Abstract

We investigate the high frequency modulation characteristics of mid-infrared surface-emitting ring and edge-emitting ridge quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). In particular, a detailed comparison between circular ring devices and ridge-QCLs from the same laser material, which have a linear waveguide in a "Fabry-Pérot (FP) type" cavity, reveals distinct similarities and differences. Both device types are single-mode emitting, based on either 2 nd- (ring-QCL) or 1 st-order (ridge-QCL) distributed feedback (DFB) gratings with an emission wavelength around 7.56 μm. Their modulation characteristics are investigated in the frequency-domain using an optical frequency-to-amplitude conversion technique based on the ro-vibrational absorptions of CH 4. We observe that the amplitude of frequency tuning Δf over intensity modulation index m as function of the modulation frequency behaves similarly for both types of devices, while the ring-QCLs typically show higher values. The frequency-to-intensity modulation (FM-IM) phase shift shows a decrease starting from ∼72  at a modulation frequency of 800 kHz to about 0  at 160 MHz. In addition, we also observe a quasi single-sideband (qSSB) regime for modulation frequencies above 100 MHz, which is identified by a vanishing -1 st-order sideband for both devices. This special FM-state can be observed in DFB QCLs and is in strong contrast to the behavior of regular DFB diode lasers, which do not achieve any significant sideband suppression. By analyzing these important high frequency characteristics of ring-QCLs and comparing them to ridge DFB-QCLs, it shows the potential of intersubband devices for applications in e.g. novel spectroscopic techniques and highly-integrated and high-bitrate free-space data communication. In addition, the obtained results close an existing gap in literature for high frequency modulation characteristics of QCLs.

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References

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2017 (2)

P. Martín-Mateos, J. Hayden, P. Acedo, and B. Lendl, “Heterodyne Phase-Sensitive Dispersion Spectroscopy in the Mid-Infrared with a Quantum Cascade Laser,” Anal. Chem. 89, 5916–5922 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Szedlak, J. Hayden, P. Martín-Mateos, M. Holzbauer, A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, B. Hinkov, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, P. Acedo, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

J. P. Waclawek, V. C. Bauer, H. Moser, and B. Lendl, “2 f -wavelength modulation Fabry-Perot photothermal interferometry,” Opt. Express 24, 28958–28967 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Rf-modulation of mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 24, 3294 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, P. Jouy, C. Bonzon, J. M. Wolf, E. Gini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Single-Mode Quantum Cascade Laser Array Emitting From a Single Facet,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 28, 1197–1200 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Boyle, C. Sigler, J. D. Kirch, D. F. Lindberg, T. Earles, D. Botez, and L. J. Mawst, “High-power, surface-emitting quantum cascade laser operating in a symmetric grating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 121107 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Szedlak, A. Harrer, M. Holzbauer, B. Schwarz, J. P. Waclawek, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector,” ACS Photonics 3, 1794–1798 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scalari, B. Williams, and P. De Natale, “Quantum cascade lasers: 20 years of challenges,” Opt. Express 23, 5167 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. McMullin, B. Mizaikoff, and R. Krska, “Advancements in IR spectroscopic approaches for the determination of fungal derived contaminations in food crops,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407, 653–660 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Szedlak, M. Holzbauer, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, C. Schwarzer, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The influence of whispering gallery modes on the far field of ring lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16668 (2015).

P. Jouy, C. Bonzon, J. Wolf, E. Gini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Surface emitting multi-wavelength array of single frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Grating-based far field modifications of ring quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 15829 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 151105 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Hangauer, G. Spinner, M. Nikodem, and G. Wysocki, “High frequency modulation capabilities and quasi single-sideband emission from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 22, 23439 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 1–3 (2014).

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wägli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst 139, 2039–2046 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21, 1008–1019 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hangauer, G. Spinner, M. Nikodem, and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy using a directly modulated quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 191107 (2013).

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85, 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Razeghi, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, Q. Lu, and S. Slivken, “Recent advances in mid infrared (3–5μm) Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1872 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. I. Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081101 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Calvar, M. I. Amanti, M. Renaudat St-Jean, S. Barbieri, A. Bismuto, E. Gini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. Sirtori, “High frequency modulation of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers embedded into microstrip line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 14–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of [planck]ω/kB,” Nat. Phys. 7, 166–171 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, T. Edamura, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, “Measuring frequency noise and intrinsic linewidth of a room-temperature DFB quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 19, 17996 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031111 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki and D. Weidmann, “Molecular dispersion spectroscopy for chemical sensing using chirped mid-infrared quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 18, 26123–26140 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

B. Hinkov, F. Fuchs, J. M. Kaster, Q. Yang, W. Bronner, R. Aidam, and K. Köhler, “Broad band tunable quantum cascade lasers for stand-off detection of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 7484, 748406 (2009).

2008 (1)

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ 13C and δ 18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 92, 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. Devenson, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “InAsAlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 2.75–2.97 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 2007–2009 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Low frequency terahertz quantum cascade laser operating from 1.6 to 1.8 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2000–2002 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, D. Wasserman, S. S. Howard, A. J. Hoffman, C. Gmachl, X. Wang, T. Tanbun-Ek, L. Cheng, and F. Choa, “Room–temperature continuous–wave quantum cascade lasers grown by MOCVD without lateral regrowth,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 18, 1347–1349 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultrasensitive gas detection by quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the fundamental molecular absorption bands region,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 133–138 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmalch, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 181–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

H. C. Liu, J. Li, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “High-frequency quantum-well infrared photodetectors measured by microwave-rectification technique,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 32, 1024–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

H. Olesen and G. Jacobsen, “A theoretical and experimental analysis of modulated laser fields and power spectra,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 18, 2069–2080 (1982).
[Crossref]

Acedo, P.

P. Martín-Mateos, J. Hayden, P. Acedo, and B. Lendl, “Heterodyne Phase-Sensitive Dispersion Spectroscopy in the Mid-Infrared with a Quantum Cascade Laser,” Anal. Chem. 89, 5916–5922 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Szedlak, J. Hayden, P. Martín-Mateos, M. Holzbauer, A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, B. Hinkov, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, P. Acedo, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S. I.

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. I. Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aidam, R.

B. Hinkov, F. Fuchs, J. M. Kaster, Q. Yang, W. Bronner, R. Aidam, and K. Köhler, “Broad band tunable quantum cascade lasers for stand-off detection of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 7484, 748406 (2009).

Akikusa, N.

Amanti, M. I.

A. Calvar, M. I. Amanti, M. Renaudat St-Jean, S. Barbieri, A. Bismuto, E. Gini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. Sirtori, “High frequency modulation of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers embedded into microstrip line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Stand-alone system for high-resolution, real-time terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 20, 2772 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrews, A. M.

R. Szedlak, J. Hayden, P. Martín-Mateos, M. Holzbauer, A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, B. Hinkov, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, P. Acedo, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Szedlak, A. Harrer, M. Holzbauer, B. Schwarz, J. P. Waclawek, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector,” ACS Photonics 3, 1794–1798 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Szedlak, M. Holzbauer, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, C. Schwarzer, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The influence of whispering gallery modes on the far field of ring lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16668 (2015).

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Grating-based far field modifications of ring quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 15829 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armacost, C.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85, 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

Baillargeon, J. N.

R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmalch, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 181–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultrasensitive gas detection by quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the fundamental molecular absorption bands region,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 133–138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ban, D.

Bandyopadhyay, N.

Baranov, A. N.

J. Devenson, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “InAsAlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 2.75–2.97 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 2007–2009 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, S.

A. Calvar, M. I. Amanti, M. Renaudat St-Jean, S. Barbieri, A. Bismuto, E. Gini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. Sirtori, “High frequency modulation of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers embedded into microstrip line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bartalini, S.

Bauer, V. C.

Beck, M.

B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Rf-modulation of mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 24, 3294 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, P. Jouy, C. Bonzon, J. M. Wolf, E. Gini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Single-Mode Quantum Cascade Laser Array Emitting From a Single Facet,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 28, 1197–1200 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Jouy, C. Bonzon, J. Wolf, E. Gini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Surface emitting multi-wavelength array of single frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Calvar, M. I. Amanti, M. Renaudat St-Jean, S. Barbieri, A. Bismuto, E. Gini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. Sirtori, “High frequency modulation of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers embedded into microstrip line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Stand-alone system for high-resolution, real-time terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 20, 2772 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bismuto, S. Riedi, B. Hinkov, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Sb-free quantum cascade lasers in the 3 to 4 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 27, 045013 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beere, H.

C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Low frequency terahertz quantum cascade laser operating from 1.6 to 1.8 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2000–2002 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bernacki, B. E.

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bethea, C.

R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmalch, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 181–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bismuto, A.

A. Calvar, M. I. Amanti, M. Renaudat St-Jean, S. Barbieri, A. Bismuto, E. Gini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. Sirtori, “High frequency modulation of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers embedded into microstrip line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Bismuto, S. Riedi, B. Hinkov, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Sb-free quantum cascade lasers in the 3 to 4 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 27, 045013 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blaser, S.

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 1–3 (2014).

Bonzon, C.

M. J. Süess, P. Jouy, C. Bonzon, J. M. Wolf, E. Gini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Single-Mode Quantum Cascade Laser Array Emitting From a Single Facet,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 28, 1197–1200 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Jouy, C. Bonzon, J. Wolf, E. Gini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Surface emitting multi-wavelength array of single frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 071104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borri, S.

Botez, D.

C. Boyle, C. Sigler, J. D. Kirch, D. F. Lindberg, T. Earles, D. Botez, and L. J. Mawst, “High-power, surface-emitting quantum cascade laser operating in a symmetric grating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 121107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boyle, C.

C. Boyle, C. Sigler, J. D. Kirch, D. F. Lindberg, T. Earles, D. Botez, and L. J. Mawst, “High-power, surface-emitting quantum cascade laser operating in a symmetric grating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 121107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bronner, W.

B. Hinkov, F. Fuchs, J. M. Kaster, Q. Yang, W. Bronner, R. Aidam, and K. Köhler, “Broad band tunable quantum cascade lasers for stand-off detection of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 7484, 748406 (2009).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buchanan, M.

H. C. Liu, J. Li, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “High-frequency quantum-well infrared photodetectors measured by microwave-rectification technique,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 32, 1024–1028 (1996).
[Crossref]

Calvar, A.

A. Calvar, M. I. Amanti, M. Renaudat St-Jean, S. Barbieri, A. Bismuto, E. Gini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. Sirtori, “High frequency modulation of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers embedded into microstrip line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmalch, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 181–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cathabard, O.

J. Devenson, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “InAsAlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 2.75–2.97 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 2007–2009 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. W. I.

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-C.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wägli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst 139, 2039–2046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 14–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L.

Z. Liu, D. Wasserman, S. S. Howard, A. J. Hoffman, C. Gmachl, X. Wang, T. Tanbun-Ek, L. Cheng, and F. Choa, “Room–temperature continuous–wave quantum cascade lasers grown by MOCVD without lateral regrowth,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 18, 1347–1349 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmalch, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 181–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choa, F.

Z. Liu, D. Wasserman, S. S. Howard, A. J. Hoffman, C. Gmachl, X. Wang, T. Tanbun-Ek, L. Cheng, and F. Choa, “Room–temperature continuous–wave quantum cascade lasers grown by MOCVD without lateral regrowth,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 18, 1347–1349 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Cohen, E. A.

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de Rooij, N. F.

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R. Szedlak, M. Holzbauer, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, C. Schwarzer, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The influence of whispering gallery modes on the far field of ring lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16668 (2015).

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 151105 (2014).
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R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Grating-based far field modifications of ring quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 15829 (2014).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Earles, T.

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Edamura, T.

Emmenegger, L.

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B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ 13C and δ 18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 92, 451–458 (2008).
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Eugster, W.

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ 13C and δ 18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 92, 451–458 (2008).
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Faist, J.

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B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Rf-modulation of mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 24, 3294 (2016).
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P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wägli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst 139, 2039–2046 (2014).
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M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Stand-alone system for high-resolution, real-time terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 20, 2772 (2012).
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A. Bismuto, S. Riedi, B. Hinkov, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Sb-free quantum cascade lasers in the 3 to 4 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 27, 045013 (2012).
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Fathololoumi, S.

Fayt, A.

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Flaud, J. M.

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Fuchs, F.

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Galli, I.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Gini, E.

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P. Jouy, C. Bonzon, J. Wolf, E. Gini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Surface emitting multi-wavelength array of single frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 071104 (2015).
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Giusfredi, G.

Gmachl, C.

E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 14–17 (2011).
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E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031111 (2010).
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Z. Liu, D. Wasserman, S. S. Howard, A. J. Hoffman, C. Gmachl, X. Wang, T. Tanbun-Ek, L. Cheng, and F. Choa, “Room–temperature continuous–wave quantum cascade lasers grown by MOCVD without lateral regrowth,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 18, 1347–1349 (2006).
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R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
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R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmalch, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 181–183 (2002).
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Godejohann, M.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85, 2697–2702 (2013).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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A. Hangauer, G. Spinner, M. Nikodem, and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy using a directly modulated quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 191107 (2013).

Harrer, A.

R. Szedlak, J. Hayden, P. Martín-Mateos, M. Holzbauer, A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, B. Hinkov, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, P. Acedo, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1 (2017).
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R. Szedlak, A. Harrer, M. Holzbauer, B. Schwarz, J. P. Waclawek, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector,” ACS Photonics 3, 1794–1798 (2016).
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Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hartmann, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hayden, J.

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R. Szedlak, J. Hayden, P. Martín-Mateos, M. Holzbauer, A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, B. Hinkov, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, P. Acedo, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1 (2017).
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Herzig, H. P.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wägli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst 139, 2039–2046 (2014).
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Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hinkov, B.

R. Szedlak, J. Hayden, P. Martín-Mateos, M. Holzbauer, A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, B. Hinkov, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, P. Acedo, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Rf-modulation of mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 24, 3294 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bismuto, S. Riedi, B. Hinkov, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Sb-free quantum cascade lasers in the 3 to 4 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 27, 045013 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Mawst, L. J.

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A. Hangauer, G. Spinner, M. Nikodem, and G. Wysocki, “High frequency modulation capabilities and quasi single-sideband emission from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 22, 23439 (2014).
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E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031111 (2010).
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Renaudat St-Jean, M.

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R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 151105 (2014).
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R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Grating-based far field modifications of ring quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 15829 (2014).
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R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 151105 (2014).
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A. Hangauer, G. Spinner, M. Nikodem, and G. Wysocki, “High frequency modulation capabilities and quasi single-sideband emission from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 22, 23439 (2014).
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A. Hangauer, G. Spinner, M. Nikodem, and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy using a directly modulated quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 191107 (2013).

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Strasser, G.

R. Szedlak, J. Hayden, P. Martín-Mateos, M. Holzbauer, A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, B. Hinkov, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, P. Acedo, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Szedlak, A. Harrer, M. Holzbauer, B. Schwarz, J. P. Waclawek, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector,” ACS Photonics 3, 1794–1798 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Szedlak, M. Holzbauer, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, C. Schwarzer, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The influence of whispering gallery modes on the far field of ring lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16668 (2015).

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 151105 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Grating-based far field modifications of ring quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 15829 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. I. Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081101 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 14–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Süess, M. J.

M. J. Süess, P. Jouy, C. Bonzon, J. M. Wolf, E. Gini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Single-Mode Quantum Cascade Laser Array Emitting From a Single Facet,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 28, 1197–1200 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Szedlak, R.

R. Szedlak, J. Hayden, P. Martín-Mateos, M. Holzbauer, A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, B. Hinkov, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, P. Acedo, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Szedlak, A. Harrer, M. Holzbauer, B. Schwarz, J. P. Waclawek, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector,” ACS Photonics 3, 1794–1798 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Szedlak, M. Holzbauer, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, C. Schwarzer, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The influence of whispering gallery modes on the far field of ring lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16668 (2015).

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 151105 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Grating-based far field modifications of ring quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 15829 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. I. Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanbun-Ek, T.

Z. Liu, D. Wasserman, S. S. Howard, A. J. Hoffman, C. Gmachl, X. Wang, T. Tanbun-Ek, L. Cheng, and F. Choa, “Room–temperature continuous–wave quantum cascade lasers grown by MOCVD without lateral regrowth,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 18, 1347–1349 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. Devenson, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “InAsAlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 2.75–2.97 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 2007–2009 (2007).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Tittel, F. K.

Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21, 1008–1019 (2013).
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A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultrasensitive gas detection by quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the fundamental molecular absorption bands region,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 133–138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Tuzson, B.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wägli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst 139, 2039–2046 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ 13C and δ 18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 92, 451–458 (2008).
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Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Villares, G.

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 1–3 (2014).

Vitiello, M. S.

Vogt, J.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85, 2697–2702 (2013).
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Wachter, U.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85, 2697–2702 (2013).
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Waclawek, J. P.

R. Szedlak, A. Harrer, M. Holzbauer, B. Schwarz, J. P. Waclawek, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector,” ACS Photonics 3, 1794–1798 (2016).
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J. P. Waclawek, V. C. Bauer, H. Moser, and B. Lendl, “2 f -wavelength modulation Fabry-Perot photothermal interferometry,” Opt. Express 24, 28958–28967 (2016).
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Wägli, P.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wägli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst 139, 2039–2046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wagner, and G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Low frequency terahertz quantum cascade laser operating from 1.6 to 1.8 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2000–2002 (2006).
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Wang, X.

Z. Liu, D. Wasserman, S. S. Howard, A. J. Hoffman, C. Gmachl, X. Wang, T. Tanbun-Ek, L. Cheng, and F. Choa, “Room–temperature continuous–wave quantum cascade lasers grown by MOCVD without lateral regrowth,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 18, 1347–1349 (2006).
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Wasilewski, Z. R.

Wasserman, D.

Z. Liu, D. Wasserman, S. S. Howard, A. J. Hoffman, C. Gmachl, X. Wang, T. Tanbun-Ek, L. Cheng, and F. Choa, “Room–temperature continuous–wave quantum cascade lasers grown by MOCVD without lateral regrowth,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 18, 1347–1349 (2006).
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Weidmann, D.

Werner, R. A.

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ 13C and δ 18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 92, 451–458 (2008).
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R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmalch, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 181–183 (2002).
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K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85, 2697–2702 (2013).
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Williams, B.

Wirthmueller, A.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wägli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst 139, 2039–2046 (2014).
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Wolf, J.

P. Jouy, C. Bonzon, J. Wolf, E. Gini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Surface emitting multi-wavelength array of single frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 071104 (2015).
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Wolf, J. M.

M. J. Süess, P. Jouy, C. Bonzon, J. M. Wolf, E. Gini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Single-Mode Quantum Cascade Laser Array Emitting From a Single Facet,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 28, 1197–1200 (2016).
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Wörle, K.

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85, 2697–2702 (2013).
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Yamanishi, M.

Yang, Q.

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Yao, Y.

E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 14–17 (2011).
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A. Yariv, “Quantum Electronics,” Chap. 20, WileyNew York (1989).

Zahniser, M. S.

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ 13C and δ 18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 92, 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zederbauer, T.

R. Szedlak, J. Hayden, P. Martín-Mateos, M. Holzbauer, A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, B. Hinkov, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, P. Acedo, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Szedlak, A. Harrer, M. Holzbauer, B. Schwarz, J. P. Waclawek, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector,” ACS Photonics 3, 1794–1798 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Szedlak, M. Holzbauer, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, C. Schwarzer, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The influence of whispering gallery modes on the far field of ring lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16668 (2015).

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 151105 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Grating-based far field modifications of ring quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 15829 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. I. Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zeeman, M. J.

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ 13C and δ 18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 92, 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

R. Szedlak, A. Harrer, M. Holzbauer, B. Schwarz, J. P. Waclawek, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector,” ACS Photonics 3, 1794–1798 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

D. McMullin, B. Mizaikoff, and R. Krska, “Advancements in IR spectroscopic approaches for the determination of fungal derived contaminations in food crops,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407, 653–660 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (2)

K. Wörle, F. Seichter, A. Wilk, C. Armacost, T. Day, M. Godejohann, U. Wachter, J. Vogt, P. Radermacher, and B. Mizaikoff, “Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers,” Anal. Chem. 85, 2697–2702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Martín-Mateos, J. Hayden, P. Acedo, and B. Lendl, “Heterodyne Phase-Sensitive Dispersion Spectroscopy in the Mid-Infrared with a Quantum Cascade Laser,” Anal. Chem. 89, 5916–5922 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (1)

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wägli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst 139, 2039–2046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. (2)

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultrasensitive gas detection by quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the fundamental molecular absorption bands region,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 133–138 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. J. Zeeman, R. A. Werner, W. Eugster, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ 13C and δ 18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 92, 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

A. Hangauer, G. Spinner, M. Nikodem, and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy using a directly modulated quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 191107 (2013).

J. Devenson, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, and A. N. Baranov, “InAsAlSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 2.75–2.97 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 2007–2009 (2007).
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C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Low frequency terahertz quantum cascade laser operating from 1.6 to 1.8 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2000–2002 (2006).
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A. Calvar, M. I. Amanti, M. Renaudat St-Jean, S. Barbieri, A. Bismuto, E. Gini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. Sirtori, “High frequency modulation of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers embedded into microstrip line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 1–4 (2013).
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R. Paiella, R. Martini, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, E. A. Whittaker, and H. C. Liu, “High-frequency modulation without the relaxation oscillation resonance in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2526–2528 (2001).
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E. Mujagić, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 14–17 (2011).
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C. Schwarzer, R. Szedlak, S. I. Ahn, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Linearly polarized light from substrate emitting ring cavity quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081101 (2013).
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R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. Maxwell Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “On-chip focusing in the mid-infrared: Demonstrated with ring quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 151105 (2014).
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P. Jouy, C. Bonzon, J. Wolf, E. Gini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Surface emitting multi-wavelength array of single frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 071104 (2015).
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C. Boyle, C. Sigler, J. D. Kirch, D. F. Lindberg, T. Earles, D. Botez, and L. J. Mawst, “High-power, surface-emitting quantum cascade laser operating in a symmetric grating mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 121107 (2016).
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E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, H. Detz, W. Schrenk, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Ring cavity induced threshold reduction in single-mode surface emitting quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031111 (2010).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Martini, C. Bethea, F. Capasso, C. Gmalch, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittaker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 181–183 (2002).
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IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. (2)

H. C. Liu, J. Li, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “High-frequency quantum-well infrared photodetectors measured by microwave-rectification technique,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 32, 1024–1028 (1996).
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H. Olesen and G. Jacobsen, “A theoretical and experimental analysis of modulated laser fields and power spectra,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 18, 2069–2080 (1982).
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IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. (2)

Z. Liu, D. Wasserman, S. S. Howard, A. J. Hoffman, C. Gmachl, X. Wang, T. Tanbun-Ek, L. Cheng, and F. Choa, “Room–temperature continuous–wave quantum cascade lasers grown by MOCVD without lateral regrowth,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 18, 1347–1349 (2006).
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M. J. Süess, P. Jouy, C. Bonzon, J. M. Wolf, E. Gini, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Single-Mode Quantum Cascade Laser Array Emitting From a Single Facet,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 28, 1197–1200 (2016).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. a. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 1–3 (2014).

Nat. Phys. (1)

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of [planck]ω/kB,” Nat. Phys. 7, 166–171 (2011).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Szedlak, J. Hayden, P. Martín-Mateos, M. Holzbauer, A. Harrer, B. Schwarz, B. Hinkov, D. MacFarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, P. Acedo, B. Lendl, and G. Strasser, “Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1 (2017).
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Opt. Express (10)

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, T. Edamura, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, “Measuring frequency noise and intrinsic linewidth of a room-temperature DFB quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 19, 17996 (2011).
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S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, D. Ban, S. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ̃ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20, 3331–3339 (2012).
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M. S. Vitiello, G. Scalari, B. Williams, and P. De Natale, “Quantum cascade lasers: 20 years of challenges,” Opt. Express 23, 5167 (2015).
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M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Stand-alone system for high-resolution, real-time terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 20, 2772 (2012).
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R. Szedlak, C. Schwarzer, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Grating-based far field modifications of ring quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 15829 (2014).
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Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21, 1008–1019 (2013).
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G. Wysocki and D. Weidmann, “Molecular dispersion spectroscopy for chemical sensing using chirped mid-infrared quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 18, 26123–26140 (2010).
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J. P. Waclawek, V. C. Bauer, H. Moser, and B. Lendl, “2 f -wavelength modulation Fabry-Perot photothermal interferometry,” Opt. Express 24, 28958–28967 (2016).
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A. Hangauer, G. Spinner, M. Nikodem, and G. Wysocki, “High frequency modulation capabilities and quasi single-sideband emission from a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 22, 23439 (2014).
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B. Hinkov, A. Hugi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Rf-modulation of mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 24, 3294 (2016).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Hinkov, F. Fuchs, J. M. Kaster, Q. Yang, W. Bronner, R. Aidam, and K. Köhler, “Broad band tunable quantum cascade lasers for stand-off detection of explosives,” Proc. SPIE 7484, 748406 (2009).

Sci. Rep. (1)

R. Szedlak, M. Holzbauer, D. Macfarland, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, C. Schwarzer, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The influence of whispering gallery modes on the far field of ring lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16668 (2015).

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
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Semicond. Sci. Tech. (1)

A. Bismuto, S. Riedi, B. Hinkov, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Sb-free quantum cascade lasers in the 3 to 4 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Tech. 27, 045013 (2012).
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Other (3)

“Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data: https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data and https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/ ,” United States Environ. Prot. Agency (EPA) Intergov. Panel on Clim. Chang. (IPCC) (2014).

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J. Faist, “Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Oxford University Press, Chap. 13 p. 318 (2013).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup using the frequency-to-amplitude conversion technique (red arrows indicate the direction of electrical current, the green square highlights the bias-tee which is used for all measurements above 2 MHz). (b) Singlemode laser spectra taken in continuous-wave mode of the ring-QCL at 100 K (black line: 150 mA, red line: 180 mA). The region of the molecular absorption which is used for the frequency-to-amplitude conversion is marked in gray (1322.04 cm−1 to 1322.2 cm−1).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Typical absorption- (black) and dispersion-spectra (red) of CH4. The spectral region for frequency-to-amplitude conversion is again marked in gray. (b) & (c) Modulation spectra as recorded via the lock-in amplifier for a modulation frequency of fmod = 150 MHz: (b) amplitude-trace and (c) phase-signal.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Amplitude of frequency tuning Δf over intensity modulation index m as function of modulation frequency (800 kHz to 160 MHz) for the ring and ridge laser at different laser driving conditions. Ring laser (Jth = 110 mA): 148 mA and 185 mA, ridge laser (Jth = 231 mA): 245 mA and 297 mA. (b) FM-IM phase shift within the modulation range (800 kHz to 160 MHz) of the two QCLs (ring and ridge) for the same different laser driving conditions as shown in (a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Sideband ratio |E−1|/|E+1| of the minus first to the plus first order sideband of the corresponding electrical fields within the investigated modulation range (200 kHz to 160 MHz) for both lasers at different driving conditions (same as used before).

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