Abstract

We report high-energy mid-infrared pulse generation by Q-switching of dysprosium-doped fiber lasers for the first time. Two different modulation techniques are demonstrated. Firstly, using active acousto-optic modulation, pulses are produced with up to 12 μJ energy and durations as short as 270 ns, with variable repetition rates from 100 Hz to 20 kHz and central wavelengths tunable from 2.97 to 3.23 μm. Experiments are supported by numerical modeling, identifying routes for improved pulse energies and to avoid multi-pulsing by careful choice of modulator parameters. Secondly, we demonstrate passive Q-switching by fabricating an inkjet-printed black phosphorus saturable absorber, simplifying the cavity and generating 1.0 μJ pulses with 740 ns duration. The performance and relative merits of each modulation approach are then critically discussed. These demonstrations highlight the potential of dysprosium as a versatile gain medium for high-performance pulsed sources beyond 3 μm.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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    [Crossref]
  48. T. Wang, Z. Yan, C. Mou, K. Zhou, and L. Zhang, “Stable nanosecond passively Q-switched all-fiber erbium-doped laser with a 45° tilted fiber grating,” Appl. Opt. 56, 3583–3588 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  49. G. Bharathan, D. D. Hudson, R. I. Woodward, S. D. Jackson, and A. Fuerbach, “In-fiber polarizer based on a 45-degree tilted fluoride fiber Bragg grating for mid-infrared fiber laser technology,” OSA Contin. 1, 56–63 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  50. M. R. Majewski, R. I. Woodward, J.-Y. Carree, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, “Emission beyond 4 μm and mid-infrared lasing in a dysprosium-doped indium fluoride (InF3) fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1926 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  51. F. Maes, V. Fortin, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, J.-Y. Carree, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “Room-temperature fiber laser at 3.92 μm,” Optica 5, 761–764 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “Swept-wavelength mid-infrared fiber laser for real-time ammonia gas sensing,” APL Photonics 4, 020801 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Malouf, O. Henderson-Sapir, S. Set, S. Yamashita, and D. J. Ottaway, “Two-photon absorption and saturable absorption of mid-IR in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114, 091111 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D black phosphorus saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800224 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (15)

G. Hu, J. Kang, L. W. T. Ng, X. Zhu, R. C. T. Howe, C. G. Jones, M. C. Hersam, and T. Hasan, “Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 47, 3265–3300 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bharathan, D. D. Hudson, R. I. Woodward, S. D. Jackson, and A. Fuerbach, “In-fiber polarizer based on a 45-degree tilted fluoride fiber Bragg grating for mid-infrared fiber laser technology,” OSA Contin. 1, 56–63 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Frayssinous, V. Fortin, J.-P. Bérubé, A. Fraser, and R. Vallée, “Resonant polymer ablation using a compact 3.44 μm fiber laser,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 252, 813–820 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, and S. D. Jackson, “Mode-locked dysprosium fiber laser: picosecond pulse generation from 2.97 to 3.30 μm,” APL Photonics 3, 116106 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. C. Falconi, D. Laneve, M. Bozzetti, T. T. Fernandez, G. Galzerano, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an Efficient Pulsed Dy3+: ZBLAN Fiber Laser Operating in Gain Switching Regime,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 5327–5333 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ward and S. Valle, “Acousto-optic devices for operation in the infrared,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 1068327–2 (2018).

S. Sujecki, “Numerical analysis of Q-switched erbium ion doped fluoride glass fiber laser operation including spontaneous emission,” Appl. Sci. 8, 803 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. R. Majewski, R. I. Woodward, and S. D. Jackson, “Dysprosium-doped ZBLAN fiber laser tunable from 2.8 μm to 3.4 μm, pumped at 1.7 μm,” Opt. Lett. 43, 971 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, G. Bharathan, D. D. Hudson, A. Fuerbach, and S. D. Jackson, “Watt-level dysprosium fiber laser at 3.15 μm with 73% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1471–1474 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, T. Hai, G. Xie, J. Ma, P. Yuan, L. Qian, L. Li, L. Zhao, and D. Shen, “Black phosphorus Q-switched and mode-locked mid-infrared Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 3.5 μm wavelength,” Opt. Express 26, 8224 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jobin, V. Fortin, F. Maes, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “Gain-switched fiber laser at 3.55 μm,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1770–1773 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Majewski, R. I. Woodward, J.-Y. Carree, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, and S. D. Jackson, “Emission beyond 4 μm and mid-infrared lasing in a dysprosium-doped indium fluoride (InF3) fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1926 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jin, G. Hu, M. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, R. C. T. Howe, T.-C. Wu, Q. Wu, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “102 fs pulse generation from a long-term stable, inkjet-printed black phosphorus-mode- locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 26, 12506–12513 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bawden, H. Matsukuma, O. Henderson-Sapir, E. Klantsataya, S. Tokita, and D. J. Ottaway, “Actively Q-switched dual-wavelength pumped Er3+:ZBLAN fiber laser at 3.47 μm,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2724–2727 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Maes, V. Fortin, S. Poulain, M. Poulain, J.-Y. Carree, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “Room-temperature fiber laser at 3.92 μm,” Optica 5, 761–764 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

T. Wang, Z. Yan, C. Mou, K. Zhou, and L. Zhang, “Stable nanosecond passively Q-switched all-fiber erbium-doped laser with a 45° tilted fiber grating,” Appl. Opt. 56, 3583–3588 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Woodward and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Genetic algorithm-based control of birefringent filtering for self-tuning, self-pulsing fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2952 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

C. Wei, H. Luo, H. Zhang, C. Li, J. Xie, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 μm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 105108 (2016).

X. Wang and S. Lan, “Optical properties of black phosphorus,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8, 618 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photon. 10, 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

R. I. Woodward and E. J. R. Kelleher, “2D saturable absorbers for fibre lasers [Invited],” Appl. Sci. 5, 1440–1456 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. N. Kutz and S. L. Brunton, “Intelligent systems for stabilizing mode-locked lasers and frequency combs: machine Learning and equation-free control paradigms for self-tuning optics,” Nanophotonics 4, 459–471 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. K. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. 527, 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. D. Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, “Mode-locking of fiber lasers using novel two-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene and topological insulators [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A56 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23, 24713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, Y. L. He, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, K. M. Zhou, A. G. Rozhin, and S. K. Turistyn, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 μm fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 065102 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

T. Hu, D. D. Hudson, and S. D. Jackson, “High peak power actively Q-switched Ho3+, Pr3+-co-doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 49, 766–767 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, X. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Xu, K. Balakrishnan, F. Song, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene Q-switched 2.78 um Er3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3233 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

C. Wei, X. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Passively Q-switched 2.8-um nanosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1741–1744 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Li, T. Hu, and S. D. Jackson, “Q-switched induced gain switching of a two-transition cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 13123–13128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6, 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. Gorjan, R. Petkovšek, M. Marinček, and M. Čopič, “High-power pulsed diode-pumped Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1923 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. N. Upadhyaya, A. Kumar, U. Chakravarty, S. M. Oak, M. R. Shenoy, and K. Thyagarajan, “Analysis of output pulse characteristics in Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 786–794 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

L. Gomes, A. F. H. Librantz, and S. D. Jackson, “Energy level decay and excited state absorption processes in dysprosium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Huo, P. K. Cheo, and G. G. King, “Modeling and experiments of actively Q-switched Er3+-Yb3+ codoped clad-pumped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 573–580 (2005).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops,” Nature 389, 827–829 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, “Passive Q-switching and mode-locking of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.7 μm,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 358–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Proc. SPIE 20, 824 (1981).

1970 (1)

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, and J. E. Geusic, “An experimental and theoretical study of high repetition rate Q-switched Nd:YAlG lasers,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1899–1914 (1970).
[Crossref]

Abellan, G.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrow-Owen, T.

X. Jin, G. Hu, M. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, R. C. T. Howe, T.-C. Wu, Q. Wu, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “102 fs pulse generation from a long-term stable, inkjet-printed black phosphorus-mode- locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 26, 12506–12513 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ali, A.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ali, S. Z.

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. D. Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backes, C.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakajin, O.

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops,” Nature 389, 827–829 (1997).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

Bawden, N.

Berner, N. C.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernier, M.

Bérubé, J.-P.

C. Frayssinous, V. Fortin, J.-P. Bérubé, A. Fraser, and R. Vallée, “Resonant polymer ablation using a compact 3.44 μm fiber laser,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 252, 813–820 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bharathan, G.

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, G. Bharathan, D. D. Hudson, A. Fuerbach, and S. D. Jackson, “Watt-level dysprosium fiber laser at 3.15 μm with 73% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1471–1474 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bharathan, D. D. Hudson, R. I. Woodward, S. D. Jackson, and A. Fuerbach, “In-fiber polarizer based on a 45-degree tilted fluoride fiber Bragg grating for mid-infrared fiber laser technology,” OSA Contin. 1, 56–63 (2018).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boland, C.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6, 2992–3006 (2012).
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Bozzetti, M.

M. C. Falconi, D. Laneve, M. Bozzetti, T. T. Fernandez, G. Galzerano, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an Efficient Pulsed Dy3+: ZBLAN Fiber Laser Operating in Gain Switching Regime,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 5327–5333 (2018).
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J. N. Kutz and S. L. Brunton, “Intelligent systems for stabilizing mode-locked lasers and frequency combs: machine Learning and equation-free control paradigms for self-tuning optics,” Nanophotonics 4, 459–471 (2015).
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Chakravarty, U.

B. N. Upadhyaya, A. Kumar, U. Chakravarty, S. M. Oak, M. R. Shenoy, and K. Thyagarajan, “Analysis of output pulse characteristics in Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 786–794 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, I. C.

I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Proc. SPIE 20, 824 (1981).

Chen, L.

M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D black phosphorus saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800224 (2019).
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Cheo, P. K.

Y. Huo, P. K. Cheo, and G. G. King, “Modeling and experiments of actively Q-switched Er3+-Yb3+ codoped clad-pumped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 573–580 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chesler, R. B.

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, and J. E. Geusic, “An experimental and theoretical study of high repetition rate Q-switched Nd:YAlG lasers,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1899–1914 (1970).
[Crossref]

Choi, W. K.

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. K. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. 527, 770–776 (2015).
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Chu, D.

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6, 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coleman, J. N.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Copic, M.

Cucinotta, C. S.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deegan, R. D.

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops,” Nature 389, 827–829 (1997).
[Crossref]

Desurvire, E.

C. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991).
[Crossref]

Doherty, E.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duesberg, G. S.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dupont, T. F.

R. D. Deegan, O. Bakajin, T. F. Dupont, G. Huber, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops,” Nature 389, 827–829 (1997).
[Crossref]

Falconi, M. C.

M. C. Falconi, D. Laneve, M. Bozzetti, T. T. Fernandez, G. Galzerano, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an Efficient Pulsed Dy3+: ZBLAN Fiber Laser Operating in Gain Switching Regime,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 5327–5333 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, T. T.

M. C. Falconi, D. Laneve, M. Bozzetti, T. T. Fernandez, G. Galzerano, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an Efficient Pulsed Dy3+: ZBLAN Fiber Laser Operating in Gain Switching Regime,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 5327–5333 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6, 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fortin, V.

Fraser, A.

C. Frayssinous, V. Fortin, J.-P. Bérubé, A. Fraser, and R. Vallée, “Resonant polymer ablation using a compact 3.44 μm fiber laser,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 252, 813–820 (2018).
[Crossref]

Frayssinous, C.

C. Frayssinous, V. Fortin, J.-P. Bérubé, A. Fraser, and R. Vallée, “Resonant polymer ablation using a compact 3.44 μm fiber laser,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 252, 813–820 (2018).
[Crossref]

Frerichs, C.

C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, “Passive Q-switching and mode-locking of erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.7 μm,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 358–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fuerbach, A.

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, G. Bharathan, D. D. Hudson, A. Fuerbach, and S. D. Jackson, “Watt-level dysprosium fiber laser at 3.15 μm with 73% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1471–1474 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bharathan, D. D. Hudson, R. I. Woodward, S. D. Jackson, and A. Fuerbach, “In-fiber polarizer based on a 45-degree tilted fluoride fiber Bragg grating for mid-infrared fiber laser technology,” OSA Contin. 1, 56–63 (2018).
[Crossref]

Galzerano, G.

M. C. Falconi, D. Laneve, M. Bozzetti, T. T. Fernandez, G. Galzerano, and F. Prudenzano, “Design of an Efficient Pulsed Dy3+: ZBLAN Fiber Laser Operating in Gain Switching Regime,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 5327–5333 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gardner, J. W.

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. D. Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geusic, J. E.

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, and J. E. Geusic, “An experimental and theoretical study of high repetition rate Q-switched Nd:YAlG lasers,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1899–1914 (1970).
[Crossref]

Gholamvand, Z.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giles, C.

C. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gomes, L.

L. Gomes, A. F. H. Librantz, and S. D. Jackson, “Energy level decay and excited state absorption processes in dysprosium-doped fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 053103 (2010).
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Gorjan, M.

M. Gorjan, R. Petkovšek, M. Marinček, and M. Čopič, “High-power pulsed diode-pumped Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1923 (2011).
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A. Malouf, O. Henderson-Sapir, M. Gorjan, and D. J. Ottaway, “Numerical modeling of 3.5 μm dual-wavelength pumped erbium-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. arXiv:1606.07842v1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guha, P. K.

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. D. Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hai, T.

Hanlon, D.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harvey, A.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

X. Jin, G. Hu, M. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, R. C. T. Howe, T.-C. Wu, Q. Wu, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “102 fs pulse generation from a long-term stable, inkjet-printed black phosphorus-mode- locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 26, 12506–12513 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Hu, J. Kang, L. W. T. Ng, X. Zhu, R. C. T. Howe, C. G. Jones, M. C. Hersam, and T. Hasan, “Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 47, 3265–3300 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. D. Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6, 2992–3006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hauke, F.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, L.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14111 (2017).
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He, Y. L.

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, Y. L. He, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, K. M. Zhou, A. G. Rozhin, and S. K. Turistyn, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 μm fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 065102 (2014).
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Henderson-Sapir, O.

A. Malouf, O. Henderson-Sapir, S. Set, S. Yamashita, and D. J. Ottaway, “Two-photon absorption and saturable absorption of mid-IR in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114, 091111 (2019).
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N. Bawden, H. Matsukuma, O. Henderson-Sapir, E. Klantsataya, S. Tokita, and D. J. Ottaway, “Actively Q-switched dual-wavelength pumped Er3+:ZBLAN fiber laser at 3.47 μm,” Opt. Lett. 43, 2724–2727 (2018).
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A. Malouf, O. Henderson-Sapir, M. Gorjan, and D. J. Ottaway, “Numerical modeling of 3.5 μm dual-wavelength pumped erbium-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. arXiv:1606.07842v1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hersam, M. C.

G. Hu, J. Kang, L. W. T. Ng, X. Zhu, R. C. T. Howe, C. G. Jones, M. C. Hersam, and T. Hasan, “Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 47, 3265–3300 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirsch, A.

D. Hanlon, C. Backes, E. Doherty, C. S. Cucinotta, N. C. Berner, C. Boland, K. Lee, A. Harvey, P. Lynch, Z. Gholamvand, S. Zhang, K. Wang, G. Moynihan, A. Pokle, Q. M. Ramasse, N. Mcevoy, W. J. Blau, J. Wang, G. Abellan, F. Hauke, A. Hirsch, S. Sanvito, D. D. O’Regan, G. S. Duesberg, V. Nicolosi, and J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howe, R. C. T.

G. Hu, J. Kang, L. W. T. Ng, X. Zhu, R. C. T. Howe, C. G. Jones, M. C. Hersam, and T. Hasan, “Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 47, 3265–3300 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jin, G. Hu, M. Zhang, Y. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, R. C. T. Howe, T.-C. Wu, Q. Wu, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “102 fs pulse generation from a long-term stable, inkjet-printed black phosphorus-mode- locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 26, 12506–12513 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 278 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Santra, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, A. D. Luca, S. Z. Ali, F. Udrea, J. W. Gardner, S. K. Ray, P. K. Guha, and T. Hasan, “CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, G.-W.

F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, W. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, G.-W. Hsieh, S. Jung, F. Bonaccorso, P. J. Paul, D. Chu, and A. C. Ferrari, “Inkjet-printed graphene electronics,” ACS Nano 6, 2992–3006 (2012).
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J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, Y. L. He, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, K. M. Zhou, A. G. Rozhin, and S. K. Turistyn, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 μm fluoride fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 065102 (2014).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Actively Q-switched Dy:ZBLAN laser schematic.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Actively Q-switched laser characterization at 3.1 μm with 450 mW pump power: (a) pulse trains at 0.2 kHz (bottom) and 2 kHz (top); (b) optical spectrum; (c) pulse shapes at 0.2 kHz, 2 kHz, 10 kHz and 20 kHz.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Variation of actively Q-switched 3.1 μm laser pulse properties with respect to repetition rate: (a) average power; (b) duration; (c) pulse energy and (d) peak power. (e) Output spectra for Q-switched operation at various wavelengths within the tuning range.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Steady-state dynamics of the actively Q-switched Dy laser at 3.1 μm with 600 mW pump power: (a) experimental and (b) simulated single-pulse operation with optimum τON = 16 μs AOTF on-time; (c) experimental and (d) simulated multi-pulse operation with τON = 50 μs AOTF on-time; (e) simulated single-pulse operation with 50 μs on-time but a faster modulator rise time of τrise = 1 μs [note the different y-axis scale compared to (a)–(d)].
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Photograph of the as-produced black phosphorus dispersion in NMP, with a concentration of ∼0.5 g/L. (b) Thickness and (c) lateral size histograms of the exfoliated BP flakes from data obtained via atomic force microscopy (AFM). Averages of flake thickness and lateral size were found to be 7.8 nm and 99.8 nm, respectively. (d) Inkjet-printed BP patterns, and (e) optical microscope image corresponding to the area highlighted in (d): this exhibits continuous material deposition showing the spatial distribution of BP flakes within the pattern area.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Black phosphorus Q-switched Dy:ZBLAN laser: (a) cavity schematic; (b) optical spectrum (inset: 86 kHz pulse train & 740 ns pulse profile); (c) variation of pulse repetition rate and duration with output power.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Modeling parameters for the Dy:ZBLAN fiber laser

Equations (4)

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d P ± ( λ , z ) d z = ± ( P ± ( λ , z ) [ g ( λ , z ) l ] + P spon ( λ ) )
g ( λ , z ) = Γ ( λ ) [ σ 10 ( λ ) N 1 ( z ) σ 01 ( λ ) N 0 ( z ) ]
P spon ( λ ) = Γ σ 10 ( λ ) N 1 ( z ) E ph Δ f .
d N 1 ( t ) d t = N 1 ( t ) ( 1 τ + λ σ 10 ( λ ) Γ ( λ ) [ P + ( λ ) + P ( λ ) ] A core × h c / λ ) + N 0 ( t ) ( λ σ 01 ( λ ) Γ ( λ ) [ P + ( λ ) + P ( λ ) ] A core × h c / λ )