Abstract

Colloidal crystals with specific electronic, optical, magnetic, vibrational properties, can be rationally designed by controlling fundamental parameters such as chemical composition, scale, periodicity and lattice symmetry. In particular, silica nanospheres -which assemble to form colloidal crystals- are ideal for this purpose, because of the ability to infiltrate their templates with semiconductors or metals. However characterization of these crystals is often limited to techniques such as grazing incidence small-angle scattering that provide only global structural information and also often require synchrotron sources. Here we demonstrate small-angle Bragg scattering from nanostructured materials using a tabletop-scale setup based on high-harmonic generation, to reveal important information about the local order of nanosphere grains, separated by grain boundaries and discontinuities. We also apply full-field quantitative ptychographic imaging to visualize the extended structure of a silica close-packed nanosphere multilayer, with thickness information encoded in the phase. These combined techniques allow us to simultaneously characterize the silica nanospheres size, their symmetry and distribution within single colloidal crystal grains, the local arrangement of nearest-neighbor grains, as well as to quantitatively determine the number of layers within the sample. Key to this advance is the good match between the high harmonic wavelength used (13.5nm) and the high transmission, high scattering efficiency, and low sample damage of the silica colloidal crystal at this wavelength. As a result, the relevant distances in the sample - namely, the interparticle distance (≈124nm) and the colloidal grains local arrangement (≈1μm) – can be investigated with Bragg coherent EUV scatterometry and ptychographic imaging within the same experiment simply by tuning the EUV spot size at the sample plane (5μm and 15μm respectively). In addition, the high spatial coherence of high harmonics light, combined with advances in imaging techniques, makes it possible to image near-periodic structures quantitatively and nondestructively, and enables the observation of the extended order of quasi-periodic colloidal crystals, with a spatial resolution better than 20nm. In the future, by harnessing the high time-resolution of tabletop high harmonics, this technique can be extended to dynamically image the three-dimensional electronic, magnetic, and transport properties of functional nanosystems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

S. Lazarev, Il. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. A. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants,”Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14, 1–8 (2018).

2017 (6)

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(27), E5300–E5307 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. L. Russell, G. H. Noel, J. M. Warren, N.-L. L. Tran, and T. E. Mallouk, “Binary Colloidal Crystal Films Grown by Vertical Evaporation of Silica Nanoparticle Suspensions,” Langmuir 33(39), 10366–10373 (2017).
[PubMed]

R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
[PubMed]

A. Maiden, D. Johnson, and P. Li, “Further improvements to the ptychographical iterative engine,” Optica 4, 736 (2017).

J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, Q. Li, T. D. Frazer, J. L. Knobloch, M. Tripp, S. W. King, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “Full Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of 11-50 nm Ultrathin Films: Influence of Network Connectivity on the Poisson’s Ratio,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2178–2183 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (7)

A. G. Shabalin, J.-M. Meijer, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Y. Gorobtsov, D. Dzhigaev, S. Kalbfleisch, J. Gulden, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Revealing Three-Dimensional Structure of an Individual Colloidal Crystal Grain by Coherent X-Ray Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(13), 138002 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. Li, A. J. Senesi, and B. Lee, “Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research,” Chem. Rev. 116(18), 11128–11180 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. T. Barako, A. Sood, C. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Kodama, M. Asheghi, X. Zheng, P. V. Braun, and K. E. Goodson, “Quasi-ballistic Electronic Thermal Conduction in Metal Inverse Opals,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2754–2761 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. A. Boles, M. Engel, and D. V. Talapin, “Self-Assembly of Colloidal Nanocrystals: From Intricate Structures to Functional Materials,” Chem. Rev. 116(18), 11220–11289 (2016).
[PubMed]

F. Lehmkühler, B. Fischer, L. Müller, B. Ruta, and G. Grübel, “Structure beyond pair correlations: X-ray cross-correlation from colloidal crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(Pt 6), 2046–2052 (2016).
[PubMed]

G. F. Mancini, T. Latychevskaia, F. Pennacchio, J. Reguera, F. Stellacci, and F. Carbone, “Order/Disorder Dynamics in a Dodecanethiol-Capped Gold Nanoparticles Supracrystal by Small-Angle Ultrafast Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2705–2713 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (6)

K. Ba Dinh, A. X. P. Ong, H. Vu Le, C. A. Henderson, C. Van Vuong, P. Hannaford, T. A. Smith, and L. Van Dao, “Coherent diffractive imaging of single layer microspheres,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 163102 (2015).

J. Rajeswari, P. Huang, G. F. Mancini, Y. Murooka, T. Latychevskaia, D. McGrouther, M. Cantoni, E. Baldini, J. S. White, A. Magrez, T. Giamarchi, H. M. Rønnow, and F. Carbone, “Filming the formation and fluctuation of skyrmion domains by cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14212–14217 (2015).
[PubMed]

T. Latychevskaia, G. F. Mancini, and F. Carbone, “The role of the coherence in the cross-correlation analysis of diffraction patterns from two-dimensional dense mono-disperse systems,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16573 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: Diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348(6234), 530–535 (2015).
[PubMed]

T. Latychevskaia and H. W. Fink, “Practical algorithms for simulation and reconstruction of digital in-line holograms,” Appl. Opt. 54(9), 2424–2434 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(16), 4846–4851 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (3)

M. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. Gardner, E. Shanblatt, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Tabletop Nanometer Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging in an Extended Reflection Mode using Coherent Fresnel Ptychography,” Optica 1, 39–44 (2014).

J.-M. Meijer, A. Shabalin, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Gorobstov, D. Dzhigaev, J. Gulden, D. V. Byelov, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, I. A. Vartanyantsb, and A. V. Petukhova, “Double hexagonal close-packed structure revealed in a single colloidal crystal grain by Bragg rod analysis,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47, 1199–1204 (2014).

M. A. Schroer, C. Gutt, and G. Grübel, “Characteristics of angular cross correlations studied by light scattering from two-dimensional microsphere films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 90(1), 012309 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (2)

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[PubMed]

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (3)

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[PubMed]

R. P. Kurta, M. Altarelli, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “X-ray cross-correlation analysis applied to disordered two-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 184204 (2012).

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, R. Dronyak, A. Singer, V. Bernátová, A. Burkhardt, O. Polozhentsev, A. Soldatov, M. Sprung, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Three-dimensional structure of a single colloidal crystal grain studied by coherent x-ray diffraction,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4039–4049 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

P. Wochner, M. Castro-colin, S. N. Bogle, and V. N. Bugaev, “Of fluctuations and cross-correlations: finding order in disorder,” Int. J. Mater. Res. 102, 874–888 (2011).

2010 (1)

M. Altarelli, R. P. Kurta, and I. A. Vartanyants, “X-ray cross-correlation analysis and local symmetries of disordered systems: General theory,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 104207 (2010).

2009 (4)

P. Wochner, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, T. Demmer, V. Bugaev, A. D. Ortiz, A. Duri, F. Zontone, G. Grübel, and H. Dosch, “X-ray cross correlation analysis uncovers hidden local symmetries in disordered matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(28), 11511–11514 (2009).
[PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning x-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Extreme nonlinear optics: Coherent x-rays from lasers,” Phys. Today 58, 39–46 (2005).

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. E. Han and V. H. Crespi, “Abrupt Topological Transitions in the Hysteresis Curves of Ferromagnetic Metalattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(19), 197203 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. E. Han and V. H. Crespi, “Tuning Fermi-surface properties through quantum confinement in metallic metalattices: new metals from old atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(4), 696–699 (2001).
[PubMed]

1998 (3)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[PubMed]

J. Miao, D. Sayre, and H. N. Chapman, “Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1662 (1998).

N. J. A. Sloane, “Kepler’ s conjecture confirmed,” Nature 395, 435–436 (1998).

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

1978 (1)

1973 (1)

M. J. Kosterlitz and D. J. Thouless, “Ordering, metastability and phase transitions in two-dimensional systems,” J. Phys. Chem. 6, 1181–1203 (1973).

1952 (1)

D. Sayre, “Some implications of a theorem due to Shannon,” Acta Crystallogr. 5, 843 (1952).

Adam, R.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[PubMed]

Adams, D.

Adams, D. E.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).

Aeschlimann, M.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(27), E5300–E5307 (2017).
[PubMed]

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[PubMed]

Altarelli, M.

R. P. Kurta, M. Altarelli, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “X-ray cross-correlation analysis applied to disordered two-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 184204 (2012).

M. Altarelli, R. P. Kurta, and I. A. Vartanyants, “X-ray cross-correlation analysis and local symmetries of disordered systems: General theory,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 104207 (2010).

Anderson, E. H.

J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, Q. Li, T. D. Frazer, J. L. Knobloch, M. Tripp, S. W. King, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “Full Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of 11-50 nm Ultrathin Films: Influence of Network Connectivity on the Poisson’s Ratio,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2178–2183 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(16), 4846–4851 (2015).
[PubMed]

Aquila, A.

R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
[PubMed]

Asheghi, M.

M. T. Barako, A. Sood, C. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Kodama, M. Asheghi, X. Zheng, P. V. Braun, and K. E. Goodson, “Quasi-ballistic Electronic Thermal Conduction in Metal Inverse Opals,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2754–2761 (2016).
[PubMed]

Attwood, D.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

Autenrieth, T.

P. Wochner, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, T. Demmer, V. Bugaev, A. D. Ortiz, A. Duri, F. Zontone, G. Grübel, and H. Dosch, “X-ray cross correlation analysis uncovers hidden local symmetries in disordered matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(28), 11511–11514 (2009).
[PubMed]

Ba Dinh, K.

K. Ba Dinh, A. X. P. Ong, H. Vu Le, C. A. Henderson, C. Van Vuong, P. Hannaford, T. A. Smith, and L. Van Dao, “Coherent diffractive imaging of single layer microspheres,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 163102 (2015).

Backus, S.

X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1357–1359 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[PubMed]

Baldini, E.

J. Rajeswari, P. Huang, G. F. Mancini, Y. Murooka, T. Latychevskaia, D. McGrouther, M. Cantoni, E. Baldini, J. S. White, A. Magrez, T. Giamarchi, H. M. Rønnow, and F. Carbone, “Filming the formation and fluctuation of skyrmion domains by cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14212–14217 (2015).
[PubMed]

Barako, M. T.

M. T. Barako, A. Sood, C. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Kodama, M. Asheghi, X. Zheng, P. V. Braun, and K. E. Goodson, “Quasi-ballistic Electronic Thermal Conduction in Metal Inverse Opals,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2754–2761 (2016).
[PubMed]

Bartels, R. A.

X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1357–1359 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bean, R.

Berenguer, F.

Bernátová, V.

Berntsen, P.

R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
[PubMed]

Besedin, Il.

S. Lazarev, Il. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. A. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants,”Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14, 1–8 (2018).

Bevis, C.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).

Bielecki, J.

R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
[PubMed]

Bogle, S. N.

P. Wochner, M. Castro-colin, S. N. Bogle, and V. N. Bugaev, “Of fluctuations and cross-correlations: finding order in disorder,” Int. J. Mater. Res. 102, 874–888 (2011).

Boles, M. A.

M. A. Boles, M. Engel, and D. V. Talapin, “Self-Assembly of Colloidal Nanocrystals: From Intricate Structures to Functional Materials,” Chem. Rev. 116(18), 11220–11289 (2016).
[PubMed]

Boyer, K.

Braun, P. V.

M. T. Barako, A. Sood, C. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Kodama, M. Asheghi, X. Zheng, P. V. Braun, and K. E. Goodson, “Quasi-ballistic Electronic Thermal Conduction in Metal Inverse Opals,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2754–2761 (2016).
[PubMed]

Bugaev, V.

P. Wochner, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, T. Demmer, V. Bugaev, A. D. Ortiz, A. Duri, F. Zontone, G. Grübel, and H. Dosch, “X-ray cross correlation analysis uncovers hidden local symmetries in disordered matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(28), 11511–11514 (2009).
[PubMed]

Bugaev, V. N.

P. Wochner, M. Castro-colin, S. N. Bogle, and V. N. Bugaev, “Of fluctuations and cross-correlations: finding order in disorder,” Int. J. Mater. Res. 102, 874–888 (2011).

Bunk, O.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning x-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[PubMed]

Burkhardt, A.

Byelov, D. V.

J.-M. Meijer, A. Shabalin, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Gorobstov, D. Dzhigaev, J. Gulden, D. V. Byelov, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, I. A. Vartanyantsb, and A. V. Petukhova, “Double hexagonal close-packed structure revealed in a single colloidal crystal grain by Bragg rod analysis,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47, 1199–1204 (2014).

Cantoni, M.

J. Rajeswari, P. Huang, G. F. Mancini, Y. Murooka, T. Latychevskaia, D. McGrouther, M. Cantoni, E. Baldini, J. S. White, A. Magrez, T. Giamarchi, H. M. Rønnow, and F. Carbone, “Filming the formation and fluctuation of skyrmion domains by cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14212–14217 (2015).
[PubMed]

Carbone, F.

G. F. Mancini, T. Latychevskaia, F. Pennacchio, J. Reguera, F. Stellacci, and F. Carbone, “Order/Disorder Dynamics in a Dodecanethiol-Capped Gold Nanoparticles Supracrystal by Small-Angle Ultrafast Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2705–2713 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. Latychevskaia, G. F. Mancini, and F. Carbone, “The role of the coherence in the cross-correlation analysis of diffraction patterns from two-dimensional dense mono-disperse systems,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16573 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Rajeswari, P. Huang, G. F. Mancini, Y. Murooka, T. Latychevskaia, D. McGrouther, M. Cantoni, E. Baldini, J. S. White, A. Magrez, T. Giamarchi, H. M. Rønnow, and F. Carbone, “Filming the formation and fluctuation of skyrmion domains by cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14212–14217 (2015).
[PubMed]

Carr, A.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(27), E5300–E5307 (2017).
[PubMed]

Castro-colin, M.

P. Wochner, M. Castro-colin, S. N. Bogle, and V. N. Bugaev, “Of fluctuations and cross-correlations: finding order in disorder,” Int. J. Mater. Res. 102, 874–888 (2011).

Chang, Z.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[PubMed]

Chao, W.

J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, Q. Li, T. D. Frazer, J. L. Knobloch, M. Tripp, S. W. King, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “Full Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of 11-50 nm Ultrathin Films: Influence of Network Connectivity on the Poisson’s Ratio,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2178–2183 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(16), 4846–4851 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chapman, H. N.

Chen, B.

Chen, C.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(27), E5300–E5307 (2017).
[PubMed]

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
[PubMed]

Christov, I. P.

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Extreme nonlinear optics: Coherent x-rays from lasers,” Phys. Today 58, 39–46 (2005).

X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1357–1359 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[PubMed]

Crespi, V. H.

J. E. Han and V. H. Crespi, “Abrupt Topological Transitions in the Hysteresis Curves of Ferromagnetic Metalattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(19), 197203 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. E. Han and V. H. Crespi, “Tuning Fermi-surface properties through quantum confinement in metallic metalattices: new metals from old atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(4), 696–699 (2001).
[PubMed]

Daurer, B. J.

R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
[PubMed]

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning x-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[PubMed]

DeMirci, H.

R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
[PubMed]

Demmer, T.

P. Wochner, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, T. Demmer, V. Bugaev, A. D. Ortiz, A. Duri, F. Zontone, G. Grübel, and H. Dosch, “X-ray cross correlation analysis uncovers hidden local symmetries in disordered matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(28), 11511–11514 (2009).
[PubMed]

Diaz, A.

Dierolf, M.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning x-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[PubMed]

Donatelli, J. J.

R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
[PubMed]

Dosch, H.

P. Wochner, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, T. Demmer, V. Bugaev, A. D. Ortiz, A. Duri, F. Zontone, G. Grübel, and H. Dosch, “X-ray cross correlation analysis uncovers hidden local symmetries in disordered matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(28), 11511–11514 (2009).
[PubMed]

Dronyak, R.

A. G. Shabalin, J.-M. Meijer, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Y. Gorobtsov, D. Dzhigaev, S. Kalbfleisch, J. Gulden, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Revealing Three-Dimensional Structure of an Individual Colloidal Crystal Grain by Coherent X-Ray Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(13), 138002 (2016).
[PubMed]

J.-M. Meijer, A. Shabalin, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Gorobstov, D. Dzhigaev, J. Gulden, D. V. Byelov, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, I. A. Vartanyantsb, and A. V. Petukhova, “Double hexagonal close-packed structure revealed in a single colloidal crystal grain by Bragg rod analysis,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47, 1199–1204 (2014).

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, R. Dronyak, A. Singer, V. Bernátová, A. Burkhardt, O. Polozhentsev, A. Soldatov, M. Sprung, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Three-dimensional structure of a single colloidal crystal grain studied by coherent x-ray diffraction,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4039–4049 (2012).
[PubMed]

Durfee, C. G.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[PubMed]

Duri, A.

P. Wochner, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, T. Demmer, V. Bugaev, A. D. Ortiz, A. Duri, F. Zontone, G. Grübel, and H. Dosch, “X-ray cross correlation analysis uncovers hidden local symmetries in disordered matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(28), 11511–11514 (2009).
[PubMed]

Dzhigaev, D.

S. Lazarev, Il. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. A. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants,”Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14, 1–8 (2018).

A. G. Shabalin, J.-M. Meijer, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Y. Gorobtsov, D. Dzhigaev, S. Kalbfleisch, J. Gulden, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Revealing Three-Dimensional Structure of an Individual Colloidal Crystal Grain by Coherent X-Ray Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(13), 138002 (2016).
[PubMed]

J.-M. Meijer, A. Shabalin, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Gorobstov, D. Dzhigaev, J. Gulden, D. V. Byelov, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, I. A. Vartanyantsb, and A. V. Petukhova, “Double hexagonal close-packed structure revealed in a single colloidal crystal grain by Bragg rod analysis,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47, 1199–1204 (2014).

Eich, S.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(27), E5300–E5307 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[PubMed]

Emmerich, S.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(27), E5300–E5307 (2017).
[PubMed]

Engel, M.

M. A. Boles, M. Engel, and D. V. Talapin, “Self-Assembly of Colloidal Nanocrystals: From Intricate Structures to Functional Materials,” Chem. Rev. 116(18), 11220–11289 (2016).
[PubMed]

Falcone, R. W.

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(16), 4846–4851 (2015).
[PubMed]

Fienup, J. R.

Fink, H. W.

Fischer, B.

F. Lehmkühler, B. Fischer, L. Müller, B. Ruta, and G. Grübel, “Structure beyond pair correlations: X-ray cross-correlation from colloidal crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(Pt 6), 2046–2052 (2016).
[PubMed]

Frazer, T. D.

J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, Q. Li, T. D. Frazer, J. L. Knobloch, M. Tripp, S. W. King, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “Full Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of 11-50 nm Ultrathin Films: Influence of Network Connectivity on the Poisson’s Ratio,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2178–2183 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(16), 4846–4851 (2015).
[PubMed]

Fromme, P.

R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
[PubMed]

Gagnon, E.

Galloway, B. R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).

Gardner, D.

Gardner, D. F.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).

Giamarchi, T.

J. Rajeswari, P. Huang, G. F. Mancini, Y. Murooka, T. Latychevskaia, D. McGrouther, M. Cantoni, E. Baldini, J. S. White, A. Magrez, T. Giamarchi, H. M. Rønnow, and F. Carbone, “Filming the formation and fluctuation of skyrmion domains by cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14212–14217 (2015).
[PubMed]

Gibson, G.

Goodson, K. E.

M. T. Barako, A. Sood, C. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Kodama, M. Asheghi, X. Zheng, P. V. Braun, and K. E. Goodson, “Quasi-ballistic Electronic Thermal Conduction in Metal Inverse Opals,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2754–2761 (2016).
[PubMed]

Gorobstov, O.

J.-M. Meijer, A. Shabalin, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Gorobstov, D. Dzhigaev, J. Gulden, D. V. Byelov, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, I. A. Vartanyantsb, and A. V. Petukhova, “Double hexagonal close-packed structure revealed in a single colloidal crystal grain by Bragg rod analysis,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47, 1199–1204 (2014).

Gorobtsov, O. Y.

S. Lazarev, Il. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. A. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants,”Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14, 1–8 (2018).

A. G. Shabalin, J.-M. Meijer, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Y. Gorobtsov, D. Dzhigaev, S. Kalbfleisch, J. Gulden, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Revealing Three-Dimensional Structure of an Individual Colloidal Crystal Grain by Coherent X-Ray Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(13), 138002 (2016).
[PubMed]

Granitzka, P.

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[PubMed]

Green, H.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Grübel, G.

F. Lehmkühler, B. Fischer, L. Müller, B. Ruta, and G. Grübel, “Structure beyond pair correlations: X-ray cross-correlation from colloidal crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(Pt 6), 2046–2052 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. A. Schroer, C. Gutt, and G. Grübel, “Characteristics of angular cross correlations studied by light scattering from two-dimensional microsphere films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 90(1), 012309 (2014).
[PubMed]

P. Wochner, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, T. Demmer, V. Bugaev, A. D. Ortiz, A. Duri, F. Zontone, G. Grübel, and H. Dosch, “X-ray cross correlation analysis uncovers hidden local symmetries in disordered matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(28), 11511–11514 (2009).
[PubMed]

Grychtol, P.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gu, X.

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(16), 4846–4851 (2015).
[PubMed]

Gulden, J.

A. G. Shabalin, J.-M. Meijer, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Y. Gorobtsov, D. Dzhigaev, S. Kalbfleisch, J. Gulden, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Revealing Three-Dimensional Structure of an Individual Colloidal Crystal Grain by Coherent X-Ray Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(13), 138002 (2016).
[PubMed]

J.-M. Meijer, A. Shabalin, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Gorobstov, D. Dzhigaev, J. Gulden, D. V. Byelov, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, I. A. Vartanyantsb, and A. V. Petukhova, “Double hexagonal close-packed structure revealed in a single colloidal crystal grain by Bragg rod analysis,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47, 1199–1204 (2014).

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, R. Dronyak, A. Singer, V. Bernátová, A. Burkhardt, O. Polozhentsev, A. Soldatov, M. Sprung, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Three-dimensional structure of a single colloidal crystal grain studied by coherent x-ray diffraction,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4039–4049 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gutt, C.

M. A. Schroer, C. Gutt, and G. Grübel, “Characteristics of angular cross correlations studied by light scattering from two-dimensional microsphere films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 90(1), 012309 (2014).
[PubMed]

P. Wochner, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, T. Demmer, V. Bugaev, A. D. Ortiz, A. Duri, F. Zontone, G. Grübel, and H. Dosch, “X-ray cross correlation analysis uncovers hidden local symmetries in disordered matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(28), 11511–11514 (2009).
[PubMed]

Han, J. E.

J. E. Han and V. H. Crespi, “Abrupt Topological Transitions in the Hysteresis Curves of Ferromagnetic Metalattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(19), 197203 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. E. Han and V. H. Crespi, “Tuning Fermi-surface properties through quantum confinement in metallic metalattices: new metals from old atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(4), 696–699 (2001).
[PubMed]

Hannaford, P.

K. Ba Dinh, A. X. P. Ong, H. Vu Le, C. A. Henderson, C. Van Vuong, P. Hannaford, T. A. Smith, and L. Van Dao, “Coherent diffractive imaging of single layer microspheres,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 163102 (2015).

Hantke, M. F.

R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
[PubMed]

Henderson, C. A.

K. Ba Dinh, A. X. P. Ong, H. Vu Le, C. A. Henderson, C. Van Vuong, P. Hannaford, T. A. Smith, and L. Van Dao, “Coherent diffractive imaging of single layer microspheres,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 163102 (2015).

Hernandez-Charpak, J. N.

J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, Q. Li, T. D. Frazer, J. L. Knobloch, M. Tripp, S. W. King, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “Full Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of 11-50 nm Ultrathin Films: Influence of Network Connectivity on the Poisson’s Ratio,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2178–2183 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(16), 4846–4851 (2015).
[PubMed]

Herne, C.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[PubMed]

Hoogeboom-Pot, K. M.

J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, Q. Li, T. D. Frazer, J. L. Knobloch, M. Tripp, S. W. King, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “Full Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of 11-50 nm Ultrathin Films: Influence of Network Connectivity on the Poisson’s Ratio,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2178–2183 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(16), 4846–4851 (2015).
[PubMed]

Huang, P.

J. Rajeswari, P. Huang, G. F. Mancini, Y. Murooka, T. Latychevskaia, D. McGrouther, M. Cantoni, E. Baldini, J. S. White, A. Magrez, T. Giamarchi, H. M. Rønnow, and F. Carbone, “Filming the formation and fluctuation of skyrmion domains by cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14212–14217 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ishikawa, T.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: Diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348(6234), 530–535 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).

Jacobsen, C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Jara, H.

Johann, U.

Johnson, D.

Kalbfleisch, S.

A. G. Shabalin, J.-M. Meijer, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Y. Gorobtsov, D. Dzhigaev, S. Kalbfleisch, J. Gulden, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Revealing Three-Dimensional Structure of an Individual Colloidal Crystal Grain by Coherent X-Ray Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(13), 138002 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kapteyn, H.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(27), E5300–E5307 (2017).
[PubMed]

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. Gardner, E. Shanblatt, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Tabletop Nanometer Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging in an Extended Reflection Mode using Coherent Fresnel Ptychography,” Optica 1, 39–44 (2014).

Kapteyn, H. C.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).

J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, Q. Li, T. D. Frazer, J. L. Knobloch, M. Tripp, S. W. King, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “Full Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of 11-50 nm Ultrathin Films: Influence of Network Connectivity on the Poisson’s Ratio,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2178–2183 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(16), 4846–4851 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[PubMed]

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R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
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Keller, M.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(27), E5300–E5307 (2017).
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Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
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R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
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E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
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A. G. Shabalin, J.-M. Meijer, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Y. Gorobtsov, D. Dzhigaev, S. Kalbfleisch, J. Gulden, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Revealing Three-Dimensional Structure of an Individual Colloidal Crystal Grain by Coherent X-Ray Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(13), 138002 (2016).
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G. F. Mancini, T. Latychevskaia, F. Pennacchio, J. Reguera, F. Stellacci, and F. Carbone, “Order/Disorder Dynamics in a Dodecanethiol-Capped Gold Nanoparticles Supracrystal by Small-Angle Ultrafast Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2705–2713 (2016).
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T. Latychevskaia, G. F. Mancini, and F. Carbone, “The role of the coherence in the cross-correlation analysis of diffraction patterns from two-dimensional dense mono-disperse systems,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16573 (2015).
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Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
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S. Lazarev, Il. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. A. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants,”Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14, 1–8 (2018).

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Murnane, M.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(27), E5300–E5307 (2017).
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Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353(6294), 62–67 (2016).
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Murnane, M. M.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).

J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, Q. Li, T. D. Frazer, J. L. Knobloch, M. Tripp, S. W. King, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “Full Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of 11-50 nm Ultrathin Films: Influence of Network Connectivity on the Poisson’s Ratio,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2178–2183 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: Diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348(6234), 530–535 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(16), 4846–4851 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Extreme nonlinear optics: Coherent x-rays from lasers,” Phys. Today 58, 39–46 (2005).

X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1357–1359 (2004).
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R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[PubMed]

Murooka, Y.

J. Rajeswari, P. Huang, G. F. Mancini, Y. Murooka, T. Latychevskaia, D. McGrouther, M. Cantoni, E. Baldini, J. S. White, A. Magrez, T. Giamarchi, H. M. Rønnow, and F. Carbone, “Filming the formation and fluctuation of skyrmion domains by cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14212–14217 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nardi, D.

J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, Q. Li, T. D. Frazer, J. L. Knobloch, M. Tripp, S. W. King, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “Full Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of 11-50 nm Ultrathin Films: Influence of Network Connectivity on the Poisson’s Ratio,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2178–2183 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. M. Hoogeboom-Pot, J. N. Hernandez-Charpak, X. Gu, T. D. Frazer, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, R. W. Falcone, R. Yang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. Nardi, “A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(16), 4846–4851 (2015).
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Nembach, H. T.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
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S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[PubMed]

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R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
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Noel, G. H.

J. L. Russell, G. H. Noel, J. M. Warren, N.-L. L. Tran, and T. E. Mallouk, “Binary Colloidal Crystal Films Grown by Vertical Evaporation of Silica Nanoparticle Suspensions,” Langmuir 33(39), 10366–10373 (2017).
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Ong, A. X. P.

K. Ba Dinh, A. X. P. Ong, H. Vu Le, C. A. Henderson, C. Van Vuong, P. Hannaford, T. A. Smith, and L. Van Dao, “Coherent diffractive imaging of single layer microspheres,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 163102 (2015).

Oppeneer, P. M.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(27), E5300–E5307 (2017).
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P. Wochner, C. Gutt, T. Autenrieth, T. Demmer, V. Bugaev, A. D. Ortiz, A. Duri, F. Zontone, G. Grübel, and H. Dosch, “X-ray cross correlation analysis uncovers hidden local symmetries in disordered matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(28), 11511–11514 (2009).
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R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
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Paul, A.

X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1357–1359 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Pennacchio, F.

G. F. Mancini, T. Latychevskaia, F. Pennacchio, J. Reguera, F. Stellacci, and F. Carbone, “Order/Disorder Dynamics in a Dodecanethiol-Capped Gold Nanoparticles Supracrystal by Small-Angle Ultrafast Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2705–2713 (2016).
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Peterson, I.

Petukhov, A. V.

S. Lazarev, Il. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. A. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants,”Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14, 1–8 (2018).

A. G. Shabalin, J.-M. Meijer, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Y. Gorobtsov, D. Dzhigaev, S. Kalbfleisch, J. Gulden, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Revealing Three-Dimensional Structure of an Individual Colloidal Crystal Grain by Coherent X-Ray Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(13), 138002 (2016).
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Petukhova, A. V.

J.-M. Meijer, A. Shabalin, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Gorobstov, D. Dzhigaev, J. Gulden, D. V. Byelov, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, I. A. Vartanyantsb, and A. V. Petukhova, “Double hexagonal close-packed structure revealed in a single colloidal crystal grain by Bragg rod analysis,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47, 1199–1204 (2014).

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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
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C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(27), E5300–E5307 (2017).
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Porter, C. L.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).

Rajeswari, J.

J. Rajeswari, P. Huang, G. F. Mancini, Y. Murooka, T. Latychevskaia, D. McGrouther, M. Cantoni, E. Baldini, J. S. White, A. Magrez, T. Giamarchi, H. M. Rønnow, and F. Carbone, “Filming the formation and fluctuation of skyrmion domains by cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14212–14217 (2015).
[PubMed]

Reddy, H. K. N.

R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
[PubMed]

Reguera, J.

G. F. Mancini, T. Latychevskaia, F. Pennacchio, J. Reguera, F. Stellacci, and F. Carbone, “Order/Disorder Dynamics in a Dodecanethiol-Capped Gold Nanoparticles Supracrystal by Small-Angle Ultrafast Electron Diffraction,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2705–2713 (2016).
[PubMed]

Rhodes, C. K.

Robinson, I. K.

Rodenburg, J. M.

Rollinger, M.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(27), E5300–E5307 (2017).
[PubMed]

Rønnow, H. M.

J. Rajeswari, P. Huang, G. F. Mancini, Y. Murooka, T. Latychevskaia, D. McGrouther, M. Cantoni, E. Baldini, J. S. White, A. Magrez, T. Giamarchi, H. M. Rønnow, and F. Carbone, “Filming the formation and fluctuation of skyrmion domains by cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14212–14217 (2015).
[PubMed]

Rose, M.

S. Lazarev, Il. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. A. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants,”Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14, 1–8 (2018).

Rudolf, D.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[PubMed]

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[PubMed]

Russell, J. L.

J. L. Russell, G. H. Noel, J. M. Warren, N.-L. L. Tran, and T. E. Mallouk, “Binary Colloidal Crystal Films Grown by Vertical Evaporation of Silica Nanoparticle Suspensions,” Langmuir 33(39), 10366–10373 (2017).
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F. Lehmkühler, B. Fischer, L. Müller, B. Ruta, and G. Grübel, “Structure beyond pair correlations: X-ray cross-correlation from colloidal crystals,” J. Appl. Cryst. 49(Pt 6), 2046–2052 (2016).
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Schneider, C. M.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
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S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
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M. A. Schroer, C. Gutt, and G. Grübel, “Characteristics of angular cross correlations studied by light scattering from two-dimensional microsphere films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 90(1), 012309 (2014).
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Sellberg, J. A.

R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
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T. Li, A. J. Senesi, and B. Lee, “Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research,” Chem. Rev. 116(18), 11128–11180 (2016).
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Shabalin, A.

J.-M. Meijer, A. Shabalin, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Gorobstov, D. Dzhigaev, J. Gulden, D. V. Byelov, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, I. A. Vartanyantsb, and A. V. Petukhova, “Double hexagonal close-packed structure revealed in a single colloidal crystal grain by Bragg rod analysis,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47, 1199–1204 (2014).

Shabalin, A. G.

S. Lazarev, Il. Besedin, A. V. Zozulya, J.-M. Meijer, D. Dzhigaev, O. Y. Gorobtsov, R. P. Kurta, M. Rose, A. G. Shabalin, E. A. Sulyanova, I. A. Zaluzhnyy, A. P. Menushenkov, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants,”Ptychographic X-Ray Imaging of Colloidal Crystals,” Small 14, 1–8 (2018).

A. G. Shabalin, J.-M. Meijer, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Y. Gorobtsov, D. Dzhigaev, S. Kalbfleisch, J. Gulden, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Revealing Three-Dimensional Structure of an Individual Colloidal Crystal Grain by Coherent X-Ray Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(13), 138002 (2016).
[PubMed]

Shanblatt, E.

Shanblatt, E. R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).

Shaw, J. M.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[PubMed]

Siemens, M. E.

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
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Sierra, R. G.

R. P. Kurta, J. J. Donatelli, C. H. Yoon, P. Berntsen, J. Bielecki, B. J. Daurer, H. DeMirci, P. Fromme, M. F. Hantke, F. R. N. C. Maia, A. Munke, C. Nettelblad, K. Pande, H. K. N. Reddy, J. A. Sellberg, R. G. Sierra, M. Svenda, G. van der Schot, I. A. Vartanyants, G. J. Williams, P. L. Xavier, A. Aquila, P. H. Zwart, and A. P. Mancuso, “Correlations in Scattered X-Ray Laser Pulses Reveal Nanoscale Structural Features of Viruses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(15), 158102 (2017).
[PubMed]

Silva, T. J.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
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S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
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Singer, A.

A. G. Shabalin, J.-M. Meijer, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Y. Gorobtsov, D. Dzhigaev, S. Kalbfleisch, J. Gulden, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Revealing Three-Dimensional Structure of an Individual Colloidal Crystal Grain by Coherent X-Ray Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(13), 138002 (2016).
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J.-M. Meijer, A. Shabalin, R. Dronyak, O. M. Yefanov, A. Singer, R. P. Kurta, U. Lorenz, O. Gorobstov, D. Dzhigaev, J. Gulden, D. V. Byelov, A. V. Zozulya, M. Sprung, I. A. Vartanyantsb, and A. V. Petukhova, “Double hexagonal close-packed structure revealed in a single colloidal crystal grain by Bragg rod analysis,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47, 1199–1204 (2014).

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, R. Dronyak, A. Singer, V. Bernátová, A. Burkhardt, O. Polozhentsev, A. Soldatov, M. Sprung, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Three-dimensional structure of a single colloidal crystal grain studied by coherent x-ray diffraction,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4039–4049 (2012).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 X-ray scattering and microscopy of a silica nanosphere colloidal crystal using 13.5nm extreme ultraviolet beams from a tabletop high-harmonic source. Bright, phase matched, spatially coherent HHG beams at a wavelength of 13.5nm are produced in a He-filled waveguide. Multilayer mirrors are used to select and focus a single harmonic onto the nanosphere colloidal crystal sample. The light scattered from the sample is collected on an EUV sensitive charged-coupled device (CCD). CDI images of the sample are obtained by raster scanning the sample across the beam at the focus, and the diffraction from each position is collected. The image at the sample plane and in the inset is a scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the sample.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Coherent EUV scattering from silica nanosphere lattices of different symmetry. (a, d) EUV Bragg diffraction of different sample regions and (d) illustration of angular cross-correlation. The diffraction patterns are plotted on a logarithmic scale. (b, e) Scanning Electron Microscopy images of the sample probed with EUV Bragg coherent diffraction. (c and inset of e) Simulations obtained as the squared amplitude of the Fourier transform from (b) and (e), respectively. (f) Compared CCFs between (d) the EUV coherent pattern from the sample and (inset of e) the simulation from a region of the SEM image. The four-fold periodicity in both curves show a qualitative agreement in the determination of the lattice symmetry for that sample region.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Visualization of grain symmetry using small-angle coherent EUV scattering. (a) Coherent diffraction pattern of a silica nanosphere monolayer obtained with an EUV beam size of 15µm. The diffraction pattern is plotted on a logarithmic scale. (b) SEM image of the sample. Insets: Top: Simulation obtained as the squared amplitude of the FT of the image in (b). Bottom: Four-fold grain arrangements are highlighted in white in the zoomed region of the SEM image. (c) Top: Cross- correlation analysis at q1, showing the hexagonal arrangement of spheres within randomly distributed grains. Red trace: experimental cross-correlation function. Pink trace: CCF from the simulation. Bottom: The angular cross-correlation analysis applied at q2 reveals the presence of a four-fold arrangement of the grains in the colloidal crystal (blue trace), as opposed to the trace obtained without the sample (light blue trace).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Quantitative, non-destructive imaging of a near-periodic 3D silica nanosphere colloidal crystal. EUV ptychographic CDI of a self-assembled nanosphere multilayer. (a) Reconstructed quantitative amplitude and (b) phase. Left: large field of view reconstructions. The scale bars are 1μm. The diffraction pattern from the multi-layered region, at the center of the ptychography scan grid, is reported in Fig. 2(a). Right: zoomed in reconstructed amplitude and phase. The scale bars are 250nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 High-definition, full-field SEM image of the sample. Three regions with different nanosphere distribution are visualized: (left) sparse, (center) close-packed monolayer of silica nanospheres distributed in grains and characterized by grain boundaries and discontinuities, (right) three-dimensional multilayered self-assembly characterized by the presence of multiple close-packed layers.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normalized Fourier spectral components for the sample (blue) and for the direct beam (red). Inset: direct beam with hard edge applied for ptychographic CDI scans.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Intensity (left) and phase (right) of the EUV illumination at the sample plane. The intensity of the illumination is shown in detector counts. The phase is shown in radians. The reconstructed EUV beam has an oblong shape, shorter in the vertical direction than expected.

Equations (2)

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C norm (Δ)= I( q 1 ,φ)I( q 1 ,φ+Δ) φ I( q 1 ,φ) 2 φ I( q 1 ,φ) 2 φ .
C(Δ)= I( q 1 ,φ)I( q 1 ,φ+Δ) φ =Re( F φ 1 ( | F φ { I( q 1 ,φ) } | 2 ) ).

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