Abstract

The ability to integrate graphene into metasurface devices has attracted enormous interest as a means of achieving dynamic electrical control of their electromagnetic response. In this manuscript, we experimentally demonstrate a graphene-integrated metasurface modulator that establishes the potential to actively control the amplitude and phase of mid-infrared light with high modulation depth and speed, in good agreement with simulation results. Our simulations also show it is possible to construct a reconfigurable surface with tunable phase profile by incorporating graphene-integrated metasurface modulators with specific geometric parameters. This reconfigurable surface is able to manipulate the orientation of the wave reflected from it, achieving a high-speed, switchable beam steering reflective interface. The results here could inspire research on dynamic reflective display and holograms.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2018 (5)

T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photonics 3(2), 021302 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, H. Xia, W. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Li, and D. Xie, “Design of broadband graphene-metamaterial absorbers for permittivity sensing at mid-infrared regions,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 4183 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shi, N. H. Mahlmeister, I. J. Luxmoore, and G. R. Nash, “Metamaterial-based graphene thermal emitter,” Nano Res. 11(7), 3567–3573 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Phase-Change Metadevices for Beam Steering in the Near Infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. He, F. Liu, F. Lin, and W. Shi, “Graphene patterns supported terahertz tunable plasmon induced transparency,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9931–9944 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

C. Sun, Z. Dong, J. Si, and X. Deng, “Independently tunable dual-band plasmonically induced transparency based on hybrid metal-graphene metamaterials at mid-infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express 25(2), 1242–1250 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,”,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

L. Wang, L. Li, Y. Li, H. C. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Single-shot and single-sensor high/super-resolution microwave imaging based on metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26959 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, Y. Meng, L. Wang, J. Tian, S. Dai, and W. Wen, “Anisotropic metasurface with near-unity circular polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183502 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. S. Ee and R. Agarwal, “Tunable metasurface and flat optical zoom lens on a stretchable substrate,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2818–2823 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Iyer, M. Pendharkar, and J. A. Schuller, “Electrically reconfigurable metasurfaces using heterojunction resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1582–1588 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C. M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, Y. Tolstova, K. W. Mauser, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12323 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cai, J. Zhu, Q. H. Liu, T. Lin, J. Zhou, L. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Enhanced spatial near-infrared modulation of graphene-loaded perfect absorbers using plasmonic nanoslits,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32318–32328 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Q. Liu, I. J. Luxmoore, S. A. Mikhailov, N. A. Savostianova, F. Valmorra, J. Faist, and G. R. Nash, “Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators strongly coupled to graphene surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fan, N. H. Shen, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Tunable terahertz meta-surface with graphene cut-wires,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 151–156 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

I. J. Luxmoore, C. H. Gan, P. Q. Liu, F. Valmorra, P. Li, J. Faist, and G. R. Nash, “Strong coupling in the far-infrared between graphene plasmons and the surface optical phonons of silicon dioxide,” ACS Photonics 1(11), 1151–1155 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

Q. Feng, M. Pu, C. Hu, and X. Luo, “Engineering the dispersion of metamaterial surface for broadband infrared absorption,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2133–2135 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. J. Kim, G. Seo, H. T. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. R. Katko, A. M. Hawkes, J. P. Barrett, and S. A. Cummer, “RF limiter metamaterial using p-i-n diodes,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 10, 1571–1574 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. K. Geim, “Graphene: status and prospects,” Science 324(5934), 1530–1534 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Intersubband absorption of quantum cascade laser structures and its application to laser modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211108 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Bolotin, K. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun. 146(9-10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s Functions and Guided Surface Waves for a Surface Conductivity Model of Graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Abele, E.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agarwal, R.

H. S. Ee and R. Agarwal, “Tunable metasurface and flat optical zoom lens on a stretchable substrate,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2818–2823 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexeev, A. M.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Phase-Change Metadevices for Beam Steering in the Near Infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,”,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andryieuski, A.

Atwater, H. A.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, Y. Tolstova, K. W. Mauser, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12323 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Au, Y. Y.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Phase-Change Metadevices for Beam Steering in the Near Infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrett, J. P.

A. R. Katko, A. M. Hawkes, J. P. Barrett, and S. A. Cummer, “RF limiter metamaterial using p-i-n diodes,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 10, 1571–1574 (2011).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. J. Kim, G. Seo, H. T. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertolotti, J.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Phase-Change Metadevices for Beam Steering in the Near Infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bo Li, Y.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolotin, K.

K. Bolotin, K. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun. 146(9-10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Booth, J.

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Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32867 (2016).
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A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Intersubband absorption of quantum cascade laser structures and its application to laser modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mahlmeister, N. H.

C. Shi, N. H. Mahlmeister, I. J. Luxmoore, and G. R. Nash, “Metamaterial-based graphene thermal emitter,” Nano Res. 11(7), 3567–3573 (2018).
[Crossref]

Marie Jokerst, N.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. J. Kim, G. Seo, H. T. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Markoš, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Maulini, R.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Intersubband absorption of quantum cascade laser structures and its application to laser modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mauser, K. W.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, Y. Tolstova, K. W. Mauser, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12323 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, F. Y.

Meng, Y.

X. Wu, Y. Meng, L. Wang, J. Tian, S. Dai, and W. Wen, “Anisotropic metasurface with near-unity circular polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mikhailov, S. A.

P. Q. Liu, I. J. Luxmoore, S. A. Mikhailov, N. A. Savostianova, F. Valmorra, J. Faist, and G. R. Nash, “Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators strongly coupled to graphene surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monticone, F.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,”,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nash, G. R.

C. Shi, N. H. Mahlmeister, I. J. Luxmoore, and G. R. Nash, “Metamaterial-based graphene thermal emitter,” Nano Res. 11(7), 3567–3573 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Q. Liu, I. J. Luxmoore, S. A. Mikhailov, N. A. Savostianova, F. Valmorra, J. Faist, and G. R. Nash, “Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators strongly coupled to graphene surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Luxmoore, C. H. Gan, P. Q. Liu, F. Valmorra, P. Li, J. Faist, and G. R. Nash, “Strong coupling in the far-infrared between graphene plasmons and the surface optical phonons of silicon dioxide,” ACS Photonics 1(11), 1151–1155 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

O’Hara, J. F.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palit, S.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. J. Kim, G. Seo, H. T. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Patel, C. K. N.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Intersubband absorption of quantum cascade laser structures and its application to laser modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pendharkar, M.

P. P. Iyer, M. Pendharkar, and J. A. Schuller, “Electrically reconfigurable metasurfaces using heterojunction resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1582–1588 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pu, M.

Qi, M. Q.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C. W.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, C.-W.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,”,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, E. T.

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C. M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Roy, T.

T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photonics 3(2), 021302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Savo, S.

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

Savostianova, N. A.

P. Q. Liu, I. J. Luxmoore, S. A. Mikhailov, N. A. Savostianova, F. Valmorra, J. Faist, and G. R. Nash, “Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators strongly coupled to graphene surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

P. P. Iyer, M. Pendharkar, and J. A. Schuller, “Electrically reconfigurable metasurfaces using heterojunction resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1582–1588 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schwab, M. G.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, G.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. J. Kim, G. Seo, H. T. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, N. H.

Y. Fan, N. H. Shen, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Tunable terahertz meta-surface with graphene cut-wires,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 151–156 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shi, C.

C. Shi, N. H. Mahlmeister, I. J. Luxmoore, and G. R. Nash, “Metamaterial-based graphene thermal emitter,” Nano Res. 11(7), 3567–3573 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

Shrekenhamer, D.

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

Si, J.

Sikes, K.

K. Bolotin, K. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun. 146(9-10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. J. Kim, G. Seo, H. T. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Y. Fan, N. H. Shen, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Tunable terahertz meta-surface with graphene cut-wires,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 151–156 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stormer, H.

K. Bolotin, K. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun. 146(9-10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

Su, X.

Sun, C.

Taylor, A. J.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, J.

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C. M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

X. Wu, Y. Meng, L. Wang, J. Tian, S. Dai, and W. Wen, “Anisotropic metasurface with near-unity circular polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tian, Z.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tolstova, Y.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, Y. Tolstova, K. W. Mauser, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12323 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Troccoli, M.

T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photonics 3(2), 021302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tsekoun, A.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Intersubband absorption of quantum cascade laser structures and its application to laser modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 211108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valentine, J. G.

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
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Valmorra, F.

P. Q. Liu, I. J. Luxmoore, S. A. Mikhailov, N. A. Savostianova, F. Valmorra, J. Faist, and G. R. Nash, “Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators strongly coupled to graphene surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Luxmoore, C. H. Gan, P. Q. Liu, F. Valmorra, P. Li, J. Faist, and G. R. Nash, “Strong coupling in the far-infrared between graphene plasmons and the surface optical phonons of silicon dioxide,” ACS Photonics 1(11), 1151–1155 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ventra, M. D.

M. D. Goldflam, T. Driscoll, B. Chapler, O. Khatib, N. Marie Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, B. J. Kim, G. Seo, H. T. Kim, M. D. Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 044103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, X.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. M.

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C. M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, L. Li, Y. Li, H. C. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Single-shot and single-sensor high/super-resolution microwave imaging based on metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26959 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, Y. Meng, L. Wang, J. Tian, S. Dai, and W. Wen, “Anisotropic metasurface with near-unity circular polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C. M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.

Wen, W.

X. Wu, Y. Meng, L. Wang, J. Tian, S. Dai, and W. Wen, “Anisotropic metasurface with near-unity circular polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wright, C. D.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Phase-Change Metadevices for Beam Steering in the Near Infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
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Wu, Q.

Wu, X.

X. Wu, Y. Meng, L. Wang, J. Tian, S. Dai, and W. Wen, “Anisotropic metasurface with near-unity circular polarization conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183502 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xia, H.

H. Huang, H. Xia, W. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Li, and D. Xie, “Design of broadband graphene-metamaterial absorbers for permittivity sensing at mid-infrared regions,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 4183 (2018).
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Xie, D.

H. Huang, H. Xia, W. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Li, and D. Xie, “Design of broadband graphene-metamaterial absorbers for permittivity sensing at mid-infrared regions,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 4183 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, W.

H. Huang, H. Xia, W. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Li, and D. Xie, “Design of broadband graphene-metamaterial absorbers for permittivity sensing at mid-infrared regions,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 4183 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, L.

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, G.

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C. M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, H.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. C.

L. Wang, L. Li, Y. Li, H. C. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Single-shot and single-sensor high/super-resolution microwave imaging based on metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26959 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,”,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

T. Roy, S. Zhang, I. W. Jung, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, and D. Lopez, “Dynamic metasurface lens based on MEMS technology,” APL Photonics 3(2), 021302 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,”,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Tian, R. Singh, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the graphene metasurface modulator (a) 3D view, (b) top view (c) Optical Photo of the fabricated device (d) SEM photo of the metasurface structure
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the reflection intensity measurement setup to locate the position of the patterns. Once located, the stage moves to center of the pattern and optical chopper is removed from the setup for measuring the spectrum. Yellow shaded region was also utilized to measure the field effect characteristic of the device. (b) Field effect characteristic curves of graphene with metasurface patterned on the top and without metasurface on the top. (c) Spatially resolved broadband reflectance map from the graphene metasurface modulator (d) Measured reflection spectra of graphene metasurface modulator with gate voltage ranging from −90V to 60V (VCNP).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated reflection spectra of modulator with Fermi level of graphene ranging from 0.25eV to 0eV (Dirac point). (b) Simulated and experimental resonant wavelength. For simulation curve, gate voltage is converted from Fermi level by Eq. (1). (c) Retrieved phase change due to the shift of Fermi level, inlet is a zoom into the axes in order to show the phase modulation achieved by the modulator at 5µm when Fermi level increases from 0eV to 0.4eV (d) cross sectional normalized electric field distribution at resonance wavelength in the x-y plane (left) and in the x-z plane intersecting the gap of SRRs (right)
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic of two adjacent super lattices of beam steering modulator constructed by four modulators with different geometric parameters to achieve the necessary reflection phases. (b) The phase profile along x-axis for non-biased and biased lenses shown in (a). (c)&(d) Numerical simulations of scattering farfield pattern of non-biased (c) and biased lens (d), showing specular and anomalous reflection at λ = 5 µm respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Geometric Parameters of modulators used in beam steering lens

Equations (3)

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| E F |= v F π ε r ε 0 | V g V CNP | e t s
sin( θ r )sin( θ i )= λ 0 2π n i dϕ dx
θ r = sin 1 ( λ 0 2π dϕ dx )

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