Abstract

We demonstrated the generation of an azimuthally and radially polarized laser beam in a Nd:YAG laser in which a birefringent yttrium vanadate (c-cut YVO4) crystal was used as the intra-cavity polarization discriminator. AP and RP with respective output 2.4W (o-o efficiency of 35.4%, M2 = 2.3) and 2.52W (o-o efficiency of 37.2%, M2 = 2.4) were generated at absorbed pump power 6.78W. We discuss a simple method for converting between azimuthal and radial polarizations by only regulating input pump power and mechanism of mode selection in the laser. This vector laser will facilitate many applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3377–3382 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, A. Austerschulte, J. Schulz, V. Metsch, T. Moser, and T. Graf, “Radially polarized high-powers lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311I (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Kimura, G. Kim, R. Romea, L. Steinhauer, I. Pogorelsky, K. Kusche, R. Fernow, X. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(4), 546–549 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  10. V. G. Niziev, R. S. Chang, and A. V. Nesterov, “Generation of inhomogeneously polarized laser beams by use of a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45(33), 8393–8399 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and E. Leibush, “2 kW, M2 < 10 radially polarized beams from aberration-compensated rod-based Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3377–3382 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

W. Kimura, G. Kim, R. Romea, L. Steinhauer, I. Pogorelsky, K. Kusche, R. Fernow, X. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(4), 546–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

Ahmed, M. A.

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, A. Austerschulte, J. Schulz, V. Metsch, T. Moser, and T. Graf, “Radially polarized high-powers lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311I (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[Crossref]

Austerschulte, A.

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, A. Austerschulte, J. Schulz, V. Metsch, T. Moser, and T. Graf, “Radially polarized high-powers lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311I (2008).
[Crossref]

Barré, N.

Bernet, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blit, S.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bomzon, Z.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Brunel, M.

Chang, R. S.

Davidson, N.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernow, R.

W. Kimura, G. Kim, R. Romea, L. Steinhauer, I. Pogorelsky, K. Kusche, R. Fernow, X. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(4), 546–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feurer, T.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[Crossref]

Friesem, A. A.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fürhapter, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Graf, T.

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, A. Austerschulte, J. Schulz, V. Metsch, T. Moser, and T. Graf, “Radially polarized high-powers lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311I (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hasman, E.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jackel, S.

Jesacher, A.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, G.

W. Kimura, G. Kim, R. Romea, L. Steinhauer, I. Pogorelsky, K. Kusche, R. Fernow, X. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(4), 546–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, G. H.

Kimura, W.

W. Kimura, G. Kim, R. Romea, L. Steinhauer, I. Pogorelsky, K. Kusche, R. Fernow, X. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(4), 546–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimura, W. D.

Kusche, K.

W. Kimura, G. Kim, R. Romea, L. Steinhauer, I. Pogorelsky, K. Kusche, R. Fernow, X. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(4), 546–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leibush, E.

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J. L.

Liu, Y.

W. Kimura, G. Kim, R. Romea, L. Steinhauer, I. Pogorelsky, K. Kusche, R. Fernow, X. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(4), 546–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lumer, Y.

Maurer, C.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meier, M.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meir, A.

Metsch, V.

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, A. Austerschulte, J. Schulz, V. Metsch, T. Moser, and T. Graf, “Radially polarized high-powers lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311I (2008).
[Crossref]

Moser, T.

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, A. Austerschulte, J. Schulz, V. Metsch, T. Moser, and T. Graf, “Radially polarized high-powers lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311I (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moshe, I.

Musha, M.

Nesterov, A. V.

V. G. Niziev, R. S. Chang, and A. V. Nesterov, “Generation of inhomogeneously polarized laser beams by use of a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45(33), 8393–8399 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[Crossref]

Niziev, V. G.

V. G. Niziev, R. S. Chang, and A. V. Nesterov, “Generation of inhomogeneously polarized laser beams by use of a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45(33), 8393–8399 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[Crossref]

Oron, R.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Parriaux, O.

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pigeon, F.

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pogorelsky, I.

W. Kimura, G. Kim, R. Romea, L. Steinhauer, I. Pogorelsky, K. Kusche, R. Fernow, X. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(4), 546–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Romanelli, M.

Romano, V.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[Crossref]

Romea, R.

W. Kimura, G. Kim, R. Romea, L. Steinhauer, I. Pogorelsky, K. Kusche, R. Fernow, X. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(4), 546–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, T.

Schadt, M.

Schulz, J.

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, A. Austerschulte, J. Schulz, V. Metsch, T. Moser, and T. Graf, “Radially polarized high-powers lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311I (2008).
[Crossref]

Shirakawa, A.

Stalder, M.

Steinhauer, L.

W. Kimura, G. Kim, R. Romea, L. Steinhauer, I. Pogorelsky, K. Kusche, R. Fernow, X. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(4), 546–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tidwell, S. C.

Ueda, K.

Vogel, M. M.

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, A. Austerschulte, J. Schulz, V. Metsch, T. Moser, and T. Graf, “Radially polarized high-powers lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311I (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voss, A.

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, A. Austerschulte, J. Schulz, V. Metsch, T. Moser, and T. Graf, “Radially polarized high-powers lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311I (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, and T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

W. Kimura, G. Kim, R. Romea, L. Steinhauer, I. Pogorelsky, K. Kusche, R. Fernow, X. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(4), 546–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyss, E.

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Q.

Zhong, L. X.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3322–3324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and T. Graf, “Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(5), 234–236 (2004).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kimura, G. Kim, R. Romea, L. Steinhauer, I. Pogorelsky, K. Kusche, R. Fernow, X. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(4), 546–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, A. Austerschulte, J. Schulz, V. Metsch, T. Moser, and T. Graf, “Radially polarized high-powers lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311I (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Laser Resonator and Beam Propagation (Springer, 2005).

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer Science, 2006).

N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Laser Resonators and Beam Propagation (Springer-Verlag, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of experimental setups for the azimuthally or radially polarized Nd:YAG laser.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Variation of intensity distributions of laser beams at different cavity length.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 In both near and far region, (a) far- and (b) near-field intensity distribution of the full beam profile; (c–f) Intensity profiles of far-field laser beam transmitted through the polarizer analyzer. The black arrows direction indicate the respective orientations of the polarizer analyzer’s axis.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Far-field intensity distributions of laser beams at Pabs = 4.29W(a), 4.73W(b), 5.07W(c), 5.54W(d), 6W(e), 6.4W(f), 6.78W(g), respectively, at L = 179.8 mm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transverse sizes of both o- and e-ray in the laser crystal and their stability conditions as the functions of pump power

Equations (1)

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f th = KA P ( 1 2   dn dT +α C r,a n 0 3 + α r 0 ( n 0 1 ) l )   1

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