Abstract

Due to the abilities of manipulating the wavefront of light with well-controlled amplitude, and phase and polarization, optical metasurfaces are very suitable for optical holography, enabling applications with multiple functionalities and high data capacity. Here, we demonstrate encoding two- and three-dimensional full-color holographic images by an ultrathin metasurface hologram whose unit cells are subwavelength nanoslits with spatially varying orientations. We further show that it is possible to achieve full-color holographic multiplexing with such kind of geometric metasurfaces, realized by a synthetic spectrum holographic algorithm. Our results provide an efficient way to design multi-color optical display elements that are ready for fabrication.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Metasurface holograms for holographic imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(21), 1700541 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Su, Y. Lu, H. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Lamar Yang, Y. Che, and K. Qi, “Ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction by metasurface based on parameter-adjustable meta-atoms,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42283 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

B. Wang, B. Quan, J. He, Z. Xie, X. Wang, J. Li, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Wavelength de-multiplexing metasurface hologram,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35657 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral chiral imaging with a metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10671–10680 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ju, T. Shiga, L. Feng, Z. Hou, K. Tsuda, and J. Shiomi, “Designing nanostructures for interfacial phonon transport via bayesian optimization,” Phys. Rev. X 7(2), 021024 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. B. Glybovski, S. A. Tretyakov, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, and C. R. Simovski, “Metasurfaces: from microwaves to visible,” Phys. Rep. 634, 1–72 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. P. Slobozhanyuk, A. B. Khanikaev, D. S. Filonov, D. A. Smirnova, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Experimental demonstration of topological effects in bianisotropic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22270 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. Kruk, H. Tang, T. Li, I. Kravchenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Grayscale transparent metasurface holograms,” Optica 3(12), 1504–1505 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

Y. Wang, M. Pu, Z. Zhang, X. Li, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Quasi-continuous metasurface for ultra-broadband and polarization-controlled electromagnetic beam deflection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17733 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Baena, J. P. del Risco, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, S. B. Glybovski, and P. A. Belov, “Self-complementary metasurfaces for linear-to-circular polarization conversion,” Phys. Rev. B 92(24), 245413 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, X. Li, X. Song, B. Bai, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Broadband hybrid holographic multiplexing with geometric metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(41), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet and F. Capasso, “Holographic optical metasurfaces: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78(2), 024401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, M. Tymchenko, P. Gopalan, X. Ye, Y. Wu, M. Zhang, C. B. Murray, A. Alu, and C. R. Kagan, “Large-area nanoimprinted colloidal Au nanocrystal-based nanoantennas for ultrathin polarizing plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5254–5260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Epstein and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Passive lossless Huygens metasurfaces for conversion of arbitrary source field to directive radiation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(11), 1–16 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, and J. Li, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(7), 1–7 (2013).

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Wei, Y. Cao, X. Su, Z. Gong, Y. Long, and H. Li, “Highly efficient beam steering with a transparent metasurface,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10739–10745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. C. Han, Q. Cheng, H. F. Ma, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband all-dielectric magnifying lens for far-field high-resolution imaging,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6963–6968 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Chshelokova, P. V. Kapitanova, A. N. Poddubny, D. S. Filonov, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, Y. S. Kivshar, and P. A. Belov, “Hyperbolic transmission-line metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 073116 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Di Falco, Y. Zhao, and A. Alu, “Optical metasurfaces with robust angular response on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163110 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Q. Wu, P. Pan, F. Y. Meng, L. W. Li, and J. Wu, “A novel flat lens horn antenna designed based on zero refraction principle of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38(8), 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alu, A.

W. Chen, M. Tymchenko, P. Gopalan, X. Ye, Y. Wu, M. Zhang, C. B. Murray, A. Alu, and C. R. Kagan, “Large-area nanoimprinted colloidal Au nanocrystal-based nanoantennas for ultrathin polarizing plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5254–5260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Di Falco, Y. Zhao, and A. Alu, “Optical metasurfaces with robust angular response on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baena, J. D.

J. D. Baena, J. P. del Risco, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, S. B. Glybovski, and P. A. Belov, “Self-complementary metasurfaces for linear-to-circular polarization conversion,” Phys. Rev. B 92(24), 245413 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, X. Li, X. Song, B. Bai, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Broadband hybrid holographic multiplexing with geometric metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(41), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, and J. Li, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(7), 1–7 (2013).

Barnakov, Y. A.

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Belov, P. A.

S. B. Glybovski, S. A. Tretyakov, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, and C. R. Simovski, “Metasurfaces: from microwaves to visible,” Phys. Rep. 634, 1–72 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. D. Baena, J. P. del Risco, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, S. B. Glybovski, and P. A. Belov, “Self-complementary metasurfaces for linear-to-circular polarization conversion,” Phys. Rev. B 92(24), 245413 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. V. Chshelokova, P. V. Kapitanova, A. N. Poddubny, D. S. Filonov, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, Y. S. Kivshar, and P. A. Belov, “Hyperbolic transmission-line metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 073116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biener, G.

Boltasseva, A.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bomzon, Z.

Brener, I.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cameron, C.

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38(8), 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Capasso, F.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral chiral imaging with a metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet and F. Capasso, “Holographic optical metasurfaces: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78(2), 024401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, X. Li, X. Song, B. Bai, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Broadband hybrid holographic multiplexing with geometric metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(41), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, and J. Li, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(7), 1–7 (2013).

Murray, C. B.

W. Chen, M. Tymchenko, P. Gopalan, X. Ye, Y. Wu, M. Zhang, C. B. Murray, A. Alu, and C. R. Kagan, “Large-area nanoimprinted colloidal Au nanocrystal-based nanoantennas for ultrathin polarizing plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5254–5260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Neshev, D. N.

L. Wang, S. Kruk, H. Tang, T. Li, I. Kravchenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Grayscale transparent metasurface holograms,” Optica 3(12), 1504–1505 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oh, J.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral chiral imaging with a metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, P.

Q. Wu, P. Pan, F. Y. Meng, L. W. Li, and J. Wu, “A novel flat lens horn antenna designed based on zero refraction principle of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, C.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poddubny, A. N.

A. V. Chshelokova, P. V. Kapitanova, A. N. Poddubny, D. S. Filonov, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, Y. S. Kivshar, and P. A. Belov, “Hyperbolic transmission-line metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 073116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pu, M.

Y. Wang, M. Pu, Z. Zhang, X. Li, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Quasi-continuous metasurface for ultra-broadband and polarization-controlled electromagnetic beam deflection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17733 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pun, E. Y.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, K.

J. Su, Y. Lu, H. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Lamar Yang, Y. Che, and K. Qi, “Ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction by metasurface based on parameter-adjustable meta-atoms,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42283 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, C. W.

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. C. Han, Q. Cheng, H. F. Ma, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband all-dielectric magnifying lens for far-field high-resolution imaging,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6963–6968 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quan, B.

B. Wang, B. Quan, J. He, Z. Xie, X. Wang, J. Li, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Wavelength de-multiplexing metasurface hologram,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35657 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rho, J.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rousso, D.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral chiral imaging with a metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shaltout, A. M.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiga, T.

S. Ju, T. Shiga, L. Feng, Z. Hou, K. Tsuda, and J. Shiomi, “Designing nanostructures for interfacial phonon transport via bayesian optimization,” Phys. Rev. X 7(2), 021024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shiomi, J.

S. Ju, T. Shiga, L. Feng, Z. Hou, K. Tsuda, and J. Shiomi, “Designing nanostructures for interfacial phonon transport via bayesian optimization,” Phys. Rev. X 7(2), 021024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Simovski, C. R.

S. B. Glybovski, S. A. Tretyakov, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, and C. R. Simovski, “Metasurfaces: from microwaves to visible,” Phys. Rep. 634, 1–72 (2016).
[Crossref]

Slinger, C.

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38(8), 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

Slobozhanyuk, A. P.

A. P. Slobozhanyuk, A. B. Khanikaev, D. S. Filonov, D. A. Smirnova, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Experimental demonstration of topological effects in bianisotropic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22270 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Baena, J. P. del Risco, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, S. B. Glybovski, and P. A. Belov, “Self-complementary metasurfaces for linear-to-circular polarization conversion,” Phys. Rev. B 92(24), 245413 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. V. Chshelokova, P. V. Kapitanova, A. N. Poddubny, D. S. Filonov, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, Y. S. Kivshar, and P. A. Belov, “Hyperbolic transmission-line metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(7), 073116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smirnova, D. A.

A. P. Slobozhanyuk, A. B. Khanikaev, D. S. Filonov, D. A. Smirnova, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Experimental demonstration of topological effects in bianisotropic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22270 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, X.

L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, X. Li, X. Song, B. Bai, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Broadband hybrid holographic multiplexing with geometric metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(41), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanley, M.

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38(8), 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

Staude, I.

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Su, J.

J. Su, Y. Lu, H. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Lamar Yang, Y. Che, and K. Qi, “Ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction by metasurface based on parameter-adjustable meta-atoms,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42283 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, X.

Sun, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, H.

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, S. A.

S. B. Glybovski, S. A. Tretyakov, P. A. Belov, Y. S. Kivshar, and C. R. Simovski, “Metasurfaces: from microwaves to visible,” Phys. Rep. 634, 1–72 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsuda, K.

S. Ju, T. Shiga, L. Feng, Z. Hou, K. Tsuda, and J. Shiomi, “Designing nanostructures for interfacial phonon transport via bayesian optimization,” Phys. Rev. X 7(2), 021024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tumkur, T.

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tymchenko, M.

W. Chen, M. Tymchenko, P. Gopalan, X. Ye, Y. Wu, M. Zhang, C. B. Murray, A. Alu, and C. R. Kagan, “Large-area nanoimprinted colloidal Au nanocrystal-based nanoantennas for ultrathin polarizing plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5254–5260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, W.

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Metasurface holograms for holographic imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(21), 1700541 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10671–10680 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, B. Quan, J. He, Z. Xie, X. Wang, J. Li, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Wavelength de-multiplexing metasurface hologram,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35657 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. Kruk, H. Tang, T. Li, I. Kravchenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Grayscale transparent metasurface holograms,” Optica 3(12), 1504–1505 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

B. Wang, B. Quan, J. He, Z. Xie, X. Wang, J. Li, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Wavelength de-multiplexing metasurface hologram,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35657 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, X. Li, X. Song, B. Bai, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Broadband hybrid holographic multiplexing with geometric metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(41), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. Pu, Z. Zhang, X. Li, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Quasi-continuous metasurface for ultra-broadband and polarization-controlled electromagnetic beam deflection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17733 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, Z.

Wen, D.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiltshire, M. C.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, P. W.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Q. Wu, P. Pan, F. Y. Meng, L. W. Li, and J. Wu, “A novel flat lens horn antenna designed based on zero refraction principle of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, P. Pan, F. Y. Meng, L. W. Li, and J. Wu, “A novel flat lens horn antenna designed based on zero refraction principle of metamaterials,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(2), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

W. Chen, M. Tymchenko, P. Gopalan, X. Ye, Y. Wu, M. Zhang, C. B. Murray, A. Alu, and C. R. Kagan, “Large-area nanoimprinted colloidal Au nanocrystal-based nanoantennas for ultrathin polarizing plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5254–5260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Z.

B. Wang, B. Quan, J. He, Z. Xie, X. Wang, J. Li, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Wavelength de-multiplexing metasurface hologram,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35657 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Metasurface holograms for holographic imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(21), 1700541 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10671–10680 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, X.

W. Chen, M. Tymchenko, P. Gopalan, X. Ye, Y. Wu, M. Zhang, C. B. Murray, A. Alu, and C. R. Kagan, “Large-area nanoimprinted colloidal Au nanocrystal-based nanoantennas for ultrathin polarizing plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5254–5260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, Z.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, F.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, X. Li, X. Song, B. Bai, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Broadband hybrid holographic multiplexing with geometric metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(41), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

J. Su, Y. Lu, H. Zhang, Z. Li, Y. Lamar Yang, Y. Che, and K. Qi, “Ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction by metasurface based on parameter-adjustable meta-atoms,” Sci. Rep. 7, 42283 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, and J. Li, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(7), 1–7 (2013).

Zhang, M.

W. Chen, M. Tymchenko, P. Gopalan, X. Ye, Y. Wu, M. Zhang, C. B. Murray, A. Alu, and C. R. Kagan, “Large-area nanoimprinted colloidal Au nanocrystal-based nanoantennas for ultrathin polarizing plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5254–5260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. C. Han, Q. Cheng, H. F. Ma, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband all-dielectric magnifying lens for far-field high-resolution imaging,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6963–6968 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

B. Wang, B. Quan, J. He, Z. Xie, X. Wang, J. Li, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Wavelength de-multiplexing metasurface hologram,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35657 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Y. Wang, M. Pu, Z. Zhang, X. Li, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Quasi-continuous metasurface for ultra-broadband and polarization-controlled electromagnetic beam deflection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17733 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

A. Di Falco, Y. Zhao, and A. Alu, “Optical metasurfaces with robust angular response on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Y. Wang, M. Pu, Z. Zhang, X. Li, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Quasi-continuous metasurface for ultra-broadband and polarization-controlled electromagnetic beam deflection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17733 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, G.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, A. Y.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral chiral imaging with a metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151105 (2009).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Full-color plasmonic metasurface holograms,” ACS Nano 10(12), 10671–10680 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. C. Han, Q. Cheng, H. F. Ma, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband all-dielectric magnifying lens for far-field high-resolution imaging,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6963–6968 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, X. Li, X. Song, B. Bai, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Broadband hybrid holographic multiplexing with geometric metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(41), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

W. Wan, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Metasurface holograms for holographic imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(21), 1700541 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Evolution of the simulated holographic images of the DNA model for all 60 z-slices in sequence.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Nanoslit unit cell structure and its optical performance. (a) Phase and transmission for the unit cell with the rotate of theθ. The blue line and red line correspond to the phase-angle relation and transmission-angle relation, respectively. The frequency is set with 632 THz. The inset is an illustration of the unit cell. The nanoslit could rotate in the x-y plane with an orientation of θto produce a particular phase delay. The periods p x , p y are both 280 nm. The major axis and minor axis of the unit cell of nanoslits are l 0 , w 0 . (b) Transmission as a function of nanoslit size l 0 and w 0 . (c) Phase shift of the transmitted RCP light and (d) the transmission of RCP light with different orientation when the incident frequencies from 375 THz to 750 THz. (e) Schematic of the orientation angle corresponding eight PB phase delay, labeled above the respective panel.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The designed hologram and reconstructuon procedure. (a) Schematic illustration of the designed hologram in the Fresnel range. Only opposite handedness CP light are collected. (b) Calculated amplitude and (c) phase pattern of the target image as shown in Fig. 3(a).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Original 2D object compared with (b) theory, (c) simulation reconstructed holographic image for two-level amplitude and eight-level phase modulated hologram and (d) simulation image for an eight-level phase modulated hologram without the amplitude modulation. The original, theory, and simulation agree with each other very well.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation demonstration of multiple 2D full-color reconstructed images by the metasurface. The 2D full-color object (a) tree image and (b) letters “Lf ”. Calculated synthetic (c) amplitude pattern and (d) phase pattern on the hologram of the tree image and letters “Lf ”. Reconstructed images of the tree image (e) and letters “Lf ” (f) that for different distances z=500μm and z=900μm relative to the hologram metasurface, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reconstruction of 3D model of DNA with six colors. (a) Side view, top view and front view of the DNA model. (b) Simulated on axis evolution of the holographic images of the DNA model on six 2D planes along z direction. For more z-slices in sequence, see Visualization 1.

Equations (2)

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U(x,y,z)= exp(jkd) jλd exp[j k 2d ( x 2 + y 2 )]F{ U 0 ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 )exp[j k 2d ( x 0 2 + y 0 2 )]}.
A(u,ν;z,θ)= i=1 p H i (μ,ν; z l , θ l ) exp[i2π( x i u+ y i ν)].

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