Abstract

Superfluorescence emission around 391 nm is generated when nitrogen molecules are irradiated by a strong 800-nm pump laser and a delayed seed laser. The emission corresponds to the transition between N2+(B2Σu+,ν=0) and N2+(X2Σg+,ν=0). When another weak 800-nm probe laser is injected and scanned after the pump laser, the superfluorescence intensity is observed to exhibit periodical modulation. The period is determined to be ~2.63 fs, corresponding to the transition frequency between N2+(A2Πu,ν=2) and N2+(X2Σg+,ν=0). Based on theoretical derivation, these observations can be attributed to the laser-induced population transfer and polarization variation between the relevant electronic states of ionized nitrogen molecules.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

H. Li, M. Hou, H. Zang, Y. Fu, E. Lötstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Xu, “Significant enhancement of N2+ lasing by polarization-modulated ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013202 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, L. Yuan, Y. Liu, Z. Fan, X. Zhang, S. Zhuang, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Coherent modulation of superradiance from nitrogen ions pumped with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12638–12646 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Optimizing the 391-nm lasing intensity from ionized nitrogen moelcules in 800-nm femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 97(3), 033409 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, J. Chen, B. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “An anatomy of strong-field ionization-induced air lasing,” Appl. Phys. B 124(5), 73 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, B. Xu, J. Chen, and Y. Cheng, “Generation of Raman lasing from nitrogen molecular ions driven by ultraintense laser fields,” New J. Phys. 20(3), 033035 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Yao, J. Chen, B. Xu, W. Chu, and Y. Cheng, “Near-resonant Raman amplification in the rotational quantum wave packets of nitrogen molecular ions generated by strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(8), 083205 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. B. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(13), 133208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (5)

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, E. Lotstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Alignment-dependent population inversion in N2+ in intense few-cycle laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 041401 (2017).

A. Azarm, P. Corkum, and P. Polynkin, “Optical gain in rotationally excited nitrogen molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 051401 (2017).

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Vibrational and electronic excitation of ionized nitrogen moleculars in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 96(4), 043422 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Lei, C. Wu, A. Zhang, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Population inversion in the rotational levels of the superradiant N2+ pumped by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4535–4541 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Self-induced white-light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

2008 (1)

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(24), 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

R. Bonifacio and L. Lugiato, “Cooperative radiation processes in two-level systems: Superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. A 11(5), 1507–1521 (1975).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ando, T.

H. Li, M. Hou, H. Zang, Y. Fu, E. Lötstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Xu, “Significant enhancement of N2+ lasing by polarization-modulated ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013202 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, E. Lotstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Alignment-dependent population inversion in N2+ in intense few-cycle laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 041401 (2017).

Arissian, L.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. B. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(13), 133208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, C. L.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azarm, A.

A. Azarm, P. Corkum, and P. Polynkin, “Optical gain in rotationally excited nitrogen molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 051401 (2017).

Bandulet, H. C.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bengtsson, S.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaga, C. I.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonifacio, R.

R. Bonifacio and L. Lugiato, “Cooperative radiation processes in two-level systems: Superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. A 11(5), 1507–1521 (1975).
[Crossref]

Brelet, Y.

Britton, M.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. B. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(13), 133208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, G.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. B. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(13), 133208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, J. Chen, B. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “An anatomy of strong-field ionization-induced air lasing,” Appl. Phys. B 124(5), 73 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, B. Xu, J. Chen, and Y. Cheng, “Generation of Raman lasing from nitrogen molecular ions driven by ultraintense laser fields,” New J. Phys. 20(3), 033035 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Yao, J. Chen, B. Xu, W. Chu, and Y. Cheng, “Near-resonant Raman amplification in the rotational quantum wave packets of nitrogen molecular ions generated by strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(8), 083205 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

Z. Liu, J. Yao, J. Chen, B. Xu, W. Chu, and Y. Cheng, “Near-resonant Raman amplification in the rotational quantum wave packets of nitrogen molecular ions generated by strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(8), 083205 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, B. Xu, J. Chen, and Y. Cheng, “Generation of Raman lasing from nitrogen molecular ions driven by ultraintense laser fields,” New J. Phys. 20(3), 033035 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, J. Chen, B. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “An anatomy of strong-field ionization-induced air lasing,” Appl. Phys. B 124(5), 73 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Self-induced white-light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Chin, S. L.

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Chu, W.

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, J. Chen, B. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “An anatomy of strong-field ionization-induced air lasing,” Appl. Phys. B 124(5), 73 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Yao, J. Chen, B. Xu, W. Chu, and Y. Cheng, “Near-resonant Raman amplification in the rotational quantum wave packets of nitrogen molecular ions generated by strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(8), 083205 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, B. Xu, J. Chen, and Y. Cheng, “Generation of Raman lasing from nitrogen molecular ions driven by ultraintense laser fields,” New J. Phys. 20(3), 033035 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Self-induced white-light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Comtois, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

A. Azarm, P. Corkum, and P. Polynkin, “Optical gain in rotationally excited nitrogen molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 051401 (2017).

Corkum, P. B.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. B. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(13), 133208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daigle, J. F.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Danylo, R.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiChiara, A. D.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, P.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabre, F.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z.

A. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, L. Yuan, Y. Liu, Z. Fan, X. Zhang, S. Zhuang, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Coherent modulation of superradiance from nitrogen ions pumped with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12638–12646 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

H. Li, M. Hou, H. Zang, Y. Fu, E. Lötstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Xu, “Significant enhancement of N2+ lasing by polarization-modulated ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013202 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Q.

A. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, L. Yuan, Y. Liu, Z. Fan, X. Zhang, S. Zhuang, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Coherent modulation of superradiance from nitrogen ions pumped with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12638–12646 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Optimizing the 391-nm lasing intensity from ionized nitrogen moelcules in 800-nm femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 97(3), 033409 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Lei, C. Wu, A. Zhang, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Population inversion in the rotational levels of the superradiant N2+ pumped by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4535–4541 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Vibrational and electronic excitation of ionized nitrogen moleculars in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 96(4), 043422 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, M.

H. Li, M. Hou, H. Zang, Y. Fu, E. Lötstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Xu, “Significant enhancement of N2+ lasing by polarization-modulated ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013202 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houard, A.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibrakovic, N.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwasaki, A.

H. Li, M. Hou, H. Zang, Y. Fu, E. Lötstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Xu, “Significant enhancement of N2+ lasing by polarization-modulated ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013202 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, E. Lotstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Alignment-dependent population inversion in N2+ in intense few-cycle laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 041401 (2017).

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

A. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, L. Yuan, Y. Liu, Z. Fan, X. Zhang, S. Zhuang, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Coherent modulation of superradiance from nitrogen ions pumped with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12638–12646 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Optimizing the 391-nm lasing intensity from ionized nitrogen moelcules in 800-nm femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 97(3), 033409 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Lei, C. Wu, A. Zhang, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Population inversion in the rotational levels of the superradiant N2+ pumped by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4535–4541 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Vibrational and electronic excitation of ionized nitrogen moleculars in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 96(4), 043422 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jing, C.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Self-induced white-light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ju, J.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kieffer, J. C.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, D. H.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. B. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(13), 133208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, F.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. B. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(13), 133208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krause, J. L.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(24), 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(24), 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laferrière, P.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. B. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(13), 133208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lambert, G.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larsen, E. W.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, M.

Li, G.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Self-induced white-light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Li, H.

H. Li, M. Hou, H. Zang, Y. Fu, E. Lötstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Xu, “Significant enhancement of N2+ lasing by polarization-modulated ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013202 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, R.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. B. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(13), 133208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, Q.

A. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, L. Yuan, Y. Liu, Z. Fan, X. Zhang, S. Zhuang, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Coherent modulation of superradiance from nitrogen ions pumped with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12638–12646 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Vibrational and electronic excitation of ionized nitrogen moleculars in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 96(4), 043422 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. D.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

A. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, L. Yuan, Y. Liu, Z. Fan, X. Zhang, S. Zhuang, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Coherent modulation of superradiance from nitrogen ions pumped with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12638–12646 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Optimizing the 391-nm lasing intensity from ionized nitrogen moelcules in 800-nm femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 97(3), 033409 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Vibrational and electronic excitation of ionized nitrogen moleculars in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 96(4), 043422 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, B. Xu, J. Chen, and Y. Cheng, “Generation of Raman lasing from nitrogen molecular ions driven by ultraintense laser fields,” New J. Phys. 20(3), 033035 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, J. Chen, B. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “An anatomy of strong-field ionization-induced air lasing,” Appl. Phys. B 124(5), 73 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Yao, J. Chen, B. Xu, W. Chu, and Y. Cheng, “Near-resonant Raman amplification in the rotational quantum wave packets of nitrogen molecular ions generated by strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(8), 083205 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lotstedt, E.

H. Xu, E. Lotstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Alignment-dependent population inversion in N2+ in intense few-cycle laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 041401 (2017).

Lötstedt, E.

H. Li, M. Hou, H. Zang, Y. Fu, E. Lötstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Xu, “Significant enhancement of N2+ lasing by polarization-modulated ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013202 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, R.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lugiato, L.

R. Bonifacio and L. Lugiato, “Cooperative radiation processes in two-level systems: Superfluorescence,” Phys. Rev. A 11(5), 1507–1521 (1975).
[Crossref]

Mainfray, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Mauritsson, J.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meckel, M.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, Z.

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Optimizing the 391-nm lasing intensity from ionized nitrogen moelcules in 800-nm femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 97(3), 033409 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Vibrational and electronic excitation of ionized nitrogen moleculars in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 96(4), 043422 (2017).
[Crossref]

Miller, T. A.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naumov, A.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. B. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(13), 133208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, J.

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Self-induced white-light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Pavicic, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petite, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Point, G.

Polynkin, P.

A. Azarm, P. Corkum, and P. Polynkin, “Optical gain in rotationally excited nitrogen molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 051401 (2017).

Rahman, N. K.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Schafer, K. J.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(24), 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simpson, E. R.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sistrunk, E.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tikhonchuk, V.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

A. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, L. Yuan, Y. Liu, Z. Fan, X. Zhang, S. Zhuang, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Coherent modulation of superradiance from nitrogen ions pumped with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12638–12646 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Optimizing the 391-nm lasing intensity from ionized nitrogen moelcules in 800-nm femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 97(3), 033409 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Lei, C. Wu, A. Zhang, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Population inversion in the rotational levels of the superradiant N2+ pumped by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4535–4541 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Vibrational and electronic excitation of ionized nitrogen moleculars in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 96(4), 043422 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, H.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Self-induced white-light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, J. Chen, B. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “An anatomy of strong-field ionization-induced air lasing,” Appl. Phys. B 124(5), 73 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, B. Xu, J. Chen, and Y. Cheng, “Generation of Raman lasing from nitrogen molecular ions driven by ultraintense laser fields,” New J. Phys. 20(3), 033035 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Yao, J. Chen, B. Xu, W. Chu, and Y. Cheng, “Near-resonant Raman amplification in the rotational quantum wave packets of nitrogen molecular ions generated by strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(8), 083205 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

H. Li, M. Hou, H. Zang, Y. Fu, E. Lötstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Xu, “Significant enhancement of N2+ lasing by polarization-modulated ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013202 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, E. Lotstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Alignment-dependent population inversion in N2+ in intense few-cycle laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 041401 (2017).

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Self-induced white-light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Xu, J.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Self-induced white-light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Yamanouchi, K.

H. Li, M. Hou, H. Zang, Y. Fu, E. Lötstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Xu, “Significant enhancement of N2+ lasing by polarization-modulated ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013202 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, E. Lotstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Alignment-dependent population inversion in N2+ in intense few-cycle laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 041401 (2017).

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, J. Chen, B. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “An anatomy of strong-field ionization-induced air lasing,” Appl. Phys. B 124(5), 73 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, B. Xu, J. Chen, and Y. Cheng, “Generation of Raman lasing from nitrogen molecular ions driven by ultraintense laser fields,” New J. Phys. 20(3), 033035 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Yao, J. Chen, B. Xu, W. Chu, and Y. Cheng, “Near-resonant Raman amplification in the rotational quantum wave packets of nitrogen molecular ions generated by strong field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(8), 083205 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Self-induced white-light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Yu, C.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, L.

Yuan, S.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zang, H.

H. Li, M. Hou, H. Zang, Y. Fu, E. Lötstedt, T. Ando, A. Iwasaki, K. Yamanouchi, and H. Xu, “Significant enhancement of N2+ lasing by polarization-modulated ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(1), 013202 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeidler, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, B.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Self-induced white-light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Zhang, A.

Zhang, C.

M. Britton, P. Laferrière, D. H. Ko, Z. Li, F. Kong, G. Brown, A. Naumov, C. Zhang, L. Arissian, and P. B. Corkum, “Testing the role of recollision in N2+ air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(13), 133208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Self-induced white-light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Zhang, K.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483(7388), 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Optimizing the 391-nm lasing intensity from ionized nitrogen moelcules in 800-nm femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 97(3), 033409 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Vibrational and electronic excitation of ionized nitrogen moleculars in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 96(4), 043422 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

A. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, L. Yuan, Y. Liu, Z. Fan, X. Zhang, S. Zhuang, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Coherent modulation of superradiance from nitrogen ions pumped with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12638–12646 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, X.

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Optimizing the 391-nm lasing intensity from ionized nitrogen moelcules in 800-nm femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 97(3), 033409 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zhong, Z. Miao, L. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Vibrational and electronic excitation of ionized nitrogen moleculars in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 96(4), 043422 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, S.

A. Zhang, Q. Liang, M. Lei, L. Yuan, Y. Liu, Z. Fan, X. Zhang, S. Zhuang, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and H. Jiang, “Coherent modulation of superradiance from nitrogen ions pumped with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 27(9), 12638–12646 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, N. Ibrakovic, S. Bengtsson, S. Chen, R. Danylo, E. R. Simpson, E. W. Larsen, X. Zhang, Z. Fan, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, C. L. Arnold, S. Zhuang, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Unexpected sensitivity of nitrogen ions superradiant emission on pump laser wavelength and duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 203205 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Yao, W. Chu, Z. Liu, J. Chen, B. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “An anatomy of strong-field ionization-induced air lasing,” Appl. Phys. B 124(5), 73 (2018).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup for cross modulation of the nitrogen ions superfluorescence. The pump pulse and the weak 800 nm probe were combined together by a beam splitter (BS). These two beams and the 391 nm seed pulses were further combined by a dichromatic mirror (DM1) and then focused into the gas chamber by an achromatic lens of f = 200 mm. The forward radiation was spectrally filtered and further measured with a spectrometer. The relative delay between the pump and the weak probe τpw and the delay between the pump and the seed τps can be separately controlled with two mechanic delay lines. (b) Energy-level diagram of nitrogen ions where corresponding transitions of cross-modulation are indicated.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The forward spectrum obtained by injecting the seed at τps = 1 ps without the probe laser. The spectrum of the seed is indicated in gray dashed line for comparison. (b) The forward spectrum obtained by injecting the seed and the weak 800 nm probe into the plasma. The probe was injected before the pump (blue), between the pump and the seed (red) and after the seed (gray) respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The 391-nm signal intensity obtained by scanning the weak 800 nm probe from τpw = −2 ps to τpw = −20 ps. The delay between the pump and the seed τps was set at 0, 1, 2, 3 ps in (a)-(d). In (b)-(d), the figures are separated by two vertical dashed lines, which marked the moments τpw = 0 and τpw = τps.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Periodical modulations of forward 391 nm signal intensity obtained by scanning the probe with a step length of 0.1 fs when τps = 1ps. Dotted lines represent experimental results and solid lines are fitted curves with sine function in a period of 2.63 fs. (a) The weak 800 nm probe precedes the seed. (b) The weak 800 nm probe lags behind the seed.

Equations (10)

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φ = b 0 ϕ B e i E b t + a 0 ϕ A e i E a t + x 0 ϕ X e i E x t ,
E w ( t τ p w ) = { E w τ w 2 t τ p w τ w 2 0 t τ p w < τ w 2 , t τ p w > τ w 2 ,
E s ( t τ p s ) = { E s τ s 2 t τ p s τ s 2 0 t τ p s < τ s 2 , t τ p s > τ s 2 ,
b s k = b 0 k cos Θ s + i x 0 k e i ω s ( τ p s τ s 2 ) sin Θ s x s k = x 0 k cos Θ s + i b 0 k e i ω s ( τ p s τ s 2 ) sin Θ s ,
ρ x b ( s ) = 1 N e i ω s t k b s k * x s k = 1 N e i ω s t k [ i ( b 0 k * b 0 k x 0 k * x 0 k ) e i ω s ( τ p s τ s 2 ) cos Θ s sin Θ s ] .
ρ x b ( w s ) = 1 N e i ω s t k b w s k * x w s k = 1 N e i ω s t k [ i ( b 0 k * b 0 k x w k * x w k ) e i ω s ( τ p s τ s 2 ) cos Θ s sin Θ s ] .
ρ x x ( w ) = 1 N k x w k * x w k = 1 N k [ x 0 k * x 0 k + ( a 0 k * a 0 k x 0 k * x 0 k ) sin 2 Θ w + ( i x 0 k * a 0 k e i ω w ( τ p w τ w 2 ) cos Θ w sin Θ w + c . c . ) ] ,
< ρ x x ( w ) > = 1 N k [ x 0 k * x 0 k + ( a 0 k * a 0 k x 0 k * x 0 k ) sin 2 Θ w ] .
ρ x b ( s w ) = 1 N e i ω s t k b s w k * x s w k = 1 N e i ω s t k [ i ( b 0 k * b 0 k x 0 k * x 0 k ) e i ω s ( τ p s τ s 2 ) cos Θ s sin Θ s cos Θ w + x 0 k * a 0 k e i ω w ( τ p w τ w 2 ) i ω s ( τ p s τ s 2 ) sin Θ s sin Θ w ] .
< ρ x b ( s w ) > = 1 N e i ω s t k [ i ( b 0 k * b 0 k x 0 k * x 0 k ) e i ω s ( τ p s τ s 2 ) cos Θ s sin Θ s cos Θ w ] .

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