Abstract

We present interlayer slope waveguides, designed to guide light from one level to another in a multi-layer silicon photonics platform. The waveguide is fabricated from hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film, deposited using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) at a temperature of 230°C. The interlayer slope waveguide is comprises of a lower level input waveguide and an upper level output waveguide, connected by a waveguide on a slope, with vertical separation to isolate other crossing waveguides. Measured loss of 0.17 dB/slope was obtained for waveguide dimensions of 600 nm waveguide width (w) and 400 nm core thickness (h) at a wavelength of 1550 nm and for transverse electric (TE) mode polarization.

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References

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2019 (1)

2016 (3)

S. J. Ben Yoo, B. Guan, and R. P. Scott, “Heterogeneous 2D/3D photonic integrated microsystems,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 2, 16030 (2016).

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, S. Y. Yang, J. A. Rogers, and R. T. Chen, “On-Chip Intra- and Inter-Layer Grating Couplers for Three-Dimensional Integration of Silicon Photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211109 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. B. Masaud, A. Tarazona, E. Jaberansary, X. Chen, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and H. M. H. Chong, “Hot-Wire Polysilicon Waveguides with Low Deposition Temperature,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4030–4032 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Ni, X. Wu, and J. Wu, “Layer-to-Layer Optical Interconnect Coupling by Soft-Lithographic Stamping,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1194–1202 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2003 (2)

A. Melloni, P. Monguzzi, R. Costa, and M. Martinelli, “Design of curved waveguides: the matched bend,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 130–137 (2003).

S. Ponoth, N. T. Agarwal, P. D. Persans, and J. L. Plawsky, “Fabrication of controlled sidewall angles in thin films using isotropic etches,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 21, 1240 (2003).

2001 (1)

A. A. Onischuk and V. N. Panfilov, “Mechanism of thermal decomposition of silanes,” Russ. Chem. Rev. 70(4), 321–332 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

S. H. Lin, Y. C. Chan, D. P. Webb, and Y. W. Lam, “Optical characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Films Deposited at High Rate,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(12), 1452–1456 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. M. Garner, L. Shang-Shin, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

G. A. C. M. Spierings, “Wet chemical etching of silicate glasses in hydrofluoric acid based solutions,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(23), 6261–6273 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

S. Kal, S. Haldar, and S. K. Lahiri, “Slope Etching of Silicon Dioxide,” Microelectron. Reliab. 30(4), 719–722 (1990).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, N. T.

S. Ponoth, N. T. Agarwal, P. D. Persans, and J. L. Plawsky, “Fabrication of controlled sidewall angles in thin films using isotropic etches,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 21, 1240 (2003).

Amemiya, T.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arai, S.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ben Yoo, S. J.

S. J. Ben Yoo, B. Guan, and R. P. Scott, “Heterogeneous 2D/3D photonic integrated microsystems,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 2, 16030 (2016).

Boeuf, F.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chan, Y. C.

S. H. Lin, Y. C. Chan, D. P. Webb, and Y. W. Lam, “Optical characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Films Deposited at High Rate,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(12), 1452–1456 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, A.

S. M. Garner, L. Shang-Shin, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, S. Y. Yang, J. A. Rogers, and R. T. Chen, “On-Chip Intra- and Inter-Layer Grating Couplers for Three-Dimensional Integration of Silicon Photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211109 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Chong, H. M. H.

Chuyanov, V.

S. M. Garner, L. Shang-Shin, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Costa, R.

Dalton, L. R.

S. M. Garner, L. Shang-Shin, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fathpour, S.

Fedeli, J. M.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Franz, Y.

Furuya, K.

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Garner, S. M.

S. M. Garner, L. Shang-Shin, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Guan, B.

Haldar, S.

S. Kal, S. Haldar, and S. K. Lahiri, “Slope Etching of Silicon Dioxide,” Microelectron. Reliab. 30(4), 719–722 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, Y.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hojo, N.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, A.

Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, S. Y. Yang, J. A. Rogers, and R. T. Chen, “On-Chip Intra- and Inter-Layer Grating Couplers for Three-Dimensional Integration of Silicon Photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211109 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itoh, K.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jaberansary, E.

Jalali, B.

Kal, S.

S. Kal, S. Haldar, and S. K. Lahiri, “Slope Etching of Silicon Dioxide,” Microelectron. Reliab. 30(4), 719–722 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kamei, T.

Khokhar, A. Z.

Komljenovic, T.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koonath, P.

Kuno, Y.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.

Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, S. Y. Yang, J. A. Rogers, and R. T. Chen, “On-Chip Intra- and Inter-Layer Grating Couplers for Three-Dimensional Integration of Silicon Photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211109 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwong, D. L.

Lahiri, S. K.

S. Kal, S. Haldar, and S. K. Lahiri, “Slope Etching of Silicon Dioxide,” Microelectron. Reliab. 30(4), 719–722 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lam, Y. W.

S. H. Lin, Y. C. Chan, D. P. Webb, and Y. W. Lam, “Optical characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Films Deposited at High Rate,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(12), 1452–1456 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. H.

S. H. Lin, Y. C. Chan, D. P. Webb, and Y. W. Lam, “Optical characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Films Deposited at High Rate,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(12), 1452–1456 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Liu, G.

Lo, G. Q.

Maegami, Y.

Manako, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, M.

Masaud, T. M. B.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

Melloni, A.

Monguzzi, P.

Mori, M.

Nakanishi, K.

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ni, W.

Nishiyama, N.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, P.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Okano, M.

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Omoda, E.

Onischuk, A. A.

A. A. Onischuk and V. N. Panfilov, “Mechanism of thermal decomposition of silanes,” Russ. Chem. Rev. 70(4), 321–332 (2001).
[Crossref]

Oo, S. Z.

Panfilov, V. N.

A. A. Onischuk and V. N. Panfilov, “Mechanism of thermal decomposition of silanes,” Russ. Chem. Rev. 70(4), 321–332 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pathak, S.

Peacock, A. C.

Persans, P. D.

S. Ponoth, N. T. Agarwal, P. D. Persans, and J. L. Plawsky, “Fabrication of controlled sidewall angles in thin films using isotropic etches,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 21, 1240 (2003).

Petra, R.

Plawsky, J. L.

S. Ponoth, N. T. Agarwal, P. D. Persans, and J. L. Plawsky, “Fabrication of controlled sidewall angles in thin films using isotropic etches,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 21, 1240 (2003).

Ponoth, S.

S. Ponoth, N. T. Agarwal, P. D. Persans, and J. L. Plawsky, “Fabrication of controlled sidewall angles in thin films using isotropic etches,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 21, 1240 (2003).

Reed, G. T.

Rogers, J. A.

Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, S. Y. Yang, J. A. Rogers, and R. T. Chen, “On-Chip Intra- and Inter-Layer Grating Couplers for Three-Dimensional Integration of Silicon Photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211109 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakakibara, Y.

Schaekers, M.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schropp, R. E. I.

R. E. I. Schropp, “Industrialization of hot wire chemical vapor deposition for thin film applications,” Thin Solid Films 595, 272–283 (2015).

Scott, R. P.

S. J. Ben Yoo, B. Guan, and R. P. Scott, “Heterogeneous 2D/3D photonic integrated microsystems,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 2, 16030 (2016).

Selvaraja, S. K.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shang, K.

Shang-Shin, L.

S. M. Garner, L. Shang-Shin, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Sleeckx, E.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spierings, G. A. C. M.

G. A. C. M. Spierings, “Wet chemical etching of silicate glasses in hydrofluoric acid based solutions,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(23), 6261–6273 (1993).
[Crossref]

Steier, W. H.

S. M. Garner, L. Shang-Shin, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, J.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, M.

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takei, R.

Tarazona, A.

Thomson, D.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thourhout, D. V.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Virot, L.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Webb, D. P.

S. H. Lin, Y. C. Chan, D. P. Webb, and Y. W. Lam, “Optical characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Films Deposited at High Rate,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(12), 1452–1456 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

Wu, X.

Xu, D. X.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, S. Y. Yang, J. A. Rogers, and R. T. Chen, “On-Chip Intra- and Inter-Layer Grating Couplers for Three-Dimensional Integration of Silicon Photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211109 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yacoubian, A.

S. M. Garner, L. Shang-Shin, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. Y.

Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, S. Y. Yang, J. A. Rogers, and R. T. Chen, “On-Chip Intra- and Inter-Layer Grating Couplers for Three-Dimensional Integration of Silicon Photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211109 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, S. J. B.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, S. Y. Yang, J. A. Rogers, and R. T. Chen, “On-Chip Intra- and Inter-Layer Grating Couplers for Three-Dimensional Integration of Silicon Photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211109 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

Zilkie, A.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Zhang, D. Kwong, X. Xu, A. Hosseini, S. Y. Yang, J. A. Rogers, and R. T. Chen, “On-Chip Intra- and Inter-Layer Grating Couplers for Three-Dimensional Integration of Silicon Photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211109 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. M. Garner, L. Shang-Shin, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Three-Dimensional Integrated Optics Using Polymers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1146–1155 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

S. H. Lin, Y. C. Chan, D. P. Webb, and Y. W. Lam, “Optical characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Films Deposited at High Rate,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(12), 1452–1456 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

G. A. C. M. Spierings, “Wet chemical etching of silicate glasses in hydrofluoric acid based solutions,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(23), 6261–6273 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. (1)

S. Ponoth, N. T. Agarwal, P. D. Persans, and J. L. Plawsky, “Fabrication of controlled sidewall angles in thin films using isotropic etches,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 21, 1240 (2003).

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S. Kal, S. Haldar, and S. K. Lahiri, “Slope Etching of Silicon Dioxide,” Microelectron. Reliab. 30(4), 719–722 (1990).
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Microsyst. Nanoeng. (1)

S. J. Ben Yoo, B. Guan, and R. P. Scott, “Heterogeneous 2D/3D photonic integrated microsystems,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 2, 16030 (2016).

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

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Thin Solid Films (1)

R. E. I. Schropp, “Industrialization of hot wire chemical vapor deposition for thin film applications,” Thin Solid Films 595, 272–283 (2015).

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G. T. Reed,and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics an Introduction (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005).

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics, Theory and Technology, 6th ed. (Springer, 2009).

H. M. H. Chong, R. Petra, S. Z. Oo, A. Tarazona, and G. T. Reed, “Waveguide for an integrated photonic device.” U.S. Patent 15/999071, Aug. 17, 2018.

S. Franssila, Introduction to Micro Fabrication (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic design of the HWCVD a-Si:H interlayer slope waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the optical mask design illustrating the multiple bars used to define the slope platform.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagrams of cross-sectional views of the slope platform after wet etching, with pattern transferred using the optical mask.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of the waveguide structure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transmission characteristics on varying the slope angle and the corresponding slope length of the a-Si:H interlayer slope waveguide at 1550 nm wavelength with TE polarized mode; ⬤ are the simulated losses for 400 nm (w) by 400 nm (h) waveguide dimensions, and ⬤ are the losses for 600 nm (w) by 400 nm (h) waveguide dimensions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulation profile of the a-Si:H interlayer slope waveguide with 10° slope angle at 1550 nm wavelength with TE polarized mode.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Cross-sectional view of the contour of the wall of wet etching silicon dioxide (SiO2) in hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution, with strong adhesion of resist onto silicon dioxide (SiO2) surface [25,26].
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Profile evolution of the fast etching of the top surface of the silicon dioxide (SiO2) in hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution, due to weak adhesion of resist onto silicon dioxide (SiO2) surface [26,27].
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Illustration of photolithography steps for the four samples.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 SEM images of cross-sectional view of the interlayer slope waveguide for, (a) Sample A, (b) Sample B, (c) Sample C, and (d) Sample D.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 SEM image of: Top-view of the interlayer slope waveguide for 400 nm core thickness and 400 nm width, inset: Fully-etched grating couplers connected at both ends of the interlayer slope waveguide.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) – 12(d) Transmission characteristics of the interlayer slope waveguide for 400 nm (w) by 400 nm (h) waveguide, at 1550 nm in TE mode polarization.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 (a) – 13(d) Transmission characteristics of the interlayer slope waveguide for 600 nm (w) by 400 nm (h) waveguide, at 1550 nm in TE mode polarization.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Measured and simulated losses for four different slope angles and varied waveguide dimensions.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Topographical AFM image of: (a) Upper layer PECVD SiO2, (b) Lower layer PECVD SiO2, (c) Upper layer HWCVD a-Si:H and (d) Lower layer HWCVD a-Si:H.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Slope profile with a five minute wet-etching.

Tables Icon

Table 2 RMS surface roughness of upper and lower level PECVD SiO2 and HWCVD a-Si:H waveguide.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Simulated and measured loss for different slope angles (o) for 400 nm (w) by 400 nm (h) waveguide dimensions.

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