Abstract

The ability to generate mode-engineered single photons to interface with disparate quantum systems is of importance for building a quantum network. Here we report on the generation of a pulsed, heralded single photon source with a sub-GHz spectral bandwidth that couples to indium arsenide quantum dots centered at 942 nm. The source is built with a type-II PPKTP down-conversion crystal embedded in a semi-confocal optical cavity and pumped with a 76 MHz repetition rate pulsed laser to emit collinear, polarization-correlated photon pairs resonant with a single quantum dot. In order to demonstrate direct coupling, we use the mode-engineered cavity-SPDC single-photon source to resonantly excite an isolated single quantum dot.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

P.-J. Tsai and Y.-C. Chen, “Ultrabright, narrow-band photon-pair source for atomic quantum memories,” QST 3(3), 034005 (2018).
[Crossref]

U. Paudel, A. P. Burgers, D. G. Steel, M. K. Yakes, A. S. Bracker, and D. Gammon, “Generation of frequency sidebands on single photons with indistinguishability from quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 98(1), 011802 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Kambs and C. Becher, “Limitations on the indistinguishability of photons from remote solid state sources,” New J. Phys. 20(11), 115003 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

A. Delteil, Z. Sun, S. Fält, and A. Imamoğlu, “Realization of a cascaded quantum system: Heralded absorption of a single photon qubit by a single-electron charged quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(17), 177401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

C. Jones, D. Kim, M. T. Rakher, P. G. Kwiat, and T. D. Ladd, “Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks,” New J. Phys. 18(8), 083015 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Delteil, Z. Sun, W.-B. Gao, E. Togan, S. Faelt, and A. Imamoğlu, “Generation of heralded entanglement between distant hole spins,” Nat. Phys. 12, 218–223 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Leong, M. A. Seidler, M. Steiner, A. Cerè, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Time-resolved scattering of a single photon by a single atom,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13716 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Kaneda, K. Garay-Palmett, A. B. U’Ren, and P. G. Kwiat, “Heralded single-photon source utilizing highly nondegenerate, spectrally factorable spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10733–10747 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rambacha, A. Nikolova, T. J. Weinhold, and A. G. White, “Sub-megahertz linewidth single photon source,” APL Photonics 1(9), 096101 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Gazzano and G. S. Solomon, “Toward optical quantum information processing with quantum dots coupled to microstructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(7), C160–C175 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

K.-H. Luo, H. Herrmann, S. Krapick, B. Brecht, R. Ricken, V. Quiring, H. Suche, W. Sohler, and C. Silberhorn, “Direct generation of genuine single-longitudinal-mode narrowband photon pairs,” New J. Phys. 17(7), 073039 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Kalb, A. Reiserer, S. Ritter, and G. Rempe, “Heralded storage of a photonic quantum bit in a single atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(22), 220501 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Meyer, R. Stockill, M. Steiner, C. Le Gall, C. Matthiesen, E. Clarke, A. Ludwig, J. Reichel, M. Atatüre, and M. Köhl, “Direct photonic coupling of a semiconductor quantum dot and a trapped ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Schunk, U. Vogl, D. V. Strekalov, M. Förtsch, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, M. Göbelt, S. Christiansen, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “Interfacing transitions of different alkali atoms and telecom bands using one narrowband photon pair source,” Optica 2(9), 773–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

B. Srivathsan, G. K. Gulati, A. Cerè, B. Chng, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Reversing the temporal envelope of a heralded single photon using a cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(16), 163601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

S. A. Aljunid, G. Maslennikov, Y. Wang, H. L. Dao, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Excitation of a single atom with exponentially rising light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Schaibley, A. P. Burgers, G. A. McCracken, L.-M. Duan, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Demonstration of quantum entanglement between a single electron spin confined to an InAs quantum dot and a photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 167401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Gao, P. Fallahi, E. Togan, A. Delteil, Y. S. Chin, J. Miguel-Sanchez, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum teleportation from a propagating photon to a solid-state spin qubit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2744 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kuhlmann, J. Houel, D. Brunner, A. Ludwig, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and R. J. Warburton, “A dark-field microscope for background-free detection of resonance fluorescence from single semiconductor quantum dots operating in a set-and-forget mode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(7), 073905 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

W. B. Gao, P. Fallahi, E. Togan, J. Miguel-Sanchez, and A. Imamoglu, “Observation of entanglement between a quantum dot spin and a single photon,” Nature 491(7424), 426–430 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-S. Chuu, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “A miniature ultrabright source of temporally long, narrowband biphotons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 051108 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484(7393), 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. A. Rezus, S. G. Walt, R. Lettow, A. Renn, G. Zumofen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Single-photon spectroscopy of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 093601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

D. Kim, S. G. Carter, A. Greilich, A. S. Bracker, and D. Gammon, “Ultrafast optical control of entanglement between two quantum-dot spins,” Nat. Phys. 7(3), 223–229 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Piro, F. Rohde, C. Schuck, M. Almendros, J. Huwer, J. Ghosh, A. Haase, M. Hennrich, F. Dubin, and J. Eschner, “Heralded single-photon absorption by a single atom,” Nat. Phys. 7(1), 17–20 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. V. Polyakov, A. Muller, E. B. Flagg, A. Ling, N. Borjemscaia, E. Van Keuren, A. Migdall, and G. S. Solomon, “Coalescence of single photons emitted by disparate single-photon sources: the example of InAs quantum dots and parametric down-conversion sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(15), 157402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wolfgramm, Y. A. de Icaza Astiz, F. A. Beduini, A. Cerè, and M. W. Mitchell, “Atom-resonant heralded single photons by interaction-free measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(5), 053602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

E. B. Flagg, A. Muller, S. V. Polyakov, A. Ling, A. Migdall, and G. S. Solomon, “Interference of single photons from two separate semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(13), 137401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

M. Scholz, L. Koch, and O. Benson, “Statistics of narrow-band single photons for quantum memories generated by ultrabright cavity-enhanced parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063603 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Stobińska, G. Alber, and G. Leuchs, “Perfect excitation of a matter qubit by a single photon in free space,” EPL 86(1), 14007 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Scholz, L. Koch, and O. Benson, “Analytical treatment of spectral properties and signal–idler intensity correlations for a double-resonant optical parametric oscillator far below threshold,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3518–3523 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Bocquillon, C. Couteau, M. Razavi, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Coherence measures for heralded single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 035801 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

D. Press, T. D. Ladd, B. Zhang, and Y. Yamamoto, “Complete quantum control of a single quantum dot spin using ultrafast optical pulses,” Nature 456(7219), 218–221 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 227401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Kimble, “The Quantum Internet,” Nature 453(7198), 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pinotsi and A. Imamoglu, “Single photon absorption by a single quantum emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(9), 093603 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

D. L. Moehring, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, K. C. Younge, D. N. Matsukevich, L. M. Duan, and C. Monroe, “Entanglement of single-atom quantum bits at a distance,” Nature 449(7158), 68–71 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, Y. Wu, B. Sun, Q. Huang, J. Cheng, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, C. Emary, and L. J. Sham, “Fast spin state initialization in a singly charged InAs-GaAs quantum dot by optical cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 097401 (2007).
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2006 (1)

M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, A. Badolato, A. Högele, K. Karrai, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot spin-state preparation with near-unity fidelity,” Science 312(5773), 551–553 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. E. Ware, E. A. Stinaff, D. Gammon, M. F. Doty, A. S. Bracker, D. Gershoni, V. L. Korenev, S. C. Bădescu, Y. Lyanda-Geller, and T. L. Reinecke, “Polarized Fine Structure in the Photoluminescence Excitation Spectrum of a Negatively Charged Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(17), 177403 (2005).
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D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, “Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrödinger cat’ state,” Nature 438(7068), 639–642 (2005).
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2004 (1)

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, S. Tanzilli, P. Baldi, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 163 (2004).
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2003 (1)

B. Alén, F. Bickel, K. Karrai, R. J. Warburton, and P. M. Petroff, “Stark-shift modulation absorption spectroscopy of single quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2235–2237 (2003).
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2002 (1)

2001 (1)

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133603 (2001).
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1999 (1)

Z. Y. Ou and Y. J. Lu, “Cavity enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion for the prolongation of correlation time between conjugate photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2556–2559 (1999).
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1998 (1)

H. Benisty, H. D. Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction-part I: basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1612–1631 (1998).
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1997 (1)

J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(16), 3221–3224 (1997).
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1995 (1)

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(24), 4337–4341 (1995).
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1992 (1)

H. Y. Shen, Y. P. Zhou, W. X. Lin, Z. D. Zeng, R. R. Zeng, G. F. Yu, C. H. Huang, A. D. Jiang, S. Q. Jia, and D. Z. Shen, “Second harmonic generation and sum frequency mixing of dual wavelength Nd:YALO3 laser in flux grown KTiOPO4 crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 48–51 (1992).
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1987 (1)

Z. Zeng, H. Shen, H. Xu, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and D. Shen, “Measurement of refractive indices and thermal refractive index coefficients of the Ti:Mg:LiNbO3 crystal,” J. Synth. Cryst. 16(3), 551–553 (1987).

1986 (1)

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, “Experimental evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beam splitter: A new light on single-photon interferences,” EPL 1(4), 173–179 (1986).
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1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
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1964 (1)

1962 (1)

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B. Alén, F. Bickel, K. Karrai, R. J. Warburton, and P. M. Petroff, “Stark-shift modulation absorption spectroscopy of single quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2235–2237 (2003).
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S. Fasel, O. Alibart, S. Tanzilli, P. Baldi, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 163 (2004).
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S. A. Aljunid, G. Maslennikov, Y. Wang, H. L. Dao, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Excitation of a single atom with exponentially rising light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103001 (2013).
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N. Piro, F. Rohde, C. Schuck, M. Almendros, J. Huwer, J. Ghosh, A. Haase, M. Hennrich, F. Dubin, and J. Eschner, “Heralded single-photon absorption by a single atom,” Nat. Phys. 7(1), 17–20 (2011).
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P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, “Experimental evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beam splitter: A new light on single-photon interferences,” EPL 1(4), 173–179 (1986).
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H. M. Meyer, R. Stockill, M. Steiner, C. Le Gall, C. Matthiesen, E. Clarke, A. Ludwig, J. Reichel, M. Atatüre, and M. Köhl, “Direct photonic coupling of a semiconductor quantum dot and a trapped ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123001 (2015).
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M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, A. Badolato, A. Högele, K. Karrai, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot spin-state preparation with near-unity fidelity,” Science 312(5773), 551–553 (2006).
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M. E. Ware, E. A. Stinaff, D. Gammon, M. F. Doty, A. S. Bracker, D. Gershoni, V. L. Korenev, S. C. Bădescu, Y. Lyanda-Geller, and T. L. Reinecke, “Polarized Fine Structure in the Photoluminescence Excitation Spectrum of a Negatively Charged Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(17), 177403 (2005).
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Badolato, A.

M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, A. Badolato, A. Högele, K. Karrai, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot spin-state preparation with near-unity fidelity,” Science 312(5773), 551–553 (2006).
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Baldi, P.

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, S. Tanzilli, P. Baldi, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 163 (2004).
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B. Kambs and C. Becher, “Limitations on the indistinguishability of photons from remote solid state sources,” New J. Phys. 20(11), 115003 (2018).
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F. Wolfgramm, Y. A. de Icaza Astiz, F. A. Beduini, A. Cerè, and M. W. Mitchell, “Atom-resonant heralded single photons by interaction-free measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(5), 053602 (2011).
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Benisty, H.

H. Benisty, H. D. Neve, and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction-part I: basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1612–1631 (1998).
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M. Scholz, L. Koch, and O. Benson, “Analytical treatment of spectral properties and signal–idler intensity correlations for a double-resonant optical parametric oscillator far below threshold,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3518–3523 (2009).
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M. Scholz, L. Koch, and O. Benson, “Statistics of narrow-band single photons for quantum memories generated by ultrabright cavity-enhanced parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063603 (2009).
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J. R. Schaibley, A. P. Burgers, G. A. McCracken, L.-M. Duan, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Demonstration of quantum entanglement between a single electron spin confined to an InAs quantum dot and a photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 167401 (2013).
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X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 227401 (2008).
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Beveratos, A.

S. Fasel, O. Alibart, S. Tanzilli, P. Baldi, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 163 (2004).
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Bickel, F.

B. Alén, F. Bickel, K. Karrai, R. J. Warburton, and P. M. Petroff, “Stark-shift modulation absorption spectroscopy of single quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2235–2237 (2003).
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Blakestad, R. B.

D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, “Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrödinger cat’ state,” Nature 438(7068), 639–642 (2005).
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S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484(7393), 195–200 (2012).
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E. Bocquillon, C. Couteau, M. Razavi, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Coherence measures for heralded single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 035801 (2009).
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S. V. Polyakov, A. Muller, E. B. Flagg, A. Ling, N. Borjemscaia, E. Van Keuren, A. Migdall, and G. S. Solomon, “Coalescence of single photons emitted by disparate single-photon sources: the example of InAs quantum dots and parametric down-conversion sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(15), 157402 (2011).
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G. D. Boyd and H. Kogelnik, “Generalized confocal resonator theory,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41(4), 1347–1369 (1962).
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Bracker, A. S.

U. Paudel, A. P. Burgers, D. G. Steel, M. K. Yakes, A. S. Bracker, and D. Gammon, “Generation of frequency sidebands on single photons with indistinguishability from quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 98(1), 011802 (2018).
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J. R. Schaibley, A. P. Burgers, G. A. McCracken, L.-M. Duan, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Demonstration of quantum entanglement between a single electron spin confined to an InAs quantum dot and a photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 167401 (2013).
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D. Kim, S. G. Carter, A. Greilich, A. S. Bracker, and D. Gammon, “Ultrafast optical control of entanglement between two quantum-dot spins,” Nat. Phys. 7(3), 223–229 (2011).
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X. Xu, B. Sun, E. D. Kim, K. Smirl, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Single charged quantum dot in a strong optical field: absorption, gain, and the ac-Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 227401 (2008).
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X. Xu, Y. Wu, B. Sun, Q. Huang, J. Cheng, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, C. Emary, and L. J. Sham, “Fast spin state initialization in a singly charged InAs-GaAs quantum dot by optical cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 097401 (2007).
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M. E. Ware, E. A. Stinaff, D. Gammon, M. F. Doty, A. S. Bracker, D. Gershoni, V. L. Korenev, S. C. Bădescu, Y. Lyanda-Geller, and T. L. Reinecke, “Polarized Fine Structure in the Photoluminescence Excitation Spectrum of a Negatively Charged Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(17), 177403 (2005).
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Britton, J.

D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, “Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrödinger cat’ state,” Nature 438(7068), 639–642 (2005).
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Brunner, D.

A. V. Kuhlmann, J. Houel, D. Brunner, A. Ludwig, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, and R. J. Warburton, “A dark-field microscope for background-free detection of resonance fluorescence from single semiconductor quantum dots operating in a set-and-forget mode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(7), 073905 (2013).
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U. Paudel, A. P. Burgers, D. G. Steel, M. K. Yakes, A. S. Bracker, and D. Gammon, “Generation of frequency sidebands on single photons with indistinguishability from quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 98(1), 011802 (2018).
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J. R. Schaibley, A. P. Burgers, G. A. McCracken, L.-M. Duan, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Demonstration of quantum entanglement between a single electron spin confined to an InAs quantum dot and a photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 167401 (2013).
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Carter, S. G.

D. Kim, S. G. Carter, A. Greilich, A. S. Bracker, and D. Gammon, “Ultrafast optical control of entanglement between two quantum-dot spins,” Nat. Phys. 7(3), 223–229 (2011).
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Cerè, A.

V. Leong, M. A. Seidler, M. Steiner, A. Cerè, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Time-resolved scattering of a single photon by a single atom,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13716 (2016).
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P.-J. Tsai and Y.-C. Chen, “Ultrabright, narrow-band photon-pair source for atomic quantum memories,” QST 3(3), 034005 (2018).
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X. Xu, Y. Wu, B. Sun, Q. Huang, J. Cheng, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, C. Emary, and L. J. Sham, “Fast spin state initialization in a singly charged InAs-GaAs quantum dot by optical cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 097401 (2007).
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D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, “Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrödinger cat’ state,” Nature 438(7068), 639–642 (2005).
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W. B. Gao, P. Fallahi, E. Togan, A. Delteil, Y. S. Chin, J. Miguel-Sanchez, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum teleportation from a propagating photon to a solid-state spin qubit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2744 (2013).
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B. Srivathsan, G. K. Gulati, A. Cerè, B. Chng, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Reversing the temporal envelope of a heralded single photon using a cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(16), 163601 (2014).
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J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(16), 3221–3224 (1997).
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H. M. Meyer, R. Stockill, M. Steiner, C. Le Gall, C. Matthiesen, E. Clarke, A. Ludwig, J. Reichel, M. Atatüre, and M. Köhl, “Direct photonic coupling of a semiconductor quantum dot and a trapped ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123001 (2015).
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E. Bocquillon, C. Couteau, M. Razavi, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Coherence measures for heralded single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 035801 (2009).
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Dao, H. L.

S. A. Aljunid, G. Maslennikov, Y. Wang, H. L. Dao, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Excitation of a single atom with exponentially rising light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103001 (2013).
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F. Wolfgramm, Y. A. de Icaza Astiz, F. A. Beduini, A. Cerè, and M. W. Mitchell, “Atom-resonant heralded single photons by interaction-free measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(5), 053602 (2011).
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A. Delteil, Z. Sun, S. Fält, and A. Imamoğlu, “Realization of a cascaded quantum system: Heralded absorption of a single photon qubit by a single-electron charged quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(17), 177401 (2017).
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A. Delteil, Z. Sun, W.-B. Gao, E. Togan, S. Faelt, and A. Imamoğlu, “Generation of heralded entanglement between distant hole spins,” Nat. Phys. 12, 218–223 (2016).
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W. B. Gao, P. Fallahi, E. Togan, A. Delteil, Y. S. Chin, J. Miguel-Sanchez, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum teleportation from a propagating photon to a solid-state spin qubit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2744 (2013).
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M. E. Ware, E. A. Stinaff, D. Gammon, M. F. Doty, A. S. Bracker, D. Gershoni, V. L. Korenev, S. C. Bădescu, Y. Lyanda-Geller, and T. L. Reinecke, “Polarized Fine Structure in the Photoluminescence Excitation Spectrum of a Negatively Charged Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(17), 177403 (2005).
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M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, A. Badolato, A. Högele, K. Karrai, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot spin-state preparation with near-unity fidelity,” Science 312(5773), 551–553 (2006).
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R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
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D. L. Moehring, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, K. C. Younge, D. N. Matsukevich, L. M. Duan, and C. Monroe, “Entanglement of single-atom quantum bits at a distance,” Nature 449(7158), 68–71 (2007).
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J. R. Schaibley, A. P. Burgers, G. A. McCracken, L.-M. Duan, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, “Demonstration of quantum entanglement between a single electron spin confined to an InAs quantum dot and a photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 167401 (2013).
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N. Piro, F. Rohde, C. Schuck, M. Almendros, J. Huwer, J. Ghosh, A. Haase, M. Hennrich, F. Dubin, and J. Eschner, “Heralded single-photon absorption by a single atom,” Nat. Phys. 7(1), 17–20 (2011).
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X. Xu, Y. Wu, B. Sun, Q. Huang, J. Cheng, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, C. Emary, and L. J. Sham, “Fast spin state initialization in a singly charged InAs-GaAs quantum dot by optical cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 097401 (2007).
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A. Delteil, Z. Sun, W.-B. Gao, E. Togan, S. Faelt, and A. Imamoğlu, “Generation of heralded entanglement between distant hole spins,” Nat. Phys. 12, 218–223 (2016).
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W. B. Gao, P. Fallahi, E. Togan, A. Delteil, Y. S. Chin, J. Miguel-Sanchez, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum teleportation from a propagating photon to a solid-state spin qubit,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2744 (2013).
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A. Delteil, Z. Sun, S. Fält, and A. Imamoğlu, “Realization of a cascaded quantum system: Heralded absorption of a single photon qubit by a single-electron charged quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(17), 177401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Fasel, O. Alibart, S. Tanzilli, P. Baldi, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 163 (2004).
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K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491(7424), 421–425 (2012).
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C. Jones, D. Kim, M. T. Rakher, P. G. Kwiat, and T. D. Ladd, “Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks,” New J. Phys. 18(8), 083015 (2016).
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M. Scholz, L. Koch, and O. Benson, “Analytical treatment of spectral properties and signal–idler intensity correlations for a double-resonant optical parametric oscillator far below threshold,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3518–3523 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. A (1)

E. Bocquillon, C. Couteau, M. Razavi, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Coherence measures for heralded single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 035801 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental schematic of the SHG and cavity-SPDC (b) Experimental data and (c) theoretical calculation for the spectrum of the down-converted photons as a function of PPKTP temperature. As theoretically predicted, the signal and idler spectrum are degenerate in wavelength with the fundamental beam at 27°C. The temperature bandwidth for degenerate operation is ~10°C.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Coherence time of the heralded cavity-SPDC photons measured using a Michelson interferometer. The interference visibility is calculated using the fringe contrast obtained while scanning the relative time difference between the two interferometer paths. The peaks are separated by 1/FSR = 113.6 ps of the cavity and the envelope decays gives the coherence time of the photons τc = 1681 ± 245 ps. The missing data are due to the limitation in the scan steps. (b) Expanded interference visibility data centered at zero-delay. The data is fitted with exponential decays with lifetime 1.4 ± 0.2 ps corresponding to the SPDC down-conversion bandwidth.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photon statistics of a heralded cavity-SPDC photon as a function of the excitation pump power obtained with three-detector correlation measurements, where the first detector heralds the presence of a signal photon and the signal photon is sent to a HBT setup to verify its single photon nature. The plotted data is obtained by measuring the triple coincidence counts within a 3 ns window of the heralding event as a function of pump power. The data indicates that for low pump power, g ss|I ( 3 ) is close to zero and as the pump-power is increased the probability of higher-pair generation increases, resulting in the reduction in the g ss|I ( 3 ) value. Nonetheless, the g ss|I ( 3 ) is still below the classical limit (0.5) for a reasonably high pump power up to 65 mW.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Optical selection rule of a single QD (trion state) at zero external magnetic field. As the selection rule indicates, when a single trion state is in resonance with the excitation field, it emits photons with σ + and σ− polarizations. By counting emitted photons orthogonal to the excitation light, we can verify the resonant interaction between the incident field and the single QD. (b) Experimental setup for direct excitation of a single QD with the SPDC photons. The experiment is performed in a dark-field microscopy setup where the incident SPDC photons are focused to a single QD with a high NA (0.65) aspheric lens and the same lens is used to collect the emitted photons. The dashed box is a removable setup used to find a single QD in the study. Once a single QD is identified at the wavelength degenerate with the down-conversion photons, the fiber connecting the CW-laser to the setup is disconnected and connected to the photons collected from the cavity-SPDC source.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Resonant Rayleigh scattering spectrum of a single trion state measured by exciting the QD with a separate narrow bandwidth CW-laser. Rather than scanning the frequency of the incoming radiation, we sweep the excitation spectrum of the QD through the fix excitation frequency by tuning the absorption resonance via the Stark effect induced by the applied bias. In plot a), b), and d) the center frequency is detuned from 941.84307 nm. (b) SPDC spectrum measured using an external scanning Fabry-Pérot etalon, the center frequency component corresponds to the TEM00 mode of the cavity and the peak to the right separated by 2.8 ± 0.2 GHz corresponds to the higher order transverse modes of the cavity. (c) time-tagged photon emissions from a single trion state (blue) and SPDC signal photons (black) with lifetimes 751 ± 11 ps and 932 ± 50 ps respectively, which correspond to the natural linewidth γ2/(2π) of 212 MHz and 171 MHz. The inset is the SPDC photon lifetime fitted with a 3.06 ± 0.1 GHz oscillation arising due to the beating between the cavity modes, consistent with the spectral profile obtained in (b). (d) SPDC photons scattered by a single QD as the QD is brought in and out of resonance with the SPDC photons. The two peaks separated by 3 GHz are mapped to the photons scattered by the QD. The gray dots are the data with the QD bias voltage off, which turns the QD transition off. This results in the drop of the scattered photon counts to the background level.

Equations (5)

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Δk( ω s +Δ ω s , ω i +Δ ω i , ω p )Δ k 0 + 1 c [ n gs n gi ]Δ ω si
Δ ω si = 2  2×1.39 c 2πL | n gs n gi |  , 
ζ= I ¯ max I ¯ min I ¯ max + I ¯ min   =| g ( 1 ) ( τ ) |.
g s,s|I ( 3 ) ( t, τ 1 , τ 2 )= E I ( t ) E s ( t+ τ 1 ) E s ( t+ τ 2 ) E s ( t+ τ 2 ) E s ( t+ τ 1 ) E I ( t ) E I ( t ) E I ( t )  E s ( t ) E s ( t ) 2 .  
g ss|I ( 3 ) ( 0 ) = N 1 N 123 N 12 N 13 .  

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