Abstract

In this work, we present an in situ online aerosol recognition scheme by synchronized parallel polarization scattering analysis. By theoretical simulations, we select the feasible scattering angles and evaluate the potential of Stokes parameters to identify aerosols. Correspondingly, we develop a measurement system based on multi-angle optical scattering and multidimensional polarization analyzing technique. We construct two index groups based on non-normalized and normalized polarization parameters respectively, and employ their frequency distribution histograms instead of the simple average values to identify and classify different types of aerosols. The experimental verification confirms a future way of a multi-dimensional polarization parameter group applied in a fast and effective air pollutants monitoring.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

Y. Chen, N. Zeng, S. Chen, D. Zhan, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Study on morphological analysis of suspended particles using single angle polarization scattering measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 224, 556–565 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (9)

M. Leśkiewicz, M. Kaliszewski, M. Wlodarski, J. Mlynczak, Z. Mierczyk, and K. Kopczynski, “Improved real-time bio-aerosol classification using artificial neural networks,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(11), 6259–6270 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, W. Zhao, B. Fang, J. Zhou, S. Wang, W. Zhang, D. S. Venables, and W. Chen, “Three-wavelength cavity-enhanced albedometer for measuring wavelength-dependent optical properties and single-scattering albedo of aerosols,” Opt. Express 26(25), 33484–33500 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Fischer and G. D. Smith, “A portable, four-wavelength, single-cell photoacoustic spectrometer for ambient aerosol absorption,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 52(4), 393–406 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, W. Lin, D. Liu, and K. Zhang, “Assessing the depolarization capabilities of nonspherical particles in a super-ellipsoidal shape space,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1726–1742 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, R. Liao, J. Dai, Z. Liu, Z. Xiong, T. Zhang, H. Chen, and H. Ma, “Differentiation of suspended particles by polarized light scattering at 120°,” Opt. Express 26(17), 22419–22431 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Dunkhorst, P. Lipowicz, W. Li, C. Hux, Q. Wang, and W. Koch, “In-situ characterization of e-cigarette aerosols by 90°-light scattering of polarized light,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 52(7), 717–724 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Gao, P.-W. Zhai, B. Franz, Y. Hu, K. Knobelspiesse, P. J. Werdell, A. Ibrahim, F. Xu, and B. Cairns, “Retrieval of aerosol properties and water-leaving reflectance from multi-angular polarimetric measurements over coastal waters,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8968–8989 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Pavlov, E. Zubko, O. G. Konstantinov, K. Shmirko, A. Y. Mayor, and G. Videen, “Videen, Gorden. Vertical profile of polarization over Vladivostok using horizon shadowing: Clues to understanding the altitude variation of reflectance of aerosol particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 204, 94–102 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, W. Lin, Z. Wang, X. Tang, X. Zhang, and B. Yi, “Optical modeling of sea salt aerosols: The effects of nonsphericity and inhomogeneity,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 123(1), 543–558 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (10)

H. He, C. He, J. Chang, D. Lv, J. Wu, C. Duan, Q. Zhou, N. Zeng, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Monitoring microstructural variations of fresh skeletal muscle tissues by Mueller matrix imaging,” J. Biophotonics 10(5), 664–673 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, R. Liao, J. Zhou, P. T. Y. Leung, M. Yan, and H. Ma, “Classification of morphologically similar algae and cyanobacteria using Mueller matrix imaging and convolutional neural networks,” Appl. Opt. 56(23), 6520–6530 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Espinosa, L. A. Remer, O. Dubovik, L. Ziemba, A. Beyersdorf, D. Orozco, G. Schuster, T. Lapyonok, D. Fuertes, and J. V. Martins, “Retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties from Imaging Polar Nephelometer scattering measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(3), 811–824 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Li, X. Zheng, Z. Li, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, X. Chen, and M. Wendisch, “Studying aerosol light scattering based on aspect ratio distribution observed by fluorescence microscope,” Opt. Express 25(16), A813–A823 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kalume, L. A. Beresnev, J. Santarpia, and Y.-L. Pan, “Detection and characterization of chemical aerosol using laser-trapping single-particle Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 56(23), 6577–6582 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-L. Pan, C. Wang, L. A. Beresnev, A. J. Yuffa, G. Videen, D. Ligon, and J. L. Santarpia, “Measurement of back-scattering patterns from single laser trapped aerosol particles in air,” Appl. Opt. 56(3), B1–B4 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Kao, S.-H. Huang, C.-C. Chen, C.-S. Tsai, C.-H. Wu, and W.-Y. Lin, “Measurement and evaluation of elastic light scattering from a single levitated irregular particle,” Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17(5), 1256–1266 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Kahnert, “Optical properties of black carbon aerosols encapsulated in a shell of sulfate: comparison of the closed cell model with a coated aggregate model,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24579–24593 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, P. G. Stegmann, S. D. Brooks, and P. Yang, “Modeling the single and multiple scattering properties of soot-laden mineral dust aerosols,” Opt. Express 25(24), A990–A1008 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Li, N. Zeng, D. Zhan, Y. Chen, M. Zeng, and H. Ma, “Differentiation of soot particulates in air using polarized light scattering method,” Appl. Opt. 56(14), 4123–4129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

E. Järvinen, O. Kemppinen, T. Nousiainen, T. Kociok, O. Möhler, T. Leisner, and M. Schnaiter, “Laboratory investigations of mineral dust near-backscattering depolarization ratios,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 178, 192–208 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-B. Renard, F. Dulac, G. Berthet, T. Lurton, D. Vignelles, F. Jegou, T. Tonnelier, M. Jeannot, B. Coute, R. Akiki, N. Verdier, M. Mallet, F. Gensdarmes, P. Charpentier, S. Mesmin, V. Duverger, J.-C. Dupont, T. Elias, V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. Zieger, M. Salter, T. Roberts, J. Giacomoni, M. Gobbi, E. Hamonou, H. Olafsson, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Mazel, T. Decamps, M. Piringer, J. Surcin, and D. Daugeron, “LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles–Part 1: Principle of measurements and instrument evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(4), 1721–1742 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

X. Y. Zhang, J. Z. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, H. L. Liu, J. Y. Sun, and Y. M. Zhang, “Changes in chemical components of aerosol particles in different haze regions in China from 2006 to 2013 and contribution of meteorological factors,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(22), 12935–12952 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, H. He, J. Chang, N. Zeng, S. Liu, M. Li, and H. Ma, “Differentiating characteristic microstructural features of cancerous tissues using Mueller matrix microscope,” Micron 79, 8–15 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu and J. Wang, “Retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties from AERONET photopolarimetric measurements: 1. Information content analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 120(14), 7059–7078 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

L. Huang and G. Wang, “Chemical characteristics and source apportionment of atmospheric particles during heating period in Harbin, China,” J. Environ. Sci. (China) 26(12), 2475–2483 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Han, W. Zhou, W. Li, and L. Li, “Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: A case of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in Chinese cities,” Environ. Pollut. 194, 163–170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-J. Huang, Y. Zhang, C. Bozzetti, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, K. R. Daellenbach, J. G. Slowik, S. M. Platt, F. Canonaco, P. Zotter, R. Wolf, S. M. Pieber, E. A. Bruns, M. Crippa, G. Ciarelli, A. Piazzalunga, M. Schwikowski, G. Abbaszade, J. Schnelle-Kreis, R. Zimmermann, Z. An, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. E. Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt, “High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,” Nature 514(7521), 218–222 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, M. A. Vaughan, A. H. Omar, R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, and J. W. Hair, “Aerosol classification from airborne HSRL and comparisons with the CALIPSO vertical feature mask,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(5), 1397–1412 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. David, B. Thomas, E. Coillet, A. Miffre, and P. Rairoux, “Polarization-resolved exact light backscattering by an ensemble of particles in air,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18624–18639 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

A. Arola, G. Schuster, G. Myhre, S. Kazadzis, S. Dey, and S. N. Tripathi, “Inferring absorbing organic carbon content from AERONET data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(1), 215–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J.-B. Renard, C. Thaury, J.-L. Mineau, and B. Gaubicher, “Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: environment S.A. continuous particulate monitor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(8), 85901 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Roy, “Lidar polarization discrimination of bioaerosols,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 116201 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-B. Renard, C. Thaury, J.-L. Mineau, and B. Gaubicher, “Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement SA continuous particulate monitor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(8), 085901 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Mueller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and A. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006. Tellus. Ser. B Chem,” Phys. Meteorol. 61, 165–179 (2009).

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

T. Hussein, M. Dal Maso, T. Petaja, I. K. Koponen, P. Paatero, P. P. Aalto, K. Hameri, and M. Kulmala, “Evaluation of an automatic algorithm for fitting the particle number size distributions,” Boreal Environ. Res. 10(5), 337 (2005).

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 105(D8), 9949–9970 (2000).
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P. H. McMurry, “A review of atmospheric aerosol measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 34(12-14), 1959–1999 (2000).
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1997 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 16989–17013 (1997).
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B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, and E. E. Russell, “An analysis of ground-based polarimetric sky radiance measurements, in polarization: measurement, analysis, and remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3121, 382–393 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: A review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72(12), 1848–1866 (1991).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

C. N. Davies, “Size distribution of atmospheric particles,” J. Aerosol Sci. 5(3), 293–300 (1974).
[Crossref]

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillette, and P. B. Russell, “Complex index of refraction of airborne soil particles,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13(4), 459–471 (1974).
[Crossref]

Aalto, P. P.

T. Hussein, M. Dal Maso, T. Petaja, I. K. Koponen, P. Paatero, P. P. Aalto, K. Hameri, and M. Kulmala, “Evaluation of an automatic algorithm for fitting the particle number size distributions,” Boreal Environ. Res. 10(5), 337 (2005).

Abbaszade, G.

R.-J. Huang, Y. Zhang, C. Bozzetti, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, K. R. Daellenbach, J. G. Slowik, S. M. Platt, F. Canonaco, P. Zotter, R. Wolf, S. M. Pieber, E. A. Bruns, M. Crippa, G. Ciarelli, A. Piazzalunga, M. Schwikowski, G. Abbaszade, J. Schnelle-Kreis, R. Zimmermann, Z. An, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. E. Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt, “High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,” Nature 514(7521), 218–222 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiki, R.

J.-B. Renard, F. Dulac, G. Berthet, T. Lurton, D. Vignelles, F. Jegou, T. Tonnelier, M. Jeannot, B. Coute, R. Akiki, N. Verdier, M. Mallet, F. Gensdarmes, P. Charpentier, S. Mesmin, V. Duverger, J.-C. Dupont, T. Elias, V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. Zieger, M. Salter, T. Roberts, J. Giacomoni, M. Gobbi, E. Hamonou, H. Olafsson, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Mazel, T. Decamps, M. Piringer, J. Surcin, and D. Daugeron, “LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles–Part 1: Principle of measurements and instrument evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(4), 1721–1742 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alexandrov, M.

Althausen, D.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Mueller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and A. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006. Tellus. Ser. B Chem,” Phys. Meteorol. 61, 165–179 (2009).

An, Z.

R.-J. Huang, Y. Zhang, C. Bozzetti, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, K. R. Daellenbach, J. G. Slowik, S. M. Platt, F. Canonaco, P. Zotter, R. Wolf, S. M. Pieber, E. A. Bruns, M. Crippa, G. Ciarelli, A. Piazzalunga, M. Schwikowski, G. Abbaszade, J. Schnelle-Kreis, R. Zimmermann, Z. An, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. E. Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt, “High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,” Nature 514(7521), 218–222 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ansmann, A.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Mueller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and A. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006. Tellus. Ser. B Chem,” Phys. Meteorol. 61, 165–179 (2009).

Arola, A.

A. Arola, G. Schuster, G. Myhre, S. Kazadzis, S. Dey, and S. N. Tripathi, “Inferring absorbing organic carbon content from AERONET data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(1), 215–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baltensperger, U.

R.-J. Huang, Y. Zhang, C. Bozzetti, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, K. R. Daellenbach, J. G. Slowik, S. M. Platt, F. Canonaco, P. Zotter, R. Wolf, S. M. Pieber, E. A. Bruns, M. Crippa, G. Ciarelli, A. Piazzalunga, M. Schwikowski, G. Abbaszade, J. Schnelle-Kreis, R. Zimmermann, Z. An, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. E. Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt, “High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,” Nature 514(7521), 218–222 (2014).
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Basso, G.

Beresnev, L. A.

Bergstrom, R. W.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 105(D8), 9949–9970 (2000).
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Berthet, G.

J.-B. Renard, F. Dulac, G. Berthet, T. Lurton, D. Vignelles, F. Jegou, T. Tonnelier, M. Jeannot, B. Coute, R. Akiki, N. Verdier, M. Mallet, F. Gensdarmes, P. Charpentier, S. Mesmin, V. Duverger, J.-C. Dupont, T. Elias, V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. Zieger, M. Salter, T. Roberts, J. Giacomoni, M. Gobbi, E. Hamonou, H. Olafsson, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Mazel, T. Decamps, M. Piringer, J. Surcin, and D. Daugeron, “LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles–Part 1: Principle of measurements and instrument evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(4), 1721–1742 (2016).
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Beyersdorf, A.

W. Espinosa, L. A. Remer, O. Dubovik, L. Ziemba, A. Beyersdorf, D. Orozco, G. Schuster, T. Lapyonok, D. Fuertes, and J. V. Martins, “Retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties from Imaging Polar Nephelometer scattering measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(3), 811–824 (2017).
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Bi, L.

L. Bi, W. Lin, Z. Wang, X. Tang, X. Zhang, and B. Yi, “Optical modeling of sea salt aerosols: The effects of nonsphericity and inhomogeneity,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 123(1), 543–558 (2018).
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L. Bi, W. Lin, D. Liu, and K. Zhang, “Assessing the depolarization capabilities of nonspherical particles in a super-ellipsoidal shape space,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1726–1742 (2018).
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Blifford, I. H.

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillette, and P. B. Russell, “Complex index of refraction of airborne soil particles,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13(4), 459–471 (1974).
[Crossref]

Bozzetti, C.

R.-J. Huang, Y. Zhang, C. Bozzetti, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, K. R. Daellenbach, J. G. Slowik, S. M. Platt, F. Canonaco, P. Zotter, R. Wolf, S. M. Pieber, E. A. Bruns, M. Crippa, G. Ciarelli, A. Piazzalunga, M. Schwikowski, G. Abbaszade, J. Schnelle-Kreis, R. Zimmermann, Z. An, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. E. Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt, “High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,” Nature 514(7521), 218–222 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brooks, S. D.

Browell, E. V.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, “Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmospheres 105(D8), 9949–9970 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bruns, E. A.

R.-J. Huang, Y. Zhang, C. Bozzetti, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, K. R. Daellenbach, J. G. Slowik, S. M. Platt, F. Canonaco, P. Zotter, R. Wolf, S. M. Pieber, E. A. Bruns, M. Crippa, G. Ciarelli, A. Piazzalunga, M. Schwikowski, G. Abbaszade, J. Schnelle-Kreis, R. Zimmermann, Z. An, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. E. Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt, “High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,” Nature 514(7521), 218–222 (2014).
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Burton, S. P.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, M. A. Vaughan, A. H. Omar, R. R. Rogers, C. A. Hostetler, and J. W. Hair, “Aerosol classification from airborne HSRL and comparisons with the CALIPSO vertical feature mask,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(5), 1397–1412 (2013).
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Cairns, B.

Camy-Peyret, C.

J.-B. Renard, F. Dulac, G. Berthet, T. Lurton, D. Vignelles, F. Jegou, T. Tonnelier, M. Jeannot, B. Coute, R. Akiki, N. Verdier, M. Mallet, F. Gensdarmes, P. Charpentier, S. Mesmin, V. Duverger, J.-C. Dupont, T. Elias, V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. Zieger, M. Salter, T. Roberts, J. Giacomoni, M. Gobbi, E. Hamonou, H. Olafsson, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Mazel, T. Decamps, M. Piringer, J. Surcin, and D. Daugeron, “LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles–Part 1: Principle of measurements and instrument evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(4), 1721–1742 (2016).
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Canonaco, F.

R.-J. Huang, Y. Zhang, C. Bozzetti, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, K. R. Daellenbach, J. G. Slowik, S. M. Platt, F. Canonaco, P. Zotter, R. Wolf, S. M. Pieber, E. A. Bruns, M. Crippa, G. Ciarelli, A. Piazzalunga, M. Schwikowski, G. Abbaszade, J. Schnelle-Kreis, R. Zimmermann, Z. An, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. E. Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt, “High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,” Nature 514(7521), 218–222 (2014).
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Cao, J.-J.

R.-J. Huang, Y. Zhang, C. Bozzetti, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, K. R. Daellenbach, J. G. Slowik, S. M. Platt, F. Canonaco, P. Zotter, R. Wolf, S. M. Pieber, E. A. Bruns, M. Crippa, G. Ciarelli, A. Piazzalunga, M. Schwikowski, G. Abbaszade, J. Schnelle-Kreis, R. Zimmermann, Z. An, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. E. Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt, “High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,” Nature 514(7521), 218–222 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlson, B. E.

B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, and E. E. Russell, “An analysis of ground-based polarimetric sky radiance measurements, in polarization: measurement, analysis, and remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3121, 382–393 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chang, J.

H. He, C. He, J. Chang, D. Lv, J. Wu, C. Duan, Q. Zhou, N. Zeng, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Monitoring microstructural variations of fresh skeletal muscle tissues by Mueller matrix imaging,” J. Biophotonics 10(5), 664–673 (2017).
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Y. Wang, H. He, J. Chang, N. Zeng, S. Liu, M. Li, and H. Ma, “Differentiating characteristic microstructural features of cancerous tissues using Mueller matrix microscope,” Micron 79, 8–15 (2015).
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Charpentier, P.

J.-B. Renard, F. Dulac, G. Berthet, T. Lurton, D. Vignelles, F. Jegou, T. Tonnelier, M. Jeannot, B. Coute, R. Akiki, N. Verdier, M. Mallet, F. Gensdarmes, P. Charpentier, S. Mesmin, V. Duverger, J.-C. Dupont, T. Elias, V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. Zieger, M. Salter, T. Roberts, J. Giacomoni, M. Gobbi, E. Hamonou, H. Olafsson, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Mazel, T. Decamps, M. Piringer, J. Surcin, and D. Daugeron, “LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles–Part 1: Principle of measurements and instrument evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(4), 1721–1742 (2016).
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Chen, C.-C.

Y.-Y. Kao, S.-H. Huang, C.-C. Chen, C.-S. Tsai, C.-H. Wu, and W.-Y. Lin, “Measurement and evaluation of elastic light scattering from a single levitated irregular particle,” Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17(5), 1256–1266 (2017).
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Chen, H.

Chen, S.

Y. Chen, N. Zeng, S. Chen, D. Zhan, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Study on morphological analysis of suspended particles using single angle polarization scattering measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 224, 556–565 (2019).
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Chen, W.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, N. Zeng, S. Chen, D. Zhan, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Study on morphological analysis of suspended particles using single angle polarization scattering measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 224, 556–565 (2019).
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D. Li, N. Zeng, D. Zhan, Y. Chen, M. Zeng, and H. Ma, “Differentiation of soot particulates in air using polarized light scattering method,” Appl. Opt. 56(14), 4123–4129 (2017).
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Chen, Z.

H. He, L. Ran, N. Zeng, P. Li, Z. Chen, X. Liu, and H. Ma, “Mueller matrix polarimetry - an emerging new tool for characterizing the microstructural feature of complex biological specimen, IEEE/OSA,” J. Lightwave Technol., doi:.
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Chowdhary, J.

Ciarelli, G.

R.-J. Huang, Y. Zhang, C. Bozzetti, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, K. R. Daellenbach, J. G. Slowik, S. M. Platt, F. Canonaco, P. Zotter, R. Wolf, S. M. Pieber, E. A. Bruns, M. Crippa, G. Ciarelli, A. Piazzalunga, M. Schwikowski, G. Abbaszade, J. Schnelle-Kreis, R. Zimmermann, Z. An, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. E. Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt, “High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,” Nature 514(7521), 218–222 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coillet, E.

Connolly, P.

Coute, B.

J.-B. Renard, F. Dulac, G. Berthet, T. Lurton, D. Vignelles, F. Jegou, T. Tonnelier, M. Jeannot, B. Coute, R. Akiki, N. Verdier, M. Mallet, F. Gensdarmes, P. Charpentier, S. Mesmin, V. Duverger, J.-C. Dupont, T. Elias, V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. Zieger, M. Salter, T. Roberts, J. Giacomoni, M. Gobbi, E. Hamonou, H. Olafsson, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Mazel, T. Decamps, M. Piringer, J. Surcin, and D. Daugeron, “LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles–Part 1: Principle of measurements and instrument evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(4), 1721–1742 (2016).
[Crossref]

Couté, B.

Crenn, V.

J.-B. Renard, F. Dulac, G. Berthet, T. Lurton, D. Vignelles, F. Jegou, T. Tonnelier, M. Jeannot, B. Coute, R. Akiki, N. Verdier, M. Mallet, F. Gensdarmes, P. Charpentier, S. Mesmin, V. Duverger, J.-C. Dupont, T. Elias, V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. Zieger, M. Salter, T. Roberts, J. Giacomoni, M. Gobbi, E. Hamonou, H. Olafsson, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Mazel, T. Decamps, M. Piringer, J. Surcin, and D. Daugeron, “LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles–Part 1: Principle of measurements and instrument evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(4), 1721–1742 (2016).
[Crossref]

Crippa, M.

R.-J. Huang, Y. Zhang, C. Bozzetti, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, K. R. Daellenbach, J. G. Slowik, S. M. Platt, F. Canonaco, P. Zotter, R. Wolf, S. M. Pieber, E. A. Bruns, M. Crippa, G. Ciarelli, A. Piazzalunga, M. Schwikowski, G. Abbaszade, J. Schnelle-Kreis, R. Zimmermann, Z. An, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. E. Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt, “High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,” Nature 514(7521), 218–222 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daellenbach, K. R.

R.-J. Huang, Y. Zhang, C. Bozzetti, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, K. R. Daellenbach, J. G. Slowik, S. M. Platt, F. Canonaco, P. Zotter, R. Wolf, S. M. Pieber, E. A. Bruns, M. Crippa, G. Ciarelli, A. Piazzalunga, M. Schwikowski, G. Abbaszade, J. Schnelle-Kreis, R. Zimmermann, Z. An, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. E. Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt, “High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,” Nature 514(7521), 218–222 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.

J.-B. Renard, F. Dulac, G. Berthet, T. Lurton, D. Vignelles, F. Jegou, T. Tonnelier, M. Jeannot, B. Coute, R. Akiki, N. Verdier, M. Mallet, F. Gensdarmes, P. Charpentier, S. Mesmin, V. Duverger, J.-C. Dupont, T. Elias, V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. Zieger, M. Salter, T. Roberts, J. Giacomoni, M. Gobbi, E. Hamonou, H. Olafsson, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Mazel, T. Decamps, M. Piringer, J. Surcin, and D. Daugeron, “LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles–Part 1: Principle of measurements and instrument evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(4), 1721–1742 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

Dal Maso, M.

T. Hussein, M. Dal Maso, T. Petaja, I. K. Koponen, P. Paatero, P. P. Aalto, K. Hameri, and M. Kulmala, “Evaluation of an automatic algorithm for fitting the particle number size distributions,” Boreal Environ. Res. 10(5), 337 (2005).

Daugeron, D.

J.-B. Renard, F. Dulac, G. Berthet, T. Lurton, D. Vignelles, F. Jegou, T. Tonnelier, M. Jeannot, B. Coute, R. Akiki, N. Verdier, M. Mallet, F. Gensdarmes, P. Charpentier, S. Mesmin, V. Duverger, J.-C. Dupont, T. Elias, V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. Zieger, M. Salter, T. Roberts, J. Giacomoni, M. Gobbi, E. Hamonou, H. Olafsson, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Mazel, T. Decamps, M. Piringer, J. Surcin, and D. Daugeron, “LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles–Part 1: Principle of measurements and instrument evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(4), 1721–1742 (2016).
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D. Daugeron, J.-B. Renard, B. Gaubicher, B. Couté, E. Hadamcik, F. Gensdarmes, G. Basso, and C. Fournier, “Scattering properties of sands. 1. Comparison between different techniques of measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45(32), 8331–8337 (2006).
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David, G.

Davies, C. N.

C. N. Davies, “Size distribution of atmospheric particles,” J. Aerosol Sci. 5(3), 293–300 (1974).
[Crossref]

Decamps, T.

J.-B. Renard, F. Dulac, G. Berthet, T. Lurton, D. Vignelles, F. Jegou, T. Tonnelier, M. Jeannot, B. Coute, R. Akiki, N. Verdier, M. Mallet, F. Gensdarmes, P. Charpentier, S. Mesmin, V. Duverger, J.-C. Dupont, T. Elias, V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. Zieger, M. Salter, T. Roberts, J. Giacomoni, M. Gobbi, E. Hamonou, H. Olafsson, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Mazel, T. Decamps, M. Piringer, J. Surcin, and D. Daugeron, “LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles–Part 1: Principle of measurements and instrument evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(4), 1721–1742 (2016).
[Crossref]

Demott, P. J.

Dey, S.

A. Arola, G. Schuster, G. Myhre, S. Kazadzis, S. Dey, and S. N. Tripathi, “Inferring absorbing organic carbon content from AERONET data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(1), 215–225 (2011).
[Crossref]

Duan, C.

H. He, C. He, J. Chang, D. Lv, J. Wu, C. Duan, Q. Zhou, N. Zeng, Y. He, and H. Ma, “Monitoring microstructural variations of fresh skeletal muscle tissues by Mueller matrix imaging,” J. Biophotonics 10(5), 664–673 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubovik, O.

W. Espinosa, L. A. Remer, O. Dubovik, L. Ziemba, A. Beyersdorf, D. Orozco, G. Schuster, T. Lapyonok, D. Fuertes, and J. V. Martins, “Retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties from Imaging Polar Nephelometer scattering measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(3), 811–824 (2017).
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L. Li, X. Zheng, Z. Li, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, X. Chen, and M. Wendisch, “Studying aerosol light scattering based on aspect ratio distribution observed by fluorescence microscope,” Opt. Express 25(16), A813–A823 (2017).
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W. Dunkhorst, P. Lipowicz, W. Li, C. Hux, Q. Wang, and W. Koch, “In-situ characterization of e-cigarette aerosols by 90°-light scattering of polarized light,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 52(7), 717–724 (2018).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of our experimental setup. PSG module controls the incident light. There are four detection channels, and a nozzle keeps the aerosol perpendicular to the optical path. Optical trap absorbs the stray beam. D1- D4 are the signal receivers, each consists of the PSA and photodetector. The scattering angles aligned by various detectors are: D1: 30 deg; D2: 60 deg; D3: 115 deg; D4:160 deg. Aerosol flow is focused by the nozzle after the dilution system. (b) Photo graph of the sub-four optical fiber bundle for transferring the analyzed scattering light. (c) The key component for the polarization analyzer, the top assembles four pieces of polarized film with the specific analyzing directions. The bottom assembles the fiber bundles. (d) The schematic of (c), FB is the optical fiber bundles, FP is film polarizer, the direction of polarization has been labeled by dot lines, FBI is the fiber bundle integration.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic diagram of spray generator; (b) Schematic diagram of dust generator.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Q with the scattering angle between 30 degree and 180 degree for Na2SO4, SiO2, PbO and C, (b) U with the scattering angle, (c) Column diagram of Q at the scattering angles of 60 degree, 115 degree and 160 degree upon Na2SO4, SiO2, PbO and C, (d) Column diagram of U at the scattering angles of 60 degree, 115 degree and 160 degree upon Na2SO4, SiO2, PbO and C
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Q at 115 deg from four simulated samples with the aerosol size of 0.4, 0.7, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 um, (b) U at 115 deg from four simulated samples with the aerosol size of 0.4, 0.7, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 um
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Q/I with the scattering angle between 30 degree and 180 degree for Na2SO4, SiO2, PbO and C, (b) U/I with the scattering angle between 30 degree and 180 degree for Na2SO4, SiO2, PbO and C, (c) Column diagram of Q/I at the scattering angles of 60 degree, 115 degree and 160 degree upon Na2SO4, SiO2, PbO and C, (d) Column diagram of U/I at the scattering angles of 60 degree, 115 degree and 160 degree upon Na2SO4, SiO2, PbO and C
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Q/I at 60 degree for different aerosol sizes; (b) Q/I at 115 degree for different aerosol sizes; (c) U/I at 60 degree for different aerosol sizes; (d) U/I at 115 degree for different aerosol sizes.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental results of Q at 60 and 115 degree from Soot, Arizona dust and Na2SO4 samples, (a) the average values of Q; (b) the frequency distribution of Q at 60 deg; (c) the frequency distribution of Q at 115 deg.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experimental results of U at 60 and 115 degree from Soot, Arizona dust and Na2SO4 samples, (a) the average values of U; (b) the frequency distribution of U at 60 deg; (c) the frequency distribution of U at 115 deg.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental results of Q/I at 60 and 115 degree from Soot, Arizona dust and Na2SO4 samples, (a) the average values of Q/I; (b) the frequency distribution of Q/I at 60 deg; (c) the frequency distribution of Q/I at 115 deg.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Experimental results of U/I at 60 and 115 degree from Soot, Arizona dust and Na2SO4 samples, (a) the average values of U/I; (b) the frequency distribution of U/I at 60 deg; (c) the frequency distribution of U/I at 115 deg.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Experimental results of aerosol classification of three mixed samples
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) Number Concentration of BC measured by the prototype, (b) Mass Concentration of BC measured by OC/EC
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Photos of our prototype in a field test

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Refractive indexes about Na2SO4, C, SiO2 and PbO

Equations (4)

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S = ( I Q U V ) = ( I 0 + I 90 I 0 I 90 I 45 I 135 I R C P I L C P )
M= ( S 11 S 12 0 0 S 12 S 11 0 0 0 0 S 33 S 34 0 0 -S 34 S 33 )
f ln ( d ) = 1 2 π ln σ exp [ ( ln d / ln d 0 ) 2 2 ln 2 σ ]
F D H mix = α C · F D H C + α dust · F D H dust + α N a 2 S O 4 · F D H N a 2 S O 4 + ε

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