporating silver-SiO2 core-shell nanocubes for simultaneous broadband absorption and charge collection enhancements in organic solar cells,” Synth. Met. 220, 612–620 (2016).
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Y. Zhang, Y. X. Cui, W. Y. Wang, K. H. Fung, T. Ji, Y. Y. Hao, and F. R. Zhu, “Absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with a built-in short-pitch plasmonic grating,” Plasmonics 10(4), 773–781 (2015).
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Y. Hao, J. C. Song, F. Yang, Y. Y. Hao, Q. J. Sun, J. J. Guo, Y. X. Cui, H. Wang, and F. R. Zhu, “Improved performance of organic solar cells by incorporating silica-coated silver nanoparticles in the buffer layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(5), 1082–1090 (2015).
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X. M. Tian, Y. Zhang, Y. Y. Hao, Y. X. Cui, W. Y. Wang, F. Shi, H. Wang, B. Wei, and W. Huang, “Semitransparent inverted organic solar cell with improved absorption and reasonable transparency perception based on the nanopatterned MoO3/Ag/MoO3 anode,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093043 (2015).
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X. M. Tian, Y. Y. Hao, Y. Zhang, Y. X. Cui, T. Ji, H. Wang, B. Wei, and W. Huang, “Omnidirectional and broadband optical absorption enhancement in small molecule organic solar cells by a patterned MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent anode,” Opt. Commun. 338, 226–232 (2015).
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Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
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X. M. Tian, W. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Hao, Y. Y. Lin, Y. X. Cui, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, B. Wei, and B. S. Xu, “Omnidirectional and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement in an organic photovoltaic device using a one-dimensional nanograting,” J. Mod. Opt. 61(21), 1714–1722 (2014).
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W. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Hao, Y. X. Cui, X. M. Tian, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, F. Shi, B. Wei, and W. Huang, “High-efficiency, broad-band and wide-angle optical absorption in ultra-thin organic photovoltaic devices,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A376–A385 (2014).
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Dang, P. T.

P. T. Dang, T. K. Nguyen, and K. Q. Le, “Revisited design optimization of metallic gratings for plasmonic light-trapping enhancement in thin organic solar cells,” Opt. Commun. 382, 241–245 (2017).
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Demir, H. V.

Ding, F.

Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dou, L.

V. Janković, Y. M. Yang, J. You, L. Dou, Y. Liu, P. Cheung, J. P. Chang, and Y. Yang, “Active layer-incorporated, spectrally tuned Au/SiO2 core/shell nanorod-based light trapping for organic photovoltaics,” ACS Nano 7(5), 3815–3822 (2013).
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El-Sayed, M. A.

T. A. F. König, P. A. Ledin, J. Kerszulis, M. A. Mahmoud, M. A. El-Sayed, J. R. Reynolds, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Electrically tunable plasmonic behavior of nanocube-polymer nanomaterials induced by a redox-active electrochromic polymer,” ACS Nano 8(6), 6182–6192 (2014).
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Enoch, S.

Eriksen, R. L.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 969 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S. H.

C. J. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fasenfest, B. J.

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Felbacq, D.

D. Felbacq, G. Bouchitte, B. Guizal, and A. Moreau, “Two-scale approach to the homogenization of membrane photonic crystals,” J. Nanophoton 2, 023501 (2008).

Feng, J.

X. L. Zhang, J. F. Song, X. B. Li, J. Feng, and H. B. Sun, “Anti-reflection resonance in distributed Bragg reflectors-based ultrathin highly absorbing dielectric and its application in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 103901 (2013).
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Z. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Hao, W. Y. Wang, Y. X. Cui, Q. J. Sun, T. Ji, Z. F. Li, H. Wang, and F. R. Zhu, “Incorporating silver-SiO2 core-shell nanocubes for simultaneous broadband absorption and charge collection enhancements in organic solar cells,” Synth. Met. 220, 612–620 (2016).
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X. M. Tian, W. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Hao, Y. Y. Lin, Y. X. Cui, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, B. Wei, and B. S. Xu, “Omnidirectional and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement in an organic photovoltaic device using a one-dimensional nanograting,” J. Mod. Opt. 61(21), 1714–1722 (2014).
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K. Xu, L. Huang, Z. Zhang, J. Zhao, Z. Zhang, L. W. Snyman, and J. W. Swart, “Light emission from a poly-silicon device with carrier injection engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 231, 28–31 (2018).
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L. Lu, Z. Luo, T. Xu, and L. Yu, “Cooperative plasmonic effect of Ag and Au nanoparticles on enhancing performance of polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 59–64 (2013).
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Y. Hao, J. C. Song, F. Yang, Y. Y. Hao, Q. J. Sun, J. J. Guo, Y. X. Cui, H. Wang, and F. R. Zhu, “Improved performance of organic solar cells by incorporating silica-coated silver nanoparticles in the buffer layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(5), 1082–1090 (2015).
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F. Yang, Y. Zhang, Y. Hao, Y. Cui, W. Wang, T. Ji, F. Shi, and B. Wei, “Visibly transparent organic photovoltaic with improved transparency and absorption based on tandem photonic crystal for greenhouse application,” Appl. Opt. 54(34), 10232–10239 (2015).
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Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
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V. Janković, Y. M. Yang, J. You, L. Dou, Y. Liu, P. Cheung, J. P. Chang, and Y. Yang, “Active layer-incorporated, spectrally tuned Au/SiO2 core/shell nanorod-based light trapping for organic photovoltaics,” ACS Nano 7(5), 3815–3822 (2013).
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V. Janković, Y. M. Yang, J. You, L. Dou, Y. Liu, P. Cheung, J. P. Chang, and Y. Yang, “Active layer-incorporated, spectrally tuned Au/SiO2 core/shell nanorod-based light trapping for organic photovoltaics,” ACS Nano 7(5), 3815–3822 (2013).
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Ye, J.

J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1457–1464 (2010).
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Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
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J. B. You, X. H. Li, F. X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, and Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low-bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
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L. Lu, Z. Luo, T. Xu, and L. Yu, “Cooperative plasmonic effect of Ag and Au nanoparticles on enhancing performance of polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 59–64 (2013).
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Zhang, S.

G. Luo, X. Ren, S. Zhang, H. Wu, W. C. H. Choy, Z. He, and Y. Cao, “Recent advances in organic photovoltaics: Device structure and optical engineering optimization on the nanoscale,” Small 12(12), 1547–1571 (2016).
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Zhang, X. L.

X. L. Zhang, J. F. Song, X. B. Li, J. Feng, and H. B. Sun, “Anti-reflection resonance in distributed Bragg reflectors-based ultrathin highly absorbing dielectric and its application in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 103901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. X. Cui, T. Ji, Y. Y. Hao, and F. R. Zhu, “Absorption enhancement in thin organic solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent anode based on short-pitched metallic grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 8400207 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tian, Y. Y. Hao, Y. Zhang, Y. X. Cui, T. Ji, H. Wang, B. Wei, and W. Huang, “Omnidirectional and broadband optical absorption enhancement in small molecule organic solar cells by a patterned MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent anode,” Opt. Commun. 338, 226–232 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. X. Cui, W. Y. Wang, K. H. Fung, T. Ji, Y. Y. Hao, and F. R. Zhu, “Absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with a built-in short-pitch plasmonic grating,” Plasmonics 10(4), 773–781 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tian, Y. Zhang, Y. Y. Hao, Y. X. Cui, W. Y. Wang, F. Shi, H. Wang, B. Wei, and W. Huang, “Semitransparent inverted organic solar cell with improved absorption and reasonable transparency perception based on the nanopatterned MoO3/Ag/MoO3 anode,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093043 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Yang, Y. Zhang, Y. Hao, Y. Cui, W. Wang, T. Ji, F. Shi, and B. Wei, “Visibly transparent organic photovoltaic with improved transparency and absorption based on tandem photonic crystal for greenhouse application,” Appl. Opt. 54(34), 10232–10239 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Hao, Y. X. Cui, X. M. Tian, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, F. Shi, B. Wei, and W. Huang, “High-efficiency, broad-band and wide-angle optical absorption in ultra-thin organic photovoltaic devices,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A376–A385 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tian, W. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Hao, Y. Y. Lin, Y. X. Cui, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, B. Wei, and B. S. Xu, “Omnidirectional and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement in an organic photovoltaic device using a one-dimensional nanograting,” J. Mod. Opt. 61(21), 1714–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

K. Xu, L. Huang, Z. Zhang, J. Zhao, Z. Zhang, L. W. Snyman, and J. W. Swart, “Light emission from a poly-silicon device with carrier injection engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 231, 28–31 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Xu, L. Huang, Z. Zhang, J. Zhao, Z. Zhang, L. W. Snyman, and J. W. Swart, “Light emission from a poly-silicon device with carrier injection engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 231, 28–31 (2018).
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Zhao, J.

K. Xu, L. Huang, Z. Zhang, J. Zhao, Z. Zhang, L. W. Snyman, and J. W. Swart, “Light emission from a poly-silicon device with carrier injection engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 231, 28–31 (2018).
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Y. X. Cui, Y. R. He, Y. Jin, F. Ding, L. Yang, Y. Q. Ye, S. M. Zhong, Y. Y. Lin, and S. L. He, “Plasmonic and metamaterial structures as electromagnetic absorbers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 495–520 (2014).
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Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, J. D. Chen, S. Shen, J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, and S. T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, F.

Y. Hao, Y. Hao, Q. Sun, Y. Cui, Z. Li, T. Ji, H. Wang, and F. Zhu, “Broadband EQE enhancement in organic solar cells with multiple-shaped silver nanoparticles: Optical coupling and interfacial engineering,” Mater. Today Energy 3, 84–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, F. R.

Y. Zhang, Y. X. Cui, T. Ji, Y. Y. Hao, and F. R. Zhu, “Absorption enhancement in thin organic solar cells with MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent anode based on short-pitched metallic grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 8400207 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Hao, W. Y. Wang, Y. X. Cui, Q. J. Sun, T. Ji, Z. F. Li, H. Wang, and F. R. Zhu, “Incorporating silver-SiO2 core-shell nanocubes for simultaneous broadband absorption and charge collection enhancements in organic solar cells,” Synth. Met. 220, 612–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. X. Cui, W. Y. Wang, K. H. Fung, T. Ji, Y. Y. Hao, and F. R. Zhu, “Absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with a built-in short-pitch plasmonic grating,” Plasmonics 10(4), 773–781 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Hao, J. C. Song, F. Yang, Y. Y. Hao, Q. J. Sun, J. J. Guo, Y. X. Cui, H. Wang, and F. R. Zhu, “Improved performance of organic solar cells by incorporating silica-coated silver nanoparticles in the buffer layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(5), 1082–1090 (2015).
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ACS Nano (4)

K. Jung, H. J. Song, G. Lee, Y. Ko, K. Ahn, H. Choi, J. Y. Kim, K. Ha, J. Song, J. K. Lee, C. Lee, and M. Choi, “Plasmonic organic solar cells employing nanobump assembly via aerosol-derived nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 8(3), 2590–2601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Janković, Y. M. Yang, J. You, L. Dou, Y. Liu, P. Cheung, J. P. Chang, and Y. Yang, “Active layer-incorporated, spectrally tuned Au/SiO2 core/shell nanorod-based light trapping for organic photovoltaics,” ACS Nano 7(5), 3815–3822 (2013).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of gratings-incorporated OSCs device. (b) The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (κ) of the organic materials. The dotted box in x-y plane in (a) is a unit cell used in simulation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Absorption spectrum of SGS with p = 390 nm, w = 100 nm, d = 160 nm. (b) Absorption performance of s SGS as a function of the groove depth (b). The magnetic field distribution at 713 nm is shown in the inset of (a). (c)-(f) are electric field distributions corresponding to four absorption peaks of the SGS-based device at 432 nm, 530 nm, 680 nm, and 746 nm, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic diagram of the DGS-based OSCs device. (b) Absorption efficiency of active material in DGS with d1 = 160 nm, d2 = 200 nm, g = 30 nm (black squares), the absorption efficiency of the SGS with d = 160 nm (red circles), and d = 200 nm (blue upper triangular), respectively. (c) Absorption efficiency of DGS with varied grating gap g. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2(a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of the TGS-based OSCs device (a) and absorption efficiency of active material TGS (black squares) divided into two parts (b): the Abs in homogeneous layer (red circles) and Abs in the grating grooves (blue up triangles), respectively. (c) Absorption efficiency of active material (black squares) and Ag (pink diamonds) in TGS-based device, and the absorption efficiency in SGS-based device with d = 60 nm (red circles), 160 nm (blue up triangles), and 200 nm (green down triangles), respectively. (d) Absorption efficiency of active material in proposed TGS (black squares) and that in TGS with equal depth of grooves: d = 60 nm (red circles),160 nm (blue up triangles), 200 nm (green down triangles), respectively. Other parameters are set as p = 390 nm, w = 100 nm, t1 = 20 nm, g = 30 nm. The inset in (d) is the electric field distribution of a TGS with equal grooves depth of 200 nm at wavelength of 790 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized magnetic field distribution at wavelength of: (a) 410 nm, (b) 570 nm, (c) 707 nm, (d) 740 nm, (e) 790 nm and (f) 840 nm, respectively. Normalized electric field distribution at wavelength of: (a’) 410 nm, (b’) 570 nm, (c’) 707 nm, (d’) 740 nm, (e’) 790 nm, and (f’) 840 nm, respectively. The parameters are set as in Fig. 4(b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The light line in air (solid line) and the dispersion relations of the SPs resonance in the grating grooves obtained from simulation data (red scatters), compared to those analytically calculated results for SPs resonance in Ag/blend/Ag model with gap of width 100 nm (red dashed line), SPs resonance in blend/Ag/blend model with gap of 30 nm (green dash-dotted line), and SP resonance at a single Ag/blend interface (blue dotted line), respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Absorption spectrum of TGS-based OSCs device as a function of the thickness of homogeneous active layer. (b) Absorption efficiency of TGS-based OSCs device at wavelength of 625 nm with varied homogeneous layer thickness. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 4(b).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Absorption spectra calculated for the OSCs device with planar structure (left panel) and the proposed TGS-based OSCs device under the TM and TE polarization mode (center panel and right panel). (b) Angular resolved integrated absorption efficiency for TGS-based device under the different polarization modes and that of the planar control device.

Equations (4)

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Abs= πc λ Imε( λ ) s | E | 2 dxdy P 0 .
Ab s int = Abs(λ)dλ dλ .
Absint= Abs ( λ )s( λ )dλ s( λ )dλ
kd=π( m+1/2 ),

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