Abstract

We report on an ultralow noise optical frequency transfer from a remotely located Sr optical lattice clock laser to a Ti:Sapphire optical frequency comb through telecom-wavelength optical fiber networks. The inherent narrow linewidth of the Ti:Sapphire optical frequency comb eliminates the need for a local reference high-finesse cavity. The relative fractional frequency instability of the optical frequency comb with respect to the remote optical reference was 6.7(1) × 10−18 at 1 s and 1.05(3) × 10−19 at 1,000 s including a 2.9 km-long fiber network. This ensured the optical frequency comb had the same precision as the optical standard. Our result paves the way for ultrahigh-precision spectroscopy and conversion of the highly precise optical frequency to radio frequencies in a simpler setup.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

R. K. Altmann, L. S. Dreissen, E. J. Salumbides, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Deep-ultraviolet frequency metrology of H2 for tests of molecular quantum theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(4), 043204 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (9)

B. M. Roberts, G. Blewitt, C. Dailey, M. Murphy, M. Pospelov, A. Rollings, J. Sherman, W. Williams, and A. Derevianko, “Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1195 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Matei, T. Legero, S. Häfner, C. Grebing, R. Weyrich, W. Zhang, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, J. Ye, F. Riehle, and U. Sterr, “1.5 μm lasers with sub-10 mHz linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(26), 263202 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, J. M. Robinson, L. Sonderhouse, E. Oelker, C. Benko, J. L. Hall, T. Legero, D. G. Matei, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Ultrastable silicon cavity in a continuously operating closed-cycle cryostat at 4 K,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(24), 243601 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, A. Goban, N. Darkwah Oppong, R. L. McNally, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, W. Zhang, B. J. Bloom, and J. Ye, “A Fermi-degenerate three-dimensional optical lattice clock,” Science 358(6359), 90–94 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-S. Chen, S. M. Brewer, C. W. Chou, D. J. Wineland, D. R. Leibrandt, and D. B. Hume, “Sympathetic ground state cooling and time-dilation shifts in an 27Al+ optical clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(5), 053002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultrastable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Riehle, “Optical clock networks,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 25–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Leopardi, J. Davila-Rodriguez, F. Quinlan, J. Olson, J. A. Sherman, S. A. Diddams, and T. M. Fortier, “Single-branch Er:fiber frequency comb for precision optical metrology with 10−18 fractional instability,” Optica 4(8), 879–885 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Ohmae, N. Kuse, M. E. Fermann, and H. Katori, “All-polarization-maintaining, single-port Er:fiber comb for high-stability comparison of optical lattice clocks,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(6), 062503 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

L. Wu, Y. Jiang, C. Ma, H. Yu, Z. Bi, and L. Ma, “Coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light via an optical fiber noise compensated by remote users,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4368–4371 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, C. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-ion atomic clock with 3×10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Derevianko, “Atomic clocks and dark-matter signatures,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 723, 012043 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Biesheuvel, J.-Ph. Karr, L. Hilico, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, and J. C. J. Koelemeij, “Probing QED and fundamental constants through laser spectroscopy of vibrational transitions in HD+,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10385 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim and Y. Song, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked fiber lasers and frequency combs: principles, status, and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(3), 465–540 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10(10), 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

F. Reihle, “Towards a redefinition of the second based on optical atomic clocks,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 506–515 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 185–189 (2015).

C. Ma, L. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Yu, Z. Bi, and L. Ma, “Coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light via an 82-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(26), 261109 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33927–33937 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Brillouin amplification supports 1 × 10−20 uncertainty in optical frequency transfer over 1400 km of underground fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 021801 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

T. Akatsuka, H. Ono, K. Hayashida, K. Araki, M. Takamoto, T. Takano, and H. Katori, “30-km-long optical fiber link at 1397 nm for frequency comparison between distant strontium optical lattice clocks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(3), 032801 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10−18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Huntemann, B. Lipphardt, C. Tamm, V. Gerginov, S. Weyers, and E. Peik, “Improved limit on a temporal variation of mp/me from comparisons of Yb+ and Cs atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 210802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Godun, P. B. R. Nisbet-Jones, J. M. Jones, S. A. King, L. A. M. Johnson, H. S. Margolis, K. Szymaniec, S. N. Lea, K. Bongs, and P. Gill, “Frequency ratio of two optical clock transitions in 171Yb+ and constraints on the time variation of fundamental constants,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 210801 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

S. Fang, H. Chen, T. Wang, Y. Jiang, Z. Bi, and L. Ma, “Optical frequency comb with an absolute linewidth of 0.6 Hz–1.2 Hz over an octave spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231118 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. K. Webb, J. A. King, M. T. Murphy, V. V. Flambaum, R. F. Carswell, and M. B. Bainbridge, “Indications of a spatial variation of the fine structure constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(19), 191101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2008 (2)

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1284–1293 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153601 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, “Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251 km,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3056–3058 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 283–287 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10(-19) level,” Science 303(5665), 1843–1845 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Stabilization of femtosecond laser frequency combs with subhertz residual linewidths,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1081–1083 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(1), 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Abgrall, M.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akatsuka, T.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10(10), 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Akatsuka, H. Ono, K. Hayashida, K. Araki, M. Takamoto, T. Takano, and H. Katori, “30-km-long optical fiber link at 1397 nm for frequency comparison between distant strontium optical lattice clocks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(3), 032801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Al-Masoudi, A.

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S. Fang, H. Chen, T. Wang, Y. Jiang, Z. Bi, and L. Ma, “Optical frequency comb with an absolute linewidth of 0.6 Hz–1.2 Hz over an octave spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231118 (2013).
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A. Bartels, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Stabilization of femtosecond laser frequency combs with subhertz residual linewidths,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1081–1083 (2004).
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S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, A. Goban, N. Darkwah Oppong, R. L. McNally, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, W. Zhang, B. J. Bloom, and J. Ye, “A Fermi-degenerate three-dimensional optical lattice clock,” Science 358(6359), 90–94 (2017).
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N. Ohmae, N. Kuse, M. E. Fermann, and H. Katori, “All-polarization-maintaining, single-port Er:fiber comb for high-stability comparison of optical lattice clocks,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(6), 062503 (2017).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
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R. M. Godun, P. B. R. Nisbet-Jones, J. M. Jones, S. A. King, L. A. M. Johnson, H. S. Margolis, K. Szymaniec, S. N. Lea, K. Bongs, and P. Gill, “Frequency ratio of two optical clock transitions in 171Yb+ and constraints on the time variation of fundamental constants,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 210801 (2014).
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D. G. Matei, T. Legero, S. Häfner, C. Grebing, R. Weyrich, W. Zhang, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, J. Ye, F. Riehle, and U. Sterr, “1.5 μm lasers with sub-10 mHz linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(26), 263202 (2017).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
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J.-S. Chen, S. M. Brewer, C. W. Chou, D. J. Wineland, D. R. Leibrandt, and D. B. Hume, “Sympathetic ground state cooling and time-dilation shifts in an 27Al+ optical clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(5), 053002 (2017).
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Lipphardt, B.

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, C. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-ion atomic clock with 3×10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063001 (2016).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
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N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33927–33937 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10−18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schibli, T. R.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schioppo, M.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultrastable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, P. O.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schnatz, H.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
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K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
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Sherman, J.

B. M. Roberts, G. Blewitt, C. Dailey, M. Murphy, M. Pospelov, A. Rollings, J. Sherman, W. Williams, and A. Derevianko, “Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1195 (2017).
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Sherman, J. A.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultrastable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
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H. Leopardi, J. Davila-Rodriguez, F. Quinlan, J. Olson, J. A. Sherman, S. A. Diddams, and T. M. Fortier, “Single-branch Er:fiber frequency comb for precision optical metrology with 10−18 fractional instability,” Optica 4(8), 879–885 (2017).
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Shi, C.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
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Sonderhouse, L.

S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, A. Goban, N. Darkwah Oppong, R. L. McNally, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, W. Zhang, B. J. Bloom, and J. Ye, “A Fermi-degenerate three-dimensional optical lattice clock,” Science 358(6359), 90–94 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Matei, T. Legero, S. Häfner, C. Grebing, R. Weyrich, W. Zhang, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, J. Ye, F. Riehle, and U. Sterr, “1.5 μm lasers with sub-10 mHz linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(26), 263202 (2017).
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W. Zhang, J. M. Robinson, L. Sonderhouse, E. Oelker, C. Benko, J. L. Hall, T. Legero, D. G. Matei, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Ultrastable silicon cavity in a continuously operating closed-cycle cryostat at 4 K,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(24), 243601 (2017).
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Song, Y.

J. Kim and Y. Song, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked fiber lasers and frequency combs: principles, status, and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(3), 465–540 (2016).
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Stalnaker, J. E.

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153601 (2007).
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Stefani, F.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
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N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33927–33937 (2015).
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Sterr, U.

D. G. Matei, T. Legero, S. Häfner, C. Grebing, R. Weyrich, W. Zhang, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, J. Ye, F. Riehle, and U. Sterr, “1.5 μm lasers with sub-10 mHz linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(26), 263202 (2017).
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W. Zhang, J. M. Robinson, L. Sonderhouse, E. Oelker, C. Benko, J. L. Hall, T. Legero, D. G. Matei, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Ultrastable silicon cavity in a continuously operating closed-cycle cryostat at 4 K,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(24), 243601 (2017).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12443 (2016).
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N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, “Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251 km,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3056–3058 (2007).
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I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 283–287 (2007).
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Szymaniec, K.

R. M. Godun, P. B. R. Nisbet-Jones, J. M. Jones, S. A. King, L. A. M. Johnson, H. S. Margolis, K. Szymaniec, S. N. Lea, K. Bongs, and P. Gill, “Frequency ratio of two optical clock transitions in 171Yb+ and constraints on the time variation of fundamental constants,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 210801 (2014).
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T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10(10), 662–666 (2016).
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I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 185–189 (2015).

T. Akatsuka, H. Ono, K. Hayashida, K. Araki, M. Takamoto, T. Takano, and H. Katori, “30-km-long optical fiber link at 1397 nm for frequency comparison between distant strontium optical lattice clocks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(3), 032801 (2014).
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Takano, T.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10(10), 662–666 (2016).
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T. Akatsuka, H. Ono, K. Hayashida, K. Araki, M. Takamoto, T. Takano, and H. Katori, “30-km-long optical fiber link at 1397 nm for frequency comparison between distant strontium optical lattice clocks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(3), 032801 (2014).
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N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, C. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-ion atomic clock with 3×10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063001 (2016).
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N. Huntemann, B. Lipphardt, C. Tamm, V. Gerginov, S. Weyers, and E. Peik, “Improved limit on a temporal variation of mp/me from comparisons of Yb+ and Cs atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 210802 (2014).
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Terra, O.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
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Ubachs, W.

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Ushijima, I.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10(10), 662–666 (2016).
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I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 185–189 (2015).

Wang, T.

S. Fang, H. Chen, T. Wang, Y. Jiang, Z. Bi, and L. Ma, “Optical frequency comb with an absolute linewidth of 0.6 Hz–1.2 Hz over an octave spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231118 (2013).
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Weyers, S.

N. Huntemann, B. Lipphardt, C. Tamm, V. Gerginov, S. Weyers, and E. Peik, “Improved limit on a temporal variation of mp/me from comparisons of Yb+ and Cs atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 210802 (2014).
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Weyrich, R.

D. G. Matei, T. Legero, S. Häfner, C. Grebing, R. Weyrich, W. Zhang, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, J. Ye, F. Riehle, and U. Sterr, “1.5 μm lasers with sub-10 mHz linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(26), 263202 (2017).
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Williams, P. A.

Williams, W.

B. M. Roberts, G. Blewitt, C. Dailey, M. Murphy, M. Pospelov, A. Rollings, J. Sherman, W. Williams, and A. Derevianko, “Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1195 (2017).
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N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33927–33937 (2015).
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Wu, L.

L. Wu, Y. Jiang, C. Ma, H. Yu, Z. Bi, and L. Ma, “Coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light via an optical fiber noise compensated by remote users,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4368–4371 (2016).
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C. Ma, L. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Yu, Z. Bi, and L. Ma, “Coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light via an 82-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(26), 261109 (2015).
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Yamaguchi, A.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10(10), 662–666 (2016).
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Yasuda, M.

Ye, J.

S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, A. Goban, N. Darkwah Oppong, R. L. McNally, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, W. Zhang, B. J. Bloom, and J. Ye, “A Fermi-degenerate three-dimensional optical lattice clock,” Science 358(6359), 90–94 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Matei, T. Legero, S. Häfner, C. Grebing, R. Weyrich, W. Zhang, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, J. Ye, F. Riehle, and U. Sterr, “1.5 μm lasers with sub-10 mHz linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(26), 263202 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, J. M. Robinson, L. Sonderhouse, E. Oelker, C. Benko, J. L. Hall, T. Legero, D. G. Matei, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Ultrastable silicon cavity in a continuously operating closed-cycle cryostat at 4 K,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(24), 243601 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153601 (2007).
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Yoon, T. H.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultrastable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
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Yoshioka, K.

K. Yoshioka and et al., In preparation.

Yost, D. C.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

L. Wu, Y. Jiang, C. Ma, H. Yu, Z. Bi, and L. Ma, “Coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light via an optical fiber noise compensated by remote users,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4368–4371 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ma, L. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Yu, Z. Bi, and L. Ma, “Coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light via an 82-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(26), 261109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, A. Goban, N. Darkwah Oppong, R. L. McNally, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, W. Zhang, B. J. Bloom, and J. Ye, “A Fermi-degenerate three-dimensional optical lattice clock,” Science 358(6359), 90–94 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, J. M. Robinson, L. Sonderhouse, E. Oelker, C. Benko, J. L. Hall, T. Legero, D. G. Matei, F. Riehle, U. Sterr, and J. Ye, “Ultrastable silicon cavity in a continuously operating closed-cycle cryostat at 4 K,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(24), 243601 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Matei, T. Legero, S. Häfner, C. Grebing, R. Weyrich, W. Zhang, L. Sonderhouse, J. M. Robinson, J. Ye, F. Riehle, and U. Sterr, “1.5 μm lasers with sub-10 mHz linewidth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(26), 263202 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, W. Zhang, R. Le Targat, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Spectral purity transfer between optical wavelengths at the 10−18 level,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 219–223 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zucco, M.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10(-19) level,” Science 303(5665), 1843–1845 (2004).
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Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

J. Kim and Y. Song, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked fiber lasers and frequency combs: principles, status, and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(3), 465–540 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

N. Ohmae, N. Kuse, M. E. Fermann, and H. Katori, “All-polarization-maintaining, single-port Er:fiber comb for high-stability comparison of optical lattice clocks,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(6), 062503 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Ma, L. Wu, Y. Jiang, H. Yu, Z. Bi, and L. Ma, “Coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light via an 82-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(26), 261109 (2015).
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K. Yoshioka and et al., In preparation.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Overall experimental setup. The optical standard, a Sr optical lattice clock laser, was coherently transferred using a 2.9 km-long optical fiber network. Two phase-locked ECDLs were installed for conversion between the wavelength of the optical standard (698 nm) and a near-telecom wavelength of 1,397 nm for transmission efficiency. A Ti:Sapphire optical frequency comb was used as a frequency synthesizer. fCEO and the heterodyne beat between one tooth of the frequency comb and the optical standard were phase-locked. All RF signals and detectors (counters and spectrum analyzers) were referenced by a GPS-disciplined Rb standard. PM fiber: polarization-maintaining fiber; PD: photodetector; BS: beam splitter; DM: dichroic mirror; PR: partial reflector; PPLN: periodically poled lithium niobate; AOM: acousto-optic modulator; IL: in-loop; OOL: out-of-loop, Image from Google.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spectra of the phase-locked heterodyne beat (a, b) between the clock laser and Repeater1 and (c, d) between Repeater1 and Repeater2. (a, c) Spectra with a 10 MHz span with the resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 1 kHz. (b, d) Spectra with 100 Hz span with 1 Hz RBW. The observed linewidth of the coherent component was limited by the instrumental resolution.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 PSD of the phase noise of each part of the fiber network. The blue and yellow traces show the upper limit of the residual one-way fiber noise of FNC1 and FNC2 respectively after cancelling the round-trip fiber noise. The scarlet(purple) trance is the phase noise of the in-loop heterodyne beat between the optical standard and Repeater1(Repeater1 and Repeater2).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectra of the in-loop heterodyne beat between one tooth of the optical frequency comb at 698 nm and the SHG of Repeater2 when the comb is phase-locked. (a) 1 MHz span with 1 kHz RBW. (b) 100 kHz span with 100 Hz RBW. (c) 1 kHz span with the RBW of 1 Hz. The phase-coherent component was observed with a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 50 dB.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PSD of the phase noise of the in-loop(blue) and out-of-loop(black) heterodyne beats between the copy of the clock laser and the OFC. The phase PSD of the out-of-loop measurement showed 1 × 10−6/f2 dependence below 10 Hz.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Fractional frequency instabilities of the phase-locked heterodyne beat frequencies measured by Λ-type frequency counters with the measurement interval of 1 s. All measurements showed a τ-1/2 dependence, indicating that white frequency modulation was the major measurement noise. The total uncertainty of the remote OFC to the optical standard is 6.7(1) × 10−18 at 1 s and 1.05(3) × 10−19 in 1,000 s including the fiber link.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 PSDs for round-trip free-running fiber phase noises of PNC1(a) and PNC2(b). They fall off as 1/f2 indicating white frequency modulation noise.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Spectra of the fCEO: (a) free-running, 1 MHz span, (b) stabilized, 1 MHz span, (c) stabilized, 100 Hz span. Spectral components at around 200 kHz from the center frequency of the fCEO were from noises of the pump laser.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Spectrum of the beat signal between the clock laser copy and the optical frequency comb. The blue line shows the spectrum when the comb is not stabilized to the clock laser. The central feature over the width of about 20 kHz indicated the convoluted linewidth of the clock laser and the optical frequency comb. Due to the narrow linewidth of the clock laser, the linewidth of the optical frequency comb dominated the observed linewidth. The spectrum of the beat signal when the frequency comb was phase-locked to the clock laser is shown in black.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Residual phase accumulation at each part of the fiber network.

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Table 2 Fractional frequency instability of the beat signal for each PLL.a

Equations (5)

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δ ϕ IL (t)=δ ϕ Fiber,RL (t) ϕ c (t)+ ϕ c (t2τ)
δ ϕ Fiber,RT (t)= dz[ δ ϕ z ( t z v )+δ ϕ z ( t2τ+ z v ) ] ~ dz[ 2δ ϕ z (t)2τδ ϕ z (t) ]
δ ϕ Fiber (t)= dz[ δ ϕ z ( tτ+ z v ) ]~ dz[ δ ϕ z (t)τδ ϕ z (t)+ z v δ ϕ z (t) ]
δ ϕ one-way,res (t)= dz[ z v δ ϕ z (t) ] 1 2 δ ϕ IL
δ ϕ Fiber,RT (t)= dz[ δ ϕ z ( t z v )+δ ϕ z ( t2τ+ z v ) ]+δ ϕ repeater (tτ)

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