Abstract

We describe an elastographic method to circumferentially-resolve airway wall compliance using endoscopic, anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) combined with an intraluminal pressure catheter. The method was first demonstrated on notched silicone phantoms of known elastic modulus under respiratory ventilation, where localized compliance measurements were validated against those predicted by finite element modeling. Then, ex vivo porcine tracheas were scanned, and the pattern of compliance was found to be consistent with histological identification of the locations of (stiff) cartilage and (soft) muscle. This quantitative method may aid in diagnosis and monitoring of collapsible airway wall tissues in obstructive respiratory disorders.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2019 (2)

A. Müller, M. C. Wapler, and U. Wallrabe, “A quick and accurate method to determine the Poisson’s ratio and the coefficient of thermal expansion of PDMS,” Soft Matter 15(4), 779–784 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Price, J. S. Kimbell, R. Bu, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Geometric Validation of Continuous, Finely Sampled 3-D Reconstructions From aOCT and CT in Upper Airway Models,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 38(4), 1005–1015 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (2)

S. Balakrishnan, R. Bu, N. Iftimia, H. Price, C. Zdanski, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Combined anatomical optical coherence tomography and intraluminal pressure reveal viscoelasticity of the in vivo airway,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(10), 1–4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Eskandari, A. L. Arvayo, and M. E. Levenston, “Mechanical properties of the airway tree: heterogeneous and anisotropic pseudoelastic and viscoelastic tissue responses,” J. Appl. Physiol. 125(3), 878–888 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

2016 (2)

L. Javia, M. A. Harris, and S. Fuller, “Rings, slings, and other tracheal disorders in the neonate,” Semin. Fetal Neonatal Med. 21(4), 277–284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Subramaniam, G. Mylavarapu, K. McConnell, R. J. Fleck, S. R. Shott, R. S. Amin, and E. J. Gutmark, “Compliance Measurements of the Upper Airway in Pediatric Down Syndrome Sleep Apnea Patients,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 44(4), 873–885 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

J.-H. Jiang, J. F. Turner, and J.-A. Huang, “Endobronchial ultrasound elastography: a new method in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration,” J. Thorac. Dis. 7(Suppl 4), S272–S278 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Rozman, M. M. Malovrh, K. Adamic, T. Subic, V. Kovac, and M. Flezar, “Endobronchial ultrasound elastography strain ratio for mediastinal lymph node diagnosis,” Radiol. Oncol. 49(4), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Uribe-Patarroyo and B. E. Bouma, “Rotational distortion correction in endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on speckle decorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 40(23), 5518–5521 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

K. Wijesundara, C. Zdanski, J. Kimbell, H. Price, N. Iftimia, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(3), 788–799 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Bilston and S. C. Gandevia, “Biomechanical properties of the human upper airway and their effect on its behavior during breathing and in obstructive sleep apnea,” J. Appl. Physiol. 116(3), 314–324 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

C. Robertson, S.-W. Lee, Y.-C. Ahn, S. Mahon, Z. Chen, M. Brenner, and S. C. George, “Investigating in vivo airway wall mechanics during tidal breathing with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106011 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, B. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Optical coherence elastography: current status and future applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 043001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. K. Mariappan, K. J. Glaser, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: a review,” Clin. Anat. 23(5), 497–511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K.-M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yin, J. A. Talwalkar, K. J. Glaser, A. Manduca, R. C. Grimm, P. J. Rossman, J. L. Fidler, and R. L. Ehman, “Assessment of hepatic fibrosis with magnetic resonance elastography,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(10), 1207–1213 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

B. C. Goss, K. P. McGee, E. C. Ehman, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography of the lung: technical feasibility,” Magn. Reson. Med. 56(5), 1060–1066 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

B. J. F. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope 115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Carden, P. M. Boiselle, D. A. Waltz, and A. Ernst, “Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia in children and adults: an in-depth review,” Chest 127(3), 984–1005 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. Tozzi, D. Hayoz, A. F. Corno, I. Mallabiabarrena, and L. K. von Segesser, “Cross-sectional compliance overestimates arterial compliance because it neglects the axial strain,” Swiss Med. Wkly. 133(33-34), 461–464 (2003).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

U. Holzhäuser and R. K. Lambert, “Analysis of tracheal mechanics and applications,” J. Appl. Physiol. 91(1), 290–297 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1982 (1)

S. R. Klein, L. Goldberg, R. M. Miranda, P. Bosco, R. J. Nelson, and R. A. White, “Effect of suture technique on arterial anastomotic compliance,” Arch. Surg. 117(1), 45–47 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adamic, K.

A. Rozman, M. M. Malovrh, K. Adamic, T. Subic, V. Kovac, and M. Flezar, “Endobronchial ultrasound elastography strain ratio for mediastinal lymph node diagnosis,” Radiol. Oncol. 49(4), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y.-C.

C. Robertson, S.-W. Lee, Y.-C. Ahn, S. Mahon, Z. Chen, M. Brenner, and S. C. George, “Investigating in vivo airway wall mechanics during tidal breathing with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106011 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahuja, G. S.

O. Ajose-Popoola, E. Su, A. Hamamoto, A. Wang, J. C. Jing, T. D. Nguyen, J. J. Chen, K. E. Osann, Z. Chen, G. S. Ahuja, and B. J. F. Wong, “Diagnosis of subglottic stenosis in a rabbit model using long-range optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 127(1), 64–69 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajose-Popoola, O.

O. Ajose-Popoola, E. Su, A. Hamamoto, A. Wang, J. C. Jing, T. D. Nguyen, J. J. Chen, K. E. Osann, Z. Chen, G. S. Ahuja, and B. J. F. Wong, “Diagnosis of subglottic stenosis in a rabbit model using long-range optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 127(1), 64–69 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amin, R. S.

D. R. Subramaniam, G. Mylavarapu, K. McConnell, R. J. Fleck, S. R. Shott, R. S. Amin, and E. J. Gutmark, “Compliance Measurements of the Upper Airway in Pediatric Down Syndrome Sleep Apnea Patients,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 44(4), 873–885 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armstrong, W. B.

B. J. F. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope 115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arvayo, A. L.

M. Eskandari, A. L. Arvayo, and M. E. Levenston, “Mechanical properties of the airway tree: heterogeneous and anisotropic pseudoelastic and viscoelastic tissue responses,” J. Appl. Physiol. 125(3), 878–888 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, V. A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balakrishnan, S.

S. Balakrishnan, R. Bu, N. Iftimia, H. Price, C. Zdanski, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Combined anatomical optical coherence tomography and intraluminal pressure reveal viscoelasticity of the in vivo airway,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(10), 1–4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bu, S. Balakrishnan, N. Iftimia, H. Price, C. Zdanski, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Airway compliance measured by anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2195–2209 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bilston, L. E.

L. E. Bilston and S. C. Gandevia, “Biomechanical properties of the human upper airway and their effect on its behavior during breathing and in obstructive sleep apnea,” J. Appl. Physiol. 116(3), 314–324 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boiselle, P. M.

K. A. Carden, P. M. Boiselle, D. A. Waltz, and A. Ernst, “Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia in children and adults: an in-depth review,” Chest 127(3), 984–1005 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bosco, P.

S. R. Klein, L. Goldberg, R. M. Miranda, P. Bosco, R. J. Nelson, and R. A. White, “Effect of suture technique on arterial anastomotic compliance,” Arch. Surg. 117(1), 45–47 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Brenner, M.

Bu, R.

H. B. Price, J. S. Kimbell, R. Bu, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Geometric Validation of Continuous, Finely Sampled 3-D Reconstructions From aOCT and CT in Upper Airway Models,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 38(4), 1005–1015 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Balakrishnan, R. Bu, N. Iftimia, H. Price, C. Zdanski, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Combined anatomical optical coherence tomography and intraluminal pressure reveal viscoelasticity of the in vivo airway,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(10), 1–4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bu, S. Balakrishnan, N. Iftimia, H. Price, C. Zdanski, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Airway compliance measured by anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2195–2209 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carden, K. A.

K. A. Carden, P. M. Boiselle, D. A. Waltz, and A. Ernst, “Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia in children and adults: an in-depth review,” Chest 127(3), 984–1005 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaney, E. J.

Chen, J. J.

O. Ajose-Popoola, E. Su, A. Hamamoto, A. Wang, J. C. Jing, T. D. Nguyen, J. J. Chen, K. E. Osann, Z. Chen, G. S. Ahuja, and B. J. F. Wong, “Diagnosis of subglottic stenosis in a rabbit model using long-range optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 127(1), 64–69 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

O. Ajose-Popoola, E. Su, A. Hamamoto, A. Wang, J. C. Jing, T. D. Nguyen, J. J. Chen, K. E. Osann, Z. Chen, G. S. Ahuja, and B. J. F. Wong, “Diagnosis of subglottic stenosis in a rabbit model using long-range optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 127(1), 64–69 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Robertson, S.-W. Lee, Y.-C. Ahn, S. Mahon, Z. Chen, M. Brenner, and S. C. George, “Investigating in vivo airway wall mechanics during tidal breathing with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106011 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, A. E. Heidary, D. Yoon, D. Mukai, T. Ramalingam, S. Mahon, J. Yin, J. Jing, G. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Brenner, “Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(2), 243–254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. F. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope 115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, L.

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cisonni, J.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corno, A. F.

P. Tozzi, D. Hayoz, A. F. Corno, I. Mallabiabarrena, and L. K. von Segesser, “Cross-sectional compliance overestimates arterial compliance because it neglects the axial strain,” Swiss Med. Wkly. 133(33-34), 461–464 (2003).
[PubMed]

Coxson, H. O.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crecea, V.

Crumley, R. L.

B. J. F. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope 115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eastwood, P. R.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehman, E. C.

B. C. Goss, K. P. McGee, E. C. Ehman, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography of the lung: technical feasibility,” Magn. Reson. Med. 56(5), 1060–1066 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehman, R. L.

Y. K. Mariappan, K. J. Glaser, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: a review,” Clin. Anat. 23(5), 497–511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yin, J. A. Talwalkar, K. J. Glaser, A. Manduca, R. C. Grimm, P. J. Rossman, J. L. Fidler, and R. L. Ehman, “Assessment of hepatic fibrosis with magnetic resonance elastography,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(10), 1207–1213 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Goss, K. P. McGee, E. C. Ehman, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography of the lung: technical feasibility,” Magn. Reson. Med. 56(5), 1060–1066 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elliott, N. S. J.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ernst, A.

K. A. Carden, P. M. Boiselle, D. A. Waltz, and A. Ernst, “Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia in children and adults: an in-depth review,” Chest 127(3), 984–1005 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eskandari, M.

M. Eskandari, A. L. Arvayo, and M. E. Levenston, “Mechanical properties of the airway tree: heterogeneous and anisotropic pseudoelastic and viscoelastic tissue responses,” J. Appl. Physiol. 125(3), 878–888 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fidler, J. L.

M. Yin, J. A. Talwalkar, K. J. Glaser, A. Manduca, R. C. Grimm, P. J. Rossman, J. L. Fidler, and R. L. Ehman, “Assessment of hepatic fibrosis with magnetic resonance elastography,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(10), 1207–1213 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

FitzGerald, J. M.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleck, R. J.

D. R. Subramaniam, G. Mylavarapu, K. McConnell, R. J. Fleck, S. R. Shott, R. S. Amin, and E. J. Gutmark, “Compliance Measurements of the Upper Airway in Pediatric Down Syndrome Sleep Apnea Patients,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 44(4), 873–885 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flezar, M.

A. Rozman, M. M. Malovrh, K. Adamic, T. Subic, V. Kovac, and M. Flezar, “Endobronchial ultrasound elastography strain ratio for mediastinal lymph node diagnosis,” Radiol. Oncol. 49(4), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuller, S.

L. Javia, M. A. Harris, and S. Fuller, “Rings, slings, and other tracheal disorders in the neonate,” Semin. Fetal Neonatal Med. 21(4), 277–284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fung, K.-M.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K.-M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gandevia, S. C.

L. E. Bilston and S. C. Gandevia, “Biomechanical properties of the human upper airway and their effect on its behavior during breathing and in obstructive sleep apnea,” J. Appl. Physiol. 116(3), 314–324 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, S. C.

C. Robertson, S.-W. Lee, Y.-C. Ahn, S. Mahon, Z. Chen, M. Brenner, and S. C. George, “Investigating in vivo airway wall mechanics during tidal breathing with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106011 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glaser, K. J.

Y. K. Mariappan, K. J. Glaser, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: a review,” Clin. Anat. 23(5), 497–511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yin, J. A. Talwalkar, K. J. Glaser, A. Manduca, R. C. Grimm, P. J. Rossman, J. L. Fidler, and R. L. Ehman, “Assessment of hepatic fibrosis with magnetic resonance elastography,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(10), 1207–1213 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldberg, L.

S. R. Klein, L. Goldberg, R. M. Miranda, P. Bosco, R. J. Nelson, and R. A. White, “Effect of suture technique on arterial anastomotic compliance,” Arch. Surg. 117(1), 45–47 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gora, M. J.

Goss, B. C.

B. C. Goss, K. P. McGee, E. C. Ehman, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography of the lung: technical feasibility,” Magn. Reson. Med. 56(5), 1060–1066 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grimm, R. C.

M. Yin, J. A. Talwalkar, K. J. Glaser, A. Manduca, R. C. Grimm, P. J. Rossman, J. L. Fidler, and R. L. Ehman, “Assessment of hepatic fibrosis with magnetic resonance elastography,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(10), 1207–1213 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

B. J. F. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope 115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

B. J. F. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope 115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gutmark, E. J.

D. R. Subramaniam, G. Mylavarapu, K. McConnell, R. J. Fleck, S. R. Shott, R. S. Amin, and E. J. Gutmark, “Compliance Measurements of the Upper Airway in Pediatric Down Syndrome Sleep Apnea Patients,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 44(4), 873–885 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajjar, R. J.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamamoto, A.

O. Ajose-Popoola, E. Su, A. Hamamoto, A. Wang, J. C. Jing, T. D. Nguyen, J. J. Chen, K. E. Osann, Z. Chen, G. S. Ahuja, and B. J. F. Wong, “Diagnosis of subglottic stenosis in a rabbit model using long-range optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 127(1), 64–69 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, M. A.

L. Javia, M. A. Harris, and S. Fuller, “Rings, slings, and other tracheal disorders in the neonate,” Semin. Fetal Neonatal Med. 21(4), 277–284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayase, M.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayoz, D.

P. Tozzi, D. Hayoz, A. F. Corno, I. Mallabiabarrena, and L. K. von Segesser, “Cross-sectional compliance overestimates arterial compliance because it neglects the axial strain,” Swiss Med. Wkly. 133(33-34), 461–464 (2003).
[PubMed]

Heidary, A. E.

Hillman, D. R.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzhäuser, U.

U. Holzhäuser and R. K. Lambert, “Analysis of tracheal mechanics and applications,” J. Appl. Physiol. 91(1), 290–297 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoshino, K.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J.-A.

J.-H. Jiang, J. F. Turner, and J.-A. Huang, “Endobronchial ultrasound elastography: a new method in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration,” J. Thorac. Dis. 7(Suppl 4), S272–S278 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hui, L.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Ikeno, F.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ionescu, D.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, R. P.

B. J. F. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope 115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

James, A. L.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, I.-K.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Javia, L.

L. Javia, M. A. Harris, and S. Fuller, “Rings, slings, and other tracheal disorders in the neonate,” Semin. Fetal Neonatal Med. 21(4), 277–284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.-H.

J.-H. Jiang, J. F. Turner, and J.-A. Huang, “Endobronchial ultrasound elastography: a new method in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration,” J. Thorac. Dis. 7(Suppl 4), S272–S278 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jing, J.

Jing, J. C.

O. Ajose-Popoola, E. Su, A. Hamamoto, A. Wang, J. C. Jing, T. D. Nguyen, J. J. Chen, K. E. Osann, Z. Chen, G. S. Ahuja, and B. J. F. Wong, “Diagnosis of subglottic stenosis in a rabbit model using long-range optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 127(1), 64–69 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawase, Y.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keddissi, J. I.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K.-M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, B. F.

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, K. M.

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimbell, J.

Kimbell, J. S.

H. B. Price, J. S. Kimbell, R. Bu, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Geometric Validation of Continuous, Finely Sampled 3-D Reconstructions From aOCT and CT in Upper Airway Models,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 38(4), 1005–1015 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinasewitz, G. T.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K.-M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

King, A. J. C.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirby, M.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, S. R.

S. R. Klein, L. Goldberg, R. M. Miranda, P. Bosco, R. J. Nelson, and R. A. White, “Effect of suture technique on arterial anastomotic compliance,” Arch. Surg. 117(1), 45–47 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kovac, V.

A. Rozman, M. M. Malovrh, K. Adamic, T. Subic, V. Kovac, and M. Flezar, “Endobronchial ultrasound elastography strain ratio for mediastinal lymph node diagnosis,” Radiol. Oncol. 49(4), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lambert, R. K.

U. Holzhäuser and R. K. Lambert, “Analysis of tracheal mechanics and applications,” J. Appl. Physiol. 91(1), 290–297 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lane, P.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Latham, B.

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, G. T.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, A. M. D.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-W.

Leigh, M. S.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levenston, M. E.

M. Eskandari, A. L. Arvayo, and M. E. Levenston, “Mechanical properties of the airway tree: heterogeneous and anisotropic pseudoelastic and viscoelastic tissue responses,” J. Appl. Physiol. 125(3), 878–888 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Liang, X.

Liu, G.

Lopez Lisbona, R. M.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lucey, A. D.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ly, H. Q.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacAulay, C.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahmood, U.

B. J. F. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope 115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahon, S.

Mallabiabarrena, I.

P. Tozzi, D. Hayoz, A. F. Corno, I. Mallabiabarrena, and L. K. von Segesser, “Cross-sectional compliance overestimates arterial compliance because it neglects the axial strain,” Swiss Med. Wkly. 133(33-34), 461–464 (2003).
[PubMed]

Malovrh, M. M.

A. Rozman, M. M. Malovrh, K. Adamic, T. Subic, V. Kovac, and M. Flezar, “Endobronchial ultrasound elastography strain ratio for mediastinal lymph node diagnosis,” Radiol. Oncol. 49(4), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manduca, A.

M. Yin, J. A. Talwalkar, K. J. Glaser, A. Manduca, R. C. Grimm, P. J. Rossman, J. L. Fidler, and R. L. Ehman, “Assessment of hepatic fibrosis with magnetic resonance elastography,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(10), 1207–1213 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Goss, K. P. McGee, E. C. Ehman, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography of the lung: technical feasibility,” Magn. Reson. Med. 56(5), 1060–1066 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariappan, Y. K.

Y. K. Mariappan, K. J. Glaser, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: a review,” Clin. Anat. 23(5), 497–511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marks, G. B.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McConnell, K.

D. R. Subramaniam, G. Mylavarapu, K. McConnell, R. J. Fleck, S. R. Shott, R. S. Amin, and E. J. Gutmark, “Compliance Measurements of the Upper Airway in Pediatric Down Syndrome Sleep Apnea Patients,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 44(4), 873–885 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGee, K. P.

B. C. Goss, K. P. McGee, E. C. Ehman, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography of the lung: technical feasibility,” Magn. Reson. Med. 56(5), 1060–1066 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michel, R. G.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K.-M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miranda, R. M.

S. R. Klein, L. Goldberg, R. M. Miranda, P. Bosco, R. J. Nelson, and R. A. White, “Effect of suture technique on arterial anastomotic compliance,” Arch. Surg. 117(1), 45–47 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukai, D.

Müller, A.

A. Müller, M. C. Wapler, and U. Wallrabe, “A quick and accurate method to determine the Poisson’s ratio and the coefficient of thermal expansion of PDMS,” Soft Matter 15(4), 779–784 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mylavarapu, G.

D. R. Subramaniam, G. Mylavarapu, K. McConnell, R. J. Fleck, S. R. Shott, R. S. Amin, and E. J. Gutmark, “Compliance Measurements of the Upper Airway in Pediatric Down Syndrome Sleep Apnea Patients,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 44(4), 873–885 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, R. J.

S. R. Klein, L. Goldberg, R. M. Miranda, P. Bosco, R. J. Nelson, and R. A. White, “Effect of suture technique on arterial anastomotic compliance,” Arch. Surg. 117(1), 45–47 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. D.

O. Ajose-Popoola, E. Su, A. Hamamoto, A. Wang, J. C. Jing, T. D. Nguyen, J. J. Chen, K. E. Osann, Z. Chen, G. S. Ahuja, and B. J. F. Wong, “Diagnosis of subglottic stenosis in a rabbit model using long-range optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 127(1), 64–69 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noffsinger, W. J.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohtani, K.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

Osann, K. E.

O. Ajose-Popoola, E. Su, A. Hamamoto, A. Wang, J. C. Jing, T. D. Nguyen, J. J. Chen, K. E. Osann, Z. Chen, G. S. Ahuja, and B. J. F. Wong, “Diagnosis of subglottic stenosis in a rabbit model using long-range optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 127(1), 64–69 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Price, H.

Price, H. B.

H. B. Price, J. S. Kimbell, R. Bu, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Geometric Validation of Continuous, Finely Sampled 3-D Reconstructions From aOCT and CT in Upper Airway Models,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 38(4), 1005–1015 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramalingam, T.

Regli, A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ridgway, J. M.

B. J. F. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope 115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robertson, C.

C. Robertson, S.-W. Lee, Y.-C. Ahn, S. Mahon, Z. Chen, M. Brenner, and S. C. George, “Investigating in vivo airway wall mechanics during tidal breathing with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106011 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossman, P. J.

M. Yin, J. A. Talwalkar, K. J. Glaser, A. Manduca, R. C. Grimm, P. J. Rossman, J. L. Fidler, and R. L. Ehman, “Assessment of hepatic fibrosis with magnetic resonance elastography,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(10), 1207–1213 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rozman, A.

A. Rozman, M. M. Malovrh, K. Adamic, T. Subic, V. Kovac, and M. Flezar, “Endobronchial ultrasound elastography strain ratio for mediastinal lymph node diagnosis,” Radiol. Oncol. 49(4), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saunders, C. M.

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J.

Shepherd, K. L.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shibuya, T. Y.

B. J. F. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope 115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shott, S. R.

D. R. Subramaniam, G. Mylavarapu, K. McConnell, R. J. Fleck, S. R. Shott, R. S. Amin, and E. J. Gutmark, “Compliance Measurements of the Upper Airway in Pediatric Down Syndrome Sleep Apnea Patients,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 44(4), 873–885 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Standish, B.

C. Sun, B. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Optical coherence elastography: current status and future applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 043001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, E.

O. Ajose-Popoola, E. Su, A. Hamamoto, A. Wang, J. C. Jing, T. D. Nguyen, J. J. Chen, K. E. Osann, Z. Chen, G. S. Ahuja, and B. J. F. Wong, “Diagnosis of subglottic stenosis in a rabbit model using long-range optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 127(1), 64–69 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J.

B. J. F. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope 115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subic, T.

A. Rozman, M. M. Malovrh, K. Adamic, T. Subic, V. Kovac, and M. Flezar, “Endobronchial ultrasound elastography strain ratio for mediastinal lymph node diagnosis,” Radiol. Oncol. 49(4), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramaniam, D. R.

D. R. Subramaniam, G. Mylavarapu, K. McConnell, R. J. Fleck, S. R. Shott, R. S. Amin, and E. J. Gutmark, “Compliance Measurements of the Upper Airway in Pediatric Down Syndrome Sleep Apnea Patients,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 44(4), 873–885 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

C. Sun, B. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Optical coherence elastography: current status and future applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 043001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

Suzuki, Y.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talwalkar, J. A.

M. Yin, J. A. Talwalkar, K. J. Glaser, A. Manduca, R. C. Grimm, P. J. Rossman, J. L. Fidler, and R. L. Ehman, “Assessment of hepatic fibrosis with magnetic resonance elastography,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(10), 1207–1213 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tozzi, P.

P. Tozzi, D. Hayoz, A. F. Corno, I. Mallabiabarrena, and L. K. von Segesser, “Cross-sectional compliance overestimates arterial compliance because it neglects the axial strain,” Swiss Med. Wkly. 133(33-34), 461–464 (2003).
[PubMed]

Turner, J. F.

J.-H. Jiang, J. F. Turner, and J.-A. Huang, “Endobronchial ultrasound elastography: a new method in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration,” J. Thorac. Dis. 7(Suppl 4), S272–S278 (2015).
[PubMed]

Uribe-Patarroyo, N.

Varfolomeva, N.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Segesser, L. K.

P. Tozzi, D. Hayoz, A. F. Corno, I. Mallabiabarrena, and L. K. von Segesser, “Cross-sectional compliance overestimates arterial compliance because it neglects the axial strain,” Swiss Med. Wkly. 133(33-34), 461–464 (2003).
[PubMed]

Wallrabe, U.

A. Müller, M. C. Wapler, and U. Wallrabe, “A quick and accurate method to determine the Poisson’s ratio and the coefficient of thermal expansion of PDMS,” Soft Matter 15(4), 779–784 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. H.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waltz, D. A.

K. A. Carden, P. M. Boiselle, D. A. Waltz, and A. Ernst, “Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia in children and adults: an in-depth review,” Chest 127(3), 984–1005 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

O. Ajose-Popoola, E. Su, A. Hamamoto, A. Wang, J. C. Jing, T. D. Nguyen, J. J. Chen, K. E. Osann, Z. Chen, G. S. Ahuja, and B. J. F. Wong, “Diagnosis of subglottic stenosis in a rabbit model using long-range optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 127(1), 64–69 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wapler, M. C.

A. Müller, M. C. Wapler, and U. Wallrabe, “A quick and accurate method to determine the Poisson’s ratio and the coefficient of thermal expansion of PDMS,” Soft Matter 15(4), 779–784 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, R. A.

S. R. Klein, L. Goldberg, R. M. Miranda, P. Bosco, R. J. Nelson, and R. A. White, “Effect of suture technique on arterial anastomotic compliance,” Arch. Surg. 117(1), 45–47 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wijesundara, K.

Williamson, J. P.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, B. J. F.

O. Ajose-Popoola, E. Su, A. Hamamoto, A. Wang, J. C. Jing, T. D. Nguyen, J. J. Chen, K. E. Osann, Z. Chen, G. S. Ahuja, and B. J. F. Wong, “Diagnosis of subglottic stenosis in a rabbit model using long-range optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 127(1), 64–69 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. F. Wong, R. P. Jackson, S. Guo, J. M. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Su, T. Y. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, W. B. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human larynx: normative and benign pathology in 82 patients,” Laryngoscope 115(11), 1904–1911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, V. X. D.

C. Sun, B. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Optical coherence elastography: current status and future applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 043001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeung, A. C.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

Yin, M.

M. Yin, J. A. Talwalkar, K. J. Glaser, A. Manduca, R. C. Grimm, P. J. Rossman, J. L. Fidler, and R. L. Ehman, “Assessment of hepatic fibrosis with magnetic resonance elastography,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(10), 1207–1213 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoneyama, R.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, D.

Zdanski, C.

Zhang, W.

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2)

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

D. R. Subramaniam, G. Mylavarapu, K. McConnell, R. J. Fleck, S. R. Shott, R. S. Amin, and E. J. Gutmark, “Compliance Measurements of the Upper Airway in Pediatric Down Syndrome Sleep Apnea Patients,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 44(4), 873–885 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Surg. (1)

S. R. Klein, L. Goldberg, R. M. Miranda, P. Bosco, R. J. Nelson, and R. A. White, “Effect of suture technique on arterial anastomotic compliance,” Arch. Surg. 117(1), 45–47 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Chest (2)

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K.-M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Carden, P. M. Boiselle, D. A. Waltz, and A. Ernst, “Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia in children and adults: an in-depth review,” Chest 127(3), 984–1005 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Anat. (1)

Y. K. Mariappan, K. J. Glaser, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: a review,” Clin. Anat. 23(5), 497–511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

M. Yin, J. A. Talwalkar, K. J. Glaser, A. Manduca, R. C. Grimm, P. J. Rossman, J. L. Fidler, and R. L. Ehman, “Assessment of hepatic fibrosis with magnetic resonance elastography,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(10), 1207–1213 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. Respir. J. (1)

M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, R. M. Lopez Lisbona, A. M. D. Lee, W. Zhang, P. Lane, N. Varfolomeva, L. Hui, D. Ionescu, H. O. Coxson, C. MacAulay, J. M. FitzGerald, and S. Lam, “Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: 2-year follow-up using optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 46(3), 859–862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Code 1       FreeFEM code for phantom B
» Visualization 1       aOCT video of phantom B and trachea without fiducial marker. The aOCT video shows the deformation of the phantom (left) and trachea (right) under dynamic pressure. Both the inner and outer surfaces of the phantom are observed with phantom B, and a s

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Diagram presenting the definition of LC. Left: figure in polar coordinates with blue lines showing the geometry of the sample and its radius at θ when pressure is at its minimum, and red lines when pressure is at its maximum (displacement is exaggerated for clarity). Right: pressure versus displacement curve, in which LC is computed as the displacement with respect to change in pressure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Radial strain maps rendered with different methods for choosing the coordinate origin (Methods 1-3), produced from a scan of phantom B performed while motion was intentionally introduced. The notch of the phantom is located at θ = 3π/2. In the first two respiratory cycles, no motion was introduced; in the third cycle, slight motion was introduced; in the fourth cycle, heavy motion was introduced. (a) Results produced by method 1: using catheter position as the origin. (b) Results produced by method 2: using the centroid of the frame at minimum pressure as the origin; (c) Results produced by method 3 (* the method in this paper): using the dynamic centroid as the origin.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Design of two phantoms with pictures and engineering diagrams. Phantom A (left) and Phantom B (middle) were made of PDMS, whose Young’s modulus was measured by the texture analyzer. A representative plot showing the stress-strain relationship of the PDMS phantom material as obtained from the texture analyzer is presented on the right. The dotted line is the stress vs. strain curve, while the red line is the linear fitting curve whose slope is the Young’s modulus.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Diagram of aOCT system setup with the ventilator and the pressure catheter. (a) Mach-Zehnder interferometer from the aOCT system; (b) aOCT and pressure catheters inside the airway and scan pattern with rotation only (no pullback); the pressure catheter is several centimeters away from the OCT catheter to avoid blocking its view; produced aOCT images are time-resolved. (c) The ball-lens structure at the tip of the aOCT catheter: the outer diameter of the catheter including the sheath is around 0.86 mm, suitable for airway elastography with minimal impact on pressure measurement.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 aOCT scan and corresponding LC measurement of phantom A. (a) The OCT image in polar coordinates with an x-coordinate of θ ranging from 0 to 2π, and a y-coordinate of imaging distance away from the OCT catheter ranging from 0 to 12 mm; (b) Circumferentially-resolved LC with the blue line representing predicted LC and red dots representing measured LC; error bars represent the standard deviation of LC over multiple respiratory cycles; (c) The OCT image in Cartesian coordinates showing phantom deformation under different pressures. Scale bar: 5 mm
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 FEM simulation of phantom B. (a) Phantom with no overpressure; (b) Phantom at maximum luminal overpressure of 18 cm H2O; (c) Comparison of the inner surface of the phantom under different luminal pressures with their centroid overlaid.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Phantom B scan results. (a) Raw OCT image with the notch centered at 3π/2. (b) Corresponding LC measurement with blue line indicating the predicted LC from FEM simulation, and red dot indicating aOCT-measured LC with error bars represent the standard deviation of LC over different respiratory cycles. (c) aOCT images of the notched tube in Cartesian coordinates with comparison of the diameter in y-axis under maximum and minimum pressure (marked as *). (d) Error in LC (aOCT – FEM) as a function of θ, and (e) corresponding histogram of error showing the distribution of the error values. Scale bar: 5 mm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Histological and aOCT images of ex vivo porcine trachea. Left: representative histological image (H&E); Right: representative aOCT scan of the same trachea. The zoomed- in regions display the cartilage opening at the posterior airway. M, mucosa; SM, submucosa; C, cartilage; E, epithelium; LP, lamina propria; TM, trachealis muscle; C&S, aOCT catheter and sheath; Scale bar: 2 mm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Ex vivo scan results of pig trachea. (a-c) Trachea with fiducial markers at the cartilage opening. (d-f) Trachea without any fiducial marker. In both scans, the OCT image in polar coordinates (a, d) has an x-coordinate of angle ranging from 0 to 2π, and a y-coordinate of imaging distance away from the OCT catheter ranging from 0 to 12 mm. Positions of left, anterior, right and posterior airway is marked on the x-axis. Circumferentially-resolved LC is plotted in (b, e). The OCT images in Cartesian coordinates (c, f) show the endoscopic view of tracheas with the zoomed-in window indicating the location of trachealis muscle. C, cartilage; TM, trachealis muscle; FM, fiducial marker; Scale bar: 5 mm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Box-whisker plots of LC measured in six ex vivo pig tracheas. (a-c) Tracheas with fiducial markers; (d-f) Tracheas without fiducial marker. In all figures, along x-axis are the positions at where LC was analyzed, including left, anterior, right and posterior airway; y-axis is the measured LC.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Properties of Phantoms*

Equations (3)

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LC(θ)= Δ u θ Δp = u θ, p max u θ, p min p max p min
LC= Δu Δp =rx
where x= 1 E (r+Δr) 2 ( 1+ν )+ r 2 ( 12ν ) ( (r+Δr) 2 r 2 )