Abstract

We report on the design, fabrication and testing of three types of coupling structures for hybrid chalcogenide glass Ge23Sb7S70-Silicon (GeSbS-Si) photonic integrated circuit platforms. The first type is a fully etched GeSbS grating coupler defined directly in the GeSbS film. Coupling losses of 5.3 dB and waveguide-to-waveguide back-reflections of 3.4% were measured at a wavelength of 1553 nm. Hybrid GeSbS-to-Si butt couplers and adiabatic couplers transmitting light between GeSbS and Si single-mode waveguides were further developed. The hybrid butt couplers (HBCs) feature coupling losses of 2.7 dB and 9.2% back-reflection. The hybrid adiabatic couplers (HACs) exhibit coupling losses of 0.7 dB and negligible back-reflection. Both HBCs and HACs have passbands exceeding the 100 nm measurement range of the test setup. GeSbS grating couplers and GeSbS-to-Si waveguide couplers can be co-fabricated in the same process flow, providing, for example, a means to first couple high optical power levels required for nonlinear signal processing directly into GeSbS waveguides and to later transition into Si waveguides after attenuation of the pump. Moreover, GeSbS waveguides and HBC transitions have been fabricated on post-processed silicon photonics chips obtained from a commercially available foundry service, with a previously deposited 2 μm thick top waveguide cladding. This fabrication protocol demonstrates the compatibility of the developed integration scheme with standard silicon photonics technology with a complete back-end-of-line process.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

2017 (5)

2016 (3)

2015 (1)

J. Chiles, M. Malinowski, A. Rao, S. Novak, K. Richardson, and S. Fathpour, “Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111110 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, K. Luke, L.-W. Luo, P. A. Morton, and M. Lipson, “High coupling efficiency etched facet tapers in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(23), 2380–2382 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

2013 (2)

B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, and R. Pant, “Inducing and harnessing stimulated Brillouin scattering in photonic integrated circuits,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 536–587 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. W. Nolte, C. Bohley, and J. Schilling, “Tuning of zero group velocity dispersion in infiltrated vertical silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1741–1750 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

S. Preußler, A. Wiatrek, K. Jamshidi, and T. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy based on the bandwidth reduction of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(16), 1118–1120 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Priem, P. Bienstman, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Impact of absorption mechanisms on Kerr-nonlinear resonator behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 63103 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, I. C. M. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, “Integrated all-optical pulse regenerator in chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2900–2902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J.-I. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

F. Gaboriau, G. Carthy, M.-C. Peignon, and C. Cardinaud, “Selective and deep plasma etching of SiO2: comparison between different fluorocarbon gases (CF4, C2F6, CHF3) mixed with CH4 or H2 and influence of the residence time,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 1514–1521 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Accard, A.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Agarwal, A.

D. M. Kita, H. Lin, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, I. Luzinov, T. Gu, and J. Hu, “On-chip infrared spectroscopic sensing: redefining the benefits of scaling,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 23(2), 340–349 (2017).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

J. W. Choi, Z. Han, B.-U. Sohn, G. F. R. Chen, C. Smith, L. C. Kimerling, K. A. Richardson, A. M. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “Nonlinear characterization of GeSbS chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

S. Serna, H. Lin, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Yadav, X. Le Roux, K. Richardson, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, J. Hu, and L. Vivien, “Nonlinear optical properties of integrated GeSbS chalcogenide waveguides,” Photon. Res. 6(5), B37–B42 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Serna, H. Lin, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Yadav, X. Le Roux, K. Richardson, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, J. Hu, and L. Vivien, “Linear and third order nonlinear optical properties of GeSbS chalcogenide integrated waveguides,” in 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2017), pp. 109–110.
[Crossref]

Anne, M.-L.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

G. Priem, P. Bienstman, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Impact of absorption mechanisms on Kerr-nonlinear resonator behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 63103 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben Bakir, B.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Bienstman, P.

G. Priem, P. Bienstman, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Impact of absorption mechanisms on Kerr-nonlinear resonator behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 63103 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bohley, C.

Bordel, D.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Boussard-Pledel, C.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bräuer, A.

Bulla, D.

Bureau, B.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardenas, J.

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, K. Luke, L.-W. Luo, P. A. Morton, and M. Lipson, “High coupling efficiency etched facet tapers in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(23), 2380–2382 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cardinaud, C.

F. Gaboriau, G. Carthy, M.-C. Peignon, and C. Cardinaud, “Selective and deep plasma etching of SiO2: comparison between different fluorocarbon gases (CF4, C2F6, CHF3) mixed with CH4 or H2 and influence of the residence time,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 1514–1521 (2002).
[Crossref]

Carthy, G.

F. Gaboriau, G. Carthy, M.-C. Peignon, and C. Cardinaud, “Selective and deep plasma etching of SiO2: comparison between different fluorocarbon gases (CF4, C2F6, CHF3) mixed with CH4 or H2 and influence of the residence time,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 1514–1521 (2002).
[Crossref]

Casas-Bedoya, A.

Cassan, E.

Charrier, J.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G. F. R.

J. W. Choi, Z. Han, B.-U. Sohn, G. F. R. Chen, C. Smith, L. C. Kimerling, K. A. Richardson, A. M. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “Nonlinear characterization of GeSbS chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiles, J.

J. Chiles, M. Malinowski, A. Rao, S. Novak, K. Richardson, and S. Fathpour, “Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, D.-Y.

Choi, J. W.

J. W. Choi, Z. Han, B.-U. Sohn, G. F. R. Chen, C. Smith, L. C. Kimerling, K. A. Richardson, A. M. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “Nonlinear characterization of GeSbS chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colas, F.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Compère, C.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crozat, P.

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Dannberg, P.

Danto, S.

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

de Valicourt, G.

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H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Shiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
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Descos, A.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Du, Q.

Duan, G. H.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Dubreuil, N.

S. Serna, H. Lin, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Yadav, X. Le Roux, K. Richardson, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, J. Hu, and L. Vivien, “Nonlinear optical properties of integrated GeSbS chalcogenide waveguides,” Photon. Res. 6(5), B37–B42 (2018).
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S. Serna, H. Lin, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Yadav, X. Le Roux, K. Richardson, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, J. Hu, and L. Vivien, “Linear and third order nonlinear optical properties of GeSbS chalcogenide integrated waveguides,” in 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2017), pp. 109–110.
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Eggleton, B. J.

Englund, D.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Shiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
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Fedeli, J.-M.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

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Frumin, L. L.

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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J.-I. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
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Gajda, A.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Geskus, D.

Girard, N.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Gu, T.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Shiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
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D. M. Kita, H. Lin, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, I. Luzinov, T. Gu, and J. Hu, “On-chip infrared spectroscopic sensing: redefining the benefits of scaling,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 23(2), 340–349 (2017).
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Han, Z.

J. W. Choi, Z. Han, B.-U. Sohn, G. F. R. Chen, C. Smith, L. C. Kimerling, K. A. Richardson, A. M. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “Nonlinear characterization of GeSbS chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39234 (2016).
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Hewak, D.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Shiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
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Hu, J.

S. Serna, H. Lin, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Yadav, X. Le Roux, K. Richardson, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, J. Hu, and L. Vivien, “Nonlinear optical properties of integrated GeSbS chalcogenide waveguides,” Photon. Res. 6(5), B37–B42 (2018).
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H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Shiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
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D. M. Kita, H. Lin, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, I. Luzinov, T. Gu, and J. Hu, “On-chip infrared spectroscopic sensing: redefining the benefits of scaling,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 23(2), 340–349 (2017).
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Q. Du, Y. Huang, J. Li, D. Kita, J. Michon, H. Lin, L. Li, S. Novak, K. Richardson, W. Zhang, and J. Hu, “Low-loss photonic device in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3090–3093 (2016).
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L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Serna, H. Lin, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Yadav, X. Le Roux, K. Richardson, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, J. Hu, and L. Vivien, “Linear and third order nonlinear optical properties of GeSbS chalcogenide integrated waveguides,” in 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2017), pp. 109–110.
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Huang, C.-C.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Shiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
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Huang, Y.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Shiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
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Q. Du, Y. Huang, J. Li, D. Kita, J. Michon, H. Lin, L. Li, S. Novak, K. Richardson, W. Zhang, and J. Hu, “Low-loss photonic device in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3090–3093 (2016).
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Hyodo, K.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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Inoue, S.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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Ismail, N.

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J.-I. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
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Jalali, B.

Jamshidi, K.

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G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Junker, M.

Kamalian, M.

Karthe, W.

Kaspar, P.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Keirsse, J.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keyvaninia, S.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Kimerling, L. C.

J. W. Choi, Z. Han, B.-U. Sohn, G. F. R. Chen, C. Smith, L. C. Kimerling, K. A. Richardson, A. M. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “Nonlinear characterization of GeSbS chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kita, D.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Shiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Du, Y. Huang, J. Li, D. Kita, J. Michon, H. Lin, L. Li, S. Novak, K. Richardson, W. Zhang, and J. Hu, “Low-loss photonic device in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3090–3093 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kita, D. M.

D. M. Kita, H. Lin, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, I. Luzinov, T. Gu, and J. Hu, “On-chip infrared spectroscopic sensing: redefining the benefits of scaling,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 23(2), 340–349 (2017).
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Kley, E.-B.

Koch, J.

S. Li, J. Koch, and S. Pachnicke, “Optical signal processing in the discrete nonlinear frequency domain,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper W2A.40.

Kong, J.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Shiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
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Kores, C. C.

Lamponi, M.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Lauterbach, K.-U.

Laval, S.

Le, S. T.

Le Liepve, A.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Le Person, J.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Roux, X.

S. Serna, H. Lin, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Yadav, X. Le Roux, K. Richardson, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, J. Hu, and L. Vivien, “Nonlinear optical properties of integrated GeSbS chalcogenide waveguides,” Photon. Res. 6(5), B37–B42 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Serna, H. Lin, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Yadav, X. Le Roux, K. Richardson, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, J. Hu, and L. Vivien, “Linear and third order nonlinear optical properties of GeSbS chalcogenide integrated waveguides,” in 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2017), pp. 109–110.
[Crossref]

Lecunff, Y.

Lelarge, F.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Levaufre, G.

G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Le Liepve, A. Accard, M. Lamponi, D. Make, P. Kaspar, G. Levaufre, N. Girard, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Descos, B. Ben Bakir, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, S. Menezo, G. de Valicourt, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. J. Thompson, F. Y. Gardes, and G. T. Reed, “Hybrid III-V on silicon lasers for photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 20(4), 6100213 (2014).

Lhermite, H.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Shiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Du, Y. Huang, J. Li, D. Kita, J. Michon, H. Lin, L. Li, S. Novak, K. Richardson, W. Zhang, and J. Hu, “Low-loss photonic device in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3090–3093 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Shiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Du, Y. Huang, J. Li, D. Kita, J. Michon, H. Lin, L. Li, S. Novak, K. Richardson, W. Zhang, and J. Hu, “Low-loss photonic device in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3090–3093 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

S. Li, J. Koch, and S. Pachnicke, “Optical signal processing in the discrete nonlinear frequency domain,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper W2A.40.

Liebig, E.

Lin, H.

S. Serna, H. Lin, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Yadav, X. Le Roux, K. Richardson, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, J. Hu, and L. Vivien, “Nonlinear optical properties of integrated GeSbS chalcogenide waveguides,” Photon. Res. 6(5), B37–B42 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. M. Kita, H. Lin, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, I. Luzinov, T. Gu, and J. Hu, “On-chip infrared spectroscopic sensing: redefining the benefits of scaling,” J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 23(2), 340–349 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, Y. Song, Y. Huang, D. Kita, S. Deckoff-Jones, K. Wang, L. Li, J. Li, H. Zheng, Z. Luo, H. Wang, S. Novak, A. Yadav, C.-C. Huang, R.-J. Shiue, D. Englund, T. Gu, D. Hewak, K. Richardson, J. Kong, and J. Hu, “Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(12), 798–805 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Du, Y. Huang, J. Li, D. Kita, J. Michon, H. Lin, L. Li, S. Novak, K. Richardson, W. Zhang, and J. Hu, “Low-loss photonic device in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3090–3093 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Serna, H. Lin, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Yadav, X. Le Roux, K. Richardson, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, J. Hu, and L. Vivien, “Linear and third order nonlinear optical properties of GeSbS chalcogenide integrated waveguides,” in 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2017), pp. 109–110.
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Lipson, M.

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, K. Luke, L.-W. Luo, P. A. Morton, and M. Lipson, “High coupling efficiency etched facet tapers in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(23), 2380–2382 (2014).
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Littler, I. C. M.

Liu, Y.

Loreal, O.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, C. G. Poulton, and R. Pant, “Inducing and harnessing stimulated Brillouin scattering in photonic integrated circuits,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 536–587 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Chiles, M. Malinowski, A. Rao, S. Novak, K. Richardson, and S. Fathpour, “Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111110 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the GeSbS GC. (b) Optical microscope image of the fabricated GC pair, waveguide and ring resonator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Transmission spectrum of the GeSbS device with an input power of 0 dBm. The smoothed transmission spectrum of the GC loop, with ripples filtered out, is shown by a red curve. (b) Measurement data (blue dots) in a smaller wavelength range around a resonance close to 1550 nm and its Lorentzian fit (red line).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Optical microscope image of HBC loops and a Si reference loop. (b) Optical microscope image of a Si GC (SiO2 clad) and a GeSbS-Si HBC. (c) Schematic view of a GeSbS-Si HBC.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Transmission spectra of SAL (green line) and HBC loops (blue line) with an input power of 0 dBm. The smoothed transmission spectrum of the HBC loop, with ripples filtered out, is shown by a red curve. (b) Raw HBC loss spectrum featuring ripples (blue line) and its filtered version (red line).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated (red line), measured (blue dots) and interpolated (blue line) HBC losses as a function of GeSbS taper width. The error bars correspond to the magnitude of the Fabry-Perot ripples. The blue curve is a polynomial fit to help guiding the eye.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Optical microscope image of HAC loops and a Si reference loop. (b) Optical microscope image of a Si GC (air clad) and a GeSbS-Si HAC. (c) Schematic view of a GeSbS-Si HAC. (d) SEM image of the front facet of the GeSbS-Si overlay. (e) Cross-section of the starting point of the GeSbS-Si overlay in the FDTD simulations.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Transmission spectra of an SALair (green line) and HAC loop (blue line) with an input power of 0 dBm. The smoothed transmission spectrum of the HAC loop is shown as a red curve. (b) HAC loss spectrum (blue line) and its smoothed equivalent (red line).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Simulated (red line), measured (blue dots) and interpolated (blue line) HAC losses as a function of GeSbS taper width. The error bars correspond to the standard deviations of the measured losses. Optical microscope images of the GeSbS-Si HACs with initial GeSbS taper widths of 0.5 µm (b) and 1.5 µm (c). As in Fig. 5, the blue curve is a polynomial fit to help guiding the eye.

Equations (1)

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Hybrid Coupler Loss= Insertion Loss (HBC Loop)-Insertion Loss (SAL) 2

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