Abstract

We report the use of prism-assisted side-coupling to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of photoionization in an Ar-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. By launching four different LP core modes we are able to probe temporal and spatial changes in the modal refractive index on timescales from a few hundred picoseconds to several hundred microseconds after the ionization event. We experimentally analyze the underlying gas density waves and find good agreement with quantitative and qualitative hydrodynamic predictions. Moreover, we observe periodic modulations in the MHz-range lasting for a few microseconds, indicating nanometer-scale vibrations of the fiber structure, driven by gas density waves.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, and H. M. Milchberg, “The effect of long timescale gas dynamics on femtosecond filamentation,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4740–4751 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. G. Durfee, J. Lynch, and H. M. Milchberg, “Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(3), 2368–2389 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. O. Lahav, L. Levi, I. Orr, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound-wave generation by laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 021801 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of Long-Lived High-Power Optical Waveguides in Air,” Phys. Rev. X 4(1), 011027 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Schimmel, T. Produit, D. Mongin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Free space laser telecommunication through fog,” Optica 5(10), 1338–1341 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics in a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. F. Köttig, F. Tani, C. M. Biersach, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, “Generation of microjoule pulses in the deep ultraviolet at megahertz repetition rates,” Optica 4(10), 1272–1276 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, “Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt. 42(36), 7117–7120 (2003).
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  12. J. R. Koehler, F. Köttig, B. M. Trabold, F. Tani, and P. St. J. Russell, “Long-lived refractive index changes induced by femtosecond ionization in gas-filled single-ring photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(6), 064020 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. M. Trabold, D. Novoa, A. Abdolvand, and P. St. J. Russell, “Selective excitation of higher order modes in hollow-core PCF via prism-coupling,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 3736–3739 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. C. Travers, W. Chang, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultrafast nonlinear optics in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, A11–A26 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. A. Finger, N. Y. Joly, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Accuracy of the capillary approximation for gas-filled kagomé-style photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 821–824 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics Third Edition, (Academic Press 2008).
  18. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Jarnac, M. Durand, Y. Liu, B. Prade, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of laser induced plasma grating dynamics in gases,” Opt. Commun. 312, 35–42 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

G. Schimmel, T. Produit, D. Mongin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Free space laser telecommunication through fog,” Optica 5(10), 1338–1341 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. R. Koehler, F. Köttig, B. M. Trabold, F. Tani, and P. St. J. Russell, “Long-lived refractive index changes induced by femtosecond ionization in gas-filled single-ring photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(6), 064020 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2014 (5)

M. A. Finger, N. Y. Joly, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, “Accuracy of the capillary approximation for gas-filled kagomé-style photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 821–824 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Trabold, D. Novoa, A. Abdolvand, and P. St. J. Russell, “Selective excitation of higher order modes in hollow-core PCF via prism-coupling,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 3736–3739 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lahav, L. Levi, I. Orr, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound-wave generation by laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 021801 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of Long-Lived High-Power Optical Waveguides in Air,” Phys. Rev. X 4(1), 011027 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Jarnac, M. Durand, Y. Liu, B. Prade, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of laser induced plasma grating dynamics in gases,” Opt. Commun. 312, 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics in a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Travers, W. Chang, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultrafast nonlinear optics in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, A11–A26 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C. G. Durfee, J. Lynch, and H. M. Milchberg, “Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(3), 2368–2389 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Abdolvand, A.

Allison, T. K.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics in a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arms, D. A.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biersach, C. M.

Birnbaum, R.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of Long-Lived High-Power Optical Waveguides in Air,” Phys. Rev. X 4(1), 011027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boutou, V.

Chang, W.

Cheng, Y.-H.

Cingöz, A.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics in a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

O. Lahav, L. Levi, I. Orr, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound-wave generation by laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 021801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dufresne, E. M.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunford, R. W.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durand, M.

A. Jarnac, M. Durand, Y. Liu, B. Prade, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of laser induced plasma grating dynamics in gases,” Opt. Commun. 312, 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

Durfee, C. G.

C. G. Durfee, J. Lynch, and H. M. Milchberg, “Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(3), 2368–2389 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ederer, D. L.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favre, C.

Finger, M. A.

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

Geffroy, S.

Höhr, C.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houard, A.

A. Jarnac, M. Durand, Y. Liu, B. Prade, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of laser induced plasma grating dynamics in gases,” Opt. Commun. 312, 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jarnac, A.

A. Jarnac, M. Durand, Y. Liu, B. Prade, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of laser induced plasma grating dynamics in gases,” Opt. Commun. 312, 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jhajj, N.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of Long-Lived High-Power Optical Waveguides in Air,” Phys. Rev. X 4(1), 011027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, and H. M. Milchberg, “The effect of long timescale gas dynamics on femtosecond filamentation,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4740–4751 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joly, N. Y.

Kaminer, I.

O. Lahav, L. Levi, I. Orr, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound-wave generation by laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 021801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kanter, E. P.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J.

Koehler, J. R.

J. R. Koehler, F. Köttig, B. M. Trabold, F. Tani, and P. St. J. Russell, “Long-lived refractive index changes induced by femtosecond ionization in gas-filled single-ring photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(6), 064020 (2018).
[Crossref]

Köttig, F.

J. R. Koehler, F. Köttig, B. M. Trabold, F. Tani, and P. St. J. Russell, “Long-lived refractive index changes induced by femtosecond ionization in gas-filled single-ring photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(6), 064020 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Köttig, F. Tani, C. M. Biersach, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, “Generation of microjoule pulses in the deep ultraviolet at megahertz repetition rates,” Optica 4(10), 1272–1276 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krässig, B.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lahav, O.

O. Lahav, L. Levi, I. Orr, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound-wave generation by laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 021801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Landahl, E. C.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levi, L.

O. Lahav, L. Levi, I. Orr, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound-wave generation by laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 021801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

A. Jarnac, M. Durand, Y. Liu, B. Prade, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of laser induced plasma grating dynamics in gases,” Opt. Commun. 312, 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lynch, J.

C. G. Durfee, J. Lynch, and H. M. Milchberg, “Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(3), 2368–2389 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Milchberg, H. M.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of Long-Lived High-Power Optical Waveguides in Air,” Phys. Rev. X 4(1), 011027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, and H. M. Milchberg, “The effect of long timescale gas dynamics on femtosecond filamentation,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4740–4751 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, J. Lynch, and H. M. Milchberg, “Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(3), 2368–2389 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mondelain, D.

Mongin, D.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Jarnac, M. Durand, Y. Liu, B. Prade, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of laser induced plasma grating dynamics in gases,” Opt. Commun. 312, 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nemirovsky, J.

O. Lahav, L. Levi, I. Orr, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound-wave generation by laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 021801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nemirovsky, R. A.

O. Lahav, L. Levi, I. Orr, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound-wave generation by laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 021801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nold, J.

Novoa, D.

Orr, I.

O. Lahav, L. Levi, I. Orr, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound-wave generation by laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 021801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peterson, E. R.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

A. Jarnac, M. Durand, Y. Liu, B. Prade, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of laser induced plasma grating dynamics in gases,” Opt. Commun. 312, 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

Produit, T.

Rosenthal, E. W.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of Long-Lived High-Power Optical Waveguides in Air,” Phys. Rev. X 4(1), 011027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rudati, J.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Salmon, E.

Santra, R.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schimmel, G.

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

Segev, M.

O. Lahav, L. Levi, I. Orr, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound-wave generation by laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 021801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Southworth, S. H.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tani, F.

J. R. Koehler, F. Köttig, B. M. Trabold, F. Tani, and P. St. J. Russell, “Long-lived refractive index changes induced by femtosecond ionization in gas-filled single-ring photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(6), 064020 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Köttig, F. Tani, C. M. Biersach, J. C. Travers, and P. St. J. Russell, “Generation of microjoule pulses in the deep ultraviolet at megahertz repetition rates,” Optica 4(10), 1272–1276 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tikhonchuk, V.

A. Jarnac, M. Durand, Y. Liu, B. Prade, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of laser induced plasma grating dynamics in gases,” Opt. Commun. 312, 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trabold, B. M.

J. R. Koehler, F. Köttig, B. M. Trabold, F. Tani, and P. St. J. Russell, “Long-lived refractive index changes induced by femtosecond ionization in gas-filled single-ring photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(6), 064020 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. M. Trabold, D. Novoa, A. Abdolvand, and P. St. J. Russell, “Selective excitation of higher order modes in hollow-core PCF via prism-coupling,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 3736–3739 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Travers, J. C.

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wahlstrand, J. K.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of Long-Lived High-Power Optical Waveguides in Air,” Phys. Rev. X 4(1), 011027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, and H. M. Milchberg, “The effect of long timescale gas dynamics on femtosecond filamentation,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4740–4751 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

Wolf, J.-P.

Ye, J.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics in a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yost, D. C.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics in a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, L.

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. P. Kanter, R. Santra, C. Höhr, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, S. H. Southworth, and L. Young, “Characterization of the spatiotemporal evolution of laser-generated plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073307 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Jarnac, M. Durand, Y. Liu, B. Prade, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of laser induced plasma grating dynamics in gases,” Opt. Commun. 312, 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

O. Lahav, L. Levi, I. Orr, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound-wave generation by laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(2), 021801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

J. R. Koehler, F. Köttig, B. M. Trabold, F. Tani, and P. St. J. Russell, “Long-lived refractive index changes induced by femtosecond ionization in gas-filled single-ring photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(6), 064020 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

C. G. Durfee, J. Lynch, and H. M. Milchberg, “Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(3), 2368–2389 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics in a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Young, D. A. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, R. W. Dunford, D. L. Ederer, C. Höhr, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, E. C. Landahl, E. R. Peterson, J. Rudati, R. Santra, and S. H. Southworth, “X-Ray Microprobe of Orbital Alignment in Strong-Field Ionized Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of Long-Lived High-Power Optical Waveguides in Air,” Phys. Rev. X 4(1), 011027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics Third Edition, (Academic Press 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental set-up. A 20-cm-long single-ring HC-PCF (inset: scanning electron micrograph of fiber cross-section) is mounted with one end in a gas cell (GC). Pump pulses (805 nm central wavelength, 40 fs FWHM duration) are reflected off a dichroic mirror (DM) and coupled into the fiber. Continuous-wave (CW) probe light at 1550 nm is side-launched with a cylindrical lens (CL) through a wedge prism (WP; wedge angle αw = 1.05°) into the fiber. A flip mirror (FM) is used to direct the emerging probe light onto a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to image the transverse profile. When the flip mirror is absent, the probe signal can be monitored using a photodiode (PD) and an oscilloscope (Osc.).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Probe power detected at the photodiode as a function of side-coupling angle αair (lower horizontal axis) and modal refractive index (upper horizontal axis, after Eq. (1)). The insets show the near-field profiles of the side-launched SR-PCF modes on the CCD camera. Black open squares indicate the working points for measuring plasma-related changes in the modal index. The dotted curve marks a range not used in the experiments.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Temporal traces of the modal index change during the first 125 ns after the pump-pulse impact at t = 0, calculated from transmitted probe signal using the calibration curve in Fig. 2. The measured near-field mode profiles of the four excited LP modes are shown in the insets. (b) Modal index changes during the first 100 µs, the inset showing a zoom-in over the first 10 μs. (c) 1-D cuts across the modal profiles, calculated (dashed lines) and retrieved (solid lines) from the insets in (a) along the dashed yellow line. (d) Radio-frequency (RF) spectrum of the four time traces, for clarity offset from each other by 50 dB.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Uncorrected signal trace (blue), scaled background trace due to coupling efficiency changes (green) and background-corrected trace (orange) only including effects of modal index changes (a) in the first 2 μs and (b) over 60 μs, measured for LP11 mode. Inset of (a): Working points for measuring uncorrected signal trace (blue diamond) and for background trace (green star) marked on the calibration curve. Inset of (b): Calculated modal index change from the background-corrected curve.

Equations (3)

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α air = α w + cos 1 [ n gl cos( α w + cos 1 ( n pm / n gl ))/ n air ],
n pm = n g 2 u pm 2 k 0 2 a eff 2 (λ) ,
Δ n g N e e 2 /(2 n g ω 2 ε 0 m e ),

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