Abstract

The optimized design of multilayer-coated blazed gratings (MLBG) for high-flux tender X-ray monochromators was systematically studied by numerical simulations. The resulting correlation between the multilayer d-spacing and grating blaze angle significantly deviated from the one predicted by conventional equations. Three high line density gratings with different blaze angles were fabricated and coated by the same Cr/C multilayer. The MLBG with an optimal blaze angle of 1.0° showed a record efficiency reaching 60% at 3.1 keV and 4.1 keV. The measured efficiencies of all three gratings were consistent with calculated results proving the validity of the numerical simulation and indicating a more rigorous way to design the optimal MLBG structure.

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2018 (1)

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, S. Braun, and H. A. Padmore, “Spontaneous formation of highly periodic nano-ripples in inclined deposition of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(11), 115303 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, H. Wang, M. Hand, K. Sawhney, B. Kaulich, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Q. Huang, and Z. Wang, “Design of a multilayer-based collimated plane-grating monochromator for tender X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24(1), 168–174 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Q. Huang, H. Wang, M. Hand, K. Sawhney, and Z. Wang, “Analytic theory of alternate multilayer gratings operating in single-order regime,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15987–16001 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2012 (2)

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. F. Wang, J. T. Zhu, Q. Zhong, Z. S. Wang, P. Jonnard, K. Le Guen, J. M. André, and M. Fialin, “Influence of working gas pressure on the performance of W/Si multilayers,” Chinese Phys. C 36(9), 909–914 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

L. J. P. Ament, M. Van Veenendaal, T. P. Devereaux, J. P. Hill, and J. Van Den Brink, “Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of elementary excitations,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 705–767 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

F. Schaefers, M. Mertin, and M. Gorgoi, “KMC-1: A high resolution and high flux soft x-ray beamline at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD—Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Follath and F. Senf, “New plane-grating monochromators for third generation synchrotron radiation light sources,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 390(3), 388–394 (1997).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: Photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection. E = 100-2000 eV Z = 1-94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27(1), 1–144 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ament, L. J. P.

L. J. P. Ament, M. Van Veenendaal, T. P. Devereaux, J. P. Hill, and J. Van Den Brink, “Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of elementary excitations,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 705–767 (2011).
[Crossref]

André, J. M.

F. F. Wang, J. T. Zhu, Q. Zhong, Z. S. Wang, P. Jonnard, K. Le Guen, J. M. André, and M. Fialin, “Influence of working gas pressure on the performance of W/Si multilayers,” Chinese Phys. C 36(9), 909–914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arnold, T.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Betemps, R.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bijkerk, F.

Bischoff, P.

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, S.

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, S. Braun, and H. A. Padmore, “Spontaneous formation of highly periodic nano-ripples in inclined deposition of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(11), 115303 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bridou, F.

Buchheim, J.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cambie, R.

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choueikani, F.

Delmotte, F.

Devereaux, T. P.

L. J. P. Ament, M. Van Veenendaal, T. P. Devereaux, J. P. Hill, and J. Van Den Brink, “Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of elementary excitations,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 705–767 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dhuey, S.

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eggenstein, F.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erko, A.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fialin, M.

F. F. Wang, J. T. Zhu, Q. Zhong, Z. S. Wang, P. Jonnard, K. Le Guen, J. M. André, and M. Fialin, “Influence of working gas pressure on the performance of W/Si multilayers,” Chinese Phys. C 36(9), 909–914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Firsov, A.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flechsig, U.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Follath, R.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Follath and F. Senf, “New plane-grating monochromators for third generation synchrotron radiation light sources,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 390(3), 388–394 (1997).
[Crossref]

Frost, F.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujikawa, B. K.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: Photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection. E = 100-2000 eV Z = 1-94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27(1), 1–144 (1982).
[Crossref]

Gaupp, A.

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gawlitza, P.

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, S. Braun, and H. A. Padmore, “Spontaneous formation of highly periodic nano-ripples in inclined deposition of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(11), 115303 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gorgoi, M.

F. Schaefers, M. Mertin, and M. Gorgoi, “KMC-1: A high resolution and high flux soft x-ray beamline at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grioni, M.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

Gwalt, G.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hand, M.

X. Yang, H. Wang, M. Hand, K. Sawhney, B. Kaulich, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Q. Huang, and Z. Wang, “Design of a multilayer-based collimated plane-grating monochromator for tender X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24(1), 168–174 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Q. Huang, H. Wang, M. Hand, K. Sawhney, and Z. Wang, “Analytic theory of alternate multilayer gratings operating in single-order regime,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15987–16001 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: Photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection. E = 100-2000 eV Z = 1-94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27(1), 1–144 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hill, J. P.

L. J. P. Ament, M. Van Veenendaal, T. P. Devereaux, J. P. Hill, and J. Van Den Brink, “Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of elementary excitations,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 705–767 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

Imhof, A.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jonnard, P.

F. F. Wang, J. T. Zhu, Q. Zhong, Z. S. Wang, P. Jonnard, K. Le Guen, J. M. André, and M. Fialin, “Influence of working gas pressure on the performance of W/Si multilayers,” Chinese Phys. C 36(9), 909–914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kaulich, B.

X. Yang, H. Wang, M. Hand, K. Sawhney, B. Kaulich, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Q. Huang, and Z. Wang, “Design of a multilayer-based collimated plane-grating monochromator for tender X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24(1), 168–174 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

Krempasky, J.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kruijs, R.

Krumrey, M.

Künstner, S.

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kutz, O.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lagarde, B.

Le Guen, K.

F. F. Wang, J. T. Zhu, Q. Zhong, Z. S. Wang, P. Jonnard, K. Le Guen, J. M. André, and M. Fialin, “Influence of working gas pressure on the performance of W/Si multilayers,” Chinese Phys. C 36(9), 909–914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, P.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: Photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection. E = 100-2000 eV Z = 1-94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27(1), 1–144 (1982).
[Crossref]

Lemke, S.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Löchel, B.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Louis, E.

Mast, M.

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meltchakov, E.

Mertin, M.

Meyer-Ilse, J.

Nelles, B.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Packe, I.

Padmore, H. A.

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, S. Braun, and H. A. Padmore, “Spontaneous formation of highly periodic nano-ripples in inclined deposition of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(11), 115303 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, F. Salmassi, J. Meyer-Ilse, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, and H. A. Padmore, “Refraction effects in soft x-ray multilayer blazed gratings,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11334–11344 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of diffraction efficiency via higher-order operation of a multilayer blazed grating,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3157–3160 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Patthey, L.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piazzalunga, A.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pietag, F.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polack, F.

Raabe, J.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudolph, I.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salmassi, F.

Sawhney, K.

X. Yang, H. Wang, M. Hand, K. Sawhney, B. Kaulich, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Q. Huang, and Z. Wang, “Design of a multilayer-based collimated plane-grating monochromator for tender X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24(1), 168–174 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Q. Huang, H. Wang, M. Hand, K. Sawhney, and Z. Wang, “Analytic theory of alternate multilayer gratings operating in single-order regime,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15987–16001 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaefers, F.

F. Schaefers, M. Mertin, and M. Gorgoi, “KMC-1: A high resolution and high flux soft x-ray beamline at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schäfers, F.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, J. S.

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, T.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, T.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seliger, T.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senf, F.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Follath and F. Senf, “New plane-grating monochromators for third generation synchrotron radiation light sources,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 390(3), 388–394 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shimabukuro, R. L.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: Photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection. E = 100-2000 eV Z = 1-94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27(1), 1–144 (1982).
[Crossref]

Siewert, F.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokolov, A.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strocov, V. N.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sturm, J. M.

Tanaka, T. J.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: Photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection. E = 100-2000 eV Z = 1-94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27(1), 1–144 (1982).
[Crossref]

Thomasset, M.

Van Den Brink, J.

L. J. P. Ament, M. Van Veenendaal, T. P. Devereaux, J. P. Hill, and J. Van Den Brink, “Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of elementary excitations,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 705–767 (2011).
[Crossref]

Van Veenendaal, M.

L. J. P. Ament, M. Van Veenendaal, T. P. Devereaux, J. P. Hill, and J. Van Den Brink, “Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of elementary excitations,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 705–767 (2011).
[Crossref]

Voronov, D. L.

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, S. Braun, and H. A. Padmore, “Spontaneous formation of highly periodic nano-ripples in inclined deposition of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(11), 115303 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, F. Salmassi, J. Meyer-Ilse, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, and H. A. Padmore, “Refraction effects in soft x-ray multilayer blazed gratings,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11334–11344 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of diffraction efficiency via higher-order operation of a multilayer blazed grating,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3157–3160 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Waberski, C.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waberski, Ch.

Wang, F. F.

F. F. Wang, J. T. Zhu, Q. Zhong, Z. S. Wang, P. Jonnard, K. Le Guen, J. M. André, and M. Fialin, “Influence of working gas pressure on the performance of W/Si multilayers,” Chinese Phys. C 36(9), 909–914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

X. Yang, H. Wang, M. Hand, K. Sawhney, B. Kaulich, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Q. Huang, and Z. Wang, “Design of a multilayer-based collimated plane-grating monochromator for tender X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24(1), 168–174 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Q. Huang, H. Wang, M. Hand, K. Sawhney, and Z. Wang, “Analytic theory of alternate multilayer gratings operating in single-order regime,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15987–16001 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Wang, Z. S.

F. F. Wang, J. T. Zhu, Q. Zhong, Z. S. Wang, P. Jonnard, K. Le Guen, J. M. André, and M. Fialin, “Influence of working gas pressure on the performance of W/Si multilayers,” Chinese Phys. C 36(9), 909–914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Warwick, T.

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, “IMD—Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Yashchuk, V. V.

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeschke, T.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Senf, F. Bijkerk, F. Eggenstein, G. Gwalt, Q. Huang, R. Kruijs, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, E. Louis, M. Mertin, I. Packe, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, J. M. Sturm, Ch. Waberski, Z. Wang, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, and A. Erko, “Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13220–13230 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, Q.

F. F. Wang, J. T. Zhu, Q. Zhong, Z. S. Wang, P. Jonnard, K. Le Guen, J. M. André, and M. Fialin, “Influence of working gas pressure on the performance of W/Si multilayers,” Chinese Phys. C 36(9), 909–914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. T.

F. F. Wang, J. T. Zhu, Q. Zhong, Z. S. Wang, P. Jonnard, K. Le Guen, J. M. André, and M. Fialin, “Influence of working gas pressure on the performance of W/Si multilayers,” Chinese Phys. C 36(9), 909–914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zimoch, D.

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zizak, I.

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: Photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection. E = 100-2000 eV Z = 1-94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27(1), 1–144 (1982).
[Crossref]

Chinese Phys. C (1)

F. F. Wang, J. T. Zhu, Q. Zhong, Z. S. Wang, P. Jonnard, K. Le Guen, J. M. André, and M. Fialin, “Influence of working gas pressure on the performance of W/Si multilayers,” Chinese Phys. C 36(9), 909–914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD—Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, R. Cambie, S. Dhuey, E. M. Gullikson, T. Warwick, S. Braun, V. V. Yashchuk, and H. A. Padmore, “Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093521 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, P. Gawlitza, S. Braun, and H. A. Padmore, “Spontaneous formation of highly periodic nano-ripples in inclined deposition of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(11), 115303 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (3)

V. N. Strocov, T. Schmitt, U. Flechsig, T. Schmidt, A. Imhof, Q. Chen, J. Raabe, R. Betemps, D. Zimoch, J. Krempasky, X. Wang, M. Grioni, A. Piazzalunga, and L. Patthey, “High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(5), 631–643 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, H. Wang, M. Hand, K. Sawhney, B. Kaulich, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Q. Huang, and Z. Wang, “Design of a multilayer-based collimated plane-grating monochromator for tender X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24(1), 168–174 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Siewert, B. Löchel, J. Buchheim, F. Eggenstein, A. Firsov, G. Gwalt, O. Kutz, S. Lemke, B. Nelles, I. Rudolph, F. Schäfers, T. Seliger, F. Senf, A. Sokolov, C. Waberski, J. Wolf, T. Zeschke, I. Zizak, R. Follath, T. Arnold, F. Frost, F. Pietag, and A. Erko, “Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(1), 91–99 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. (1)

R. Follath and F. Senf, “New plane-grating monochromators for third generation synchrotron radiation light sources,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 390(3), 388–394 (1997).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

L. J. P. Ament, M. Van Veenendaal, T. P. Devereaux, J. P. Hill, and J. Van Den Brink, “Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of elementary excitations,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 705–767 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J. S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for soft X-ray reflection optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(5), 052005 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schaefers, M. Mertin, and M. Gorgoi, “KMC-1: A high resolution and high flux soft x-ray beamline at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(12), 123102 (2007).
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Other (4)

“Commercial software “DiffractMOD/RSoft” distributed by LIGHT TEC, France,” (n.d.).

M. Wen, L. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Huang, Z. Wang, R. She, H. Feng, and H. Wang, “High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft X-ray polarimetry,” in Thin Solid Films (Elsevier, 2015), 592, pp. 262–265.

F. Schaefers and R. Cimino, “Soft X-ray reflectivity: from quasi-perfect mirrors to accelerator walls,” in ECLOUD’12: Joint INFN-CERN-EuCARD-AccNet Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects, F. Cimino, R and Rumolo, G and Zimmermann, ed., C E R N Reports (C E R N, 2013), pp. 105–115.

A. Sokolov, M. G. Sertsu, A. Gaupp, M. Lüttecke, and F. Schäfers, “Efficient high-order suppression system for a metrology beamline,” in Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (International Union of Crystallography, 2018), 25(1), pp. 100–107.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic view of the geometry of beam paths the MLBG.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 MLBG efficiency calculated by varying the grating blaze angle and the d-spacing of multilayer (dML) at a fixed photon energy of 2.5 keV (a). The optimal relation between γ and dML predicted by the approximated Eq. (3) and the one including refraction effects (4) are presented as black and blue lines in (a). The accurate relation predicted by numerical simulations is indicated by the dashed line. The expected grating efficiency loss due to multilayer interface imperfections with different dML is shown in (b). The dependence of the Cff value of a potential c-PGM using MLBG on dML is shown in (c). The variation of the in-plane acceptance of a 100 mm length grating as a function of dML is shown in (d).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A photo of the fabricated MLBGs in three different sections (a), AFM images of the grating with γ = 0.6° (b), 1.0° (c), and 0.8° (d). The one dimensional surface profiles of the three gratings (e).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A cross-section TEM image of the whole stack of 40 bilayers ML deposited on the small MLBG structure (a), and the HRTEM images of the layer structure at the blazed facet (b), apex area (c), and anti-blazed facet (d).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The surface profiles of the small MLBG substrate (a) and after deposition of 10 (b), 20 (c), 30 (d), and 40 (e) bilayers of ML, obtained from the TEM images.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Reflectance of the reference ML measured at the area close to the grating section on the MLBG substrate, and the simulation using the structure parameters from the fitting result.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The experimental/simulated efficiency of the 1st order of the reference ML (stars/pink line) and the MLBG S2 (circles/black line), S3 (squares/red line), and S1 (triangles/blue line), respectively. The experimental/simulated efficiency of an Au-coated blazed grating measured in the on-blaze mode (circles/orange line) are also shown for comparison. “ML+Ar” represents the simulated reflectance of the ML which includes 5.5% Ar impurities in their structure.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 An TEM image of the small MLBG sample (a) and the depth distribution of different elements in the structure measured by EDX line scan (b). The EDX was measured at the positions indicated by the line in (a).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Detector scans of the S3 grating measured at 1.5 keV, 3 keV, and 4.5keV, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structure parameters of the 3 MLBGs measured by AFM before and after ML deposition

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m λ d G R = cos α cos β
n λ 2 d M L sin θ ,
d n m d G R sin γ
  d M L = n m d G R sin γ 1 1 8 δ λ 2 m 2 ( d G R sin γ ) 2
δ r 0 λ 2 2 π q n q f 1 q ( 0 )

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