Abstract

Electro-optic (EO) modulators are vital for efficient “electrical to optical” transitions and high-speed optical interconnects. In this work, we applied an EO polymer to demonstrate modulators on silicon-on-insulator substrates. The fabricated Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and ring resonator consist of a Si and TiO2 slot, in which the EO polymer was embedded to realize a low-driving and large bandwidth modulation. The designed optical and electrical constructions are able to provide a highly concentrated TM mode with low propagation loss and effective EO properties. The fabricated MZI modulator shows a π-voltage-length product of 0.66 V·cm and a 3-dB bandwidth of 31 GHz. The measured EO activity is advantageous to exploit the ring modulator with a resonant tunability of 0.065 nm/V and a 3-dB modulation bandwidth up to 13 GHz.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (5)

M. Hadjloum, M. El Gibari, H. Li, and A. S. Daryous, “Improvement of both bandwidth and driving voltage of polymer phase modulators using buried in-plane coupled micro-strip driving electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(23), 234901 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. J. Witzens, “Silicon photonics: modulators make efficiency leap,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 459–462 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–organic and plasmonic–organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Miura, F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, T. Kashino, T. Kikuchi, M. Ozawa, H. Nawata, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “High thermal stability 40 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28643–28649 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (5)

F. Qiu, H. Sato, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, I. Aoki, A. Otomo, and S. Yokoyama, “Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 123302 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Pan, H. Subbaraman, Y. Zou, X. Xu, X. Zhang, C. Zhang, Q. Li, L. Jay Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Quasi-vertical tapers for polymer-waveguide-based interboard optical interconnects,” Photon. Res. 3(6), 317–323 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Chen and R. M. Reano, “Compact electric field sensors based on indirect bonding of lithium niobate to silicon microrings,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4032–4038 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

1994 (1)

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, R. W. McElhanon, C. G. Bulmer, and A. S. Greenblatt, “Performance and modeling of broadband LiNbO3 traveling wave optical intensity modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(10), 1807–1819 (1994).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, S.

Alloatti, L.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aoki, I.

F. Qiu, H. Sato, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, I. Aoki, A. Otomo, and S. Yokoyama, “Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 123302 (2015).
[Crossref]

Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atabaki, A. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avizienis, R. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayata, M.

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baeuerle, B.

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Bolten, J.

Bulmer, C. G.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, R. W. McElhanon, C. G. Bulmer, and A. S. Greenblatt, “Performance and modeling of broadband LiNbO3 traveling wave optical intensity modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(10), 1807–1819 (1994).
[Crossref]

Burns, W. K.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, R. W. McElhanon, C. G. Bulmer, and A. S. Greenblatt, “Performance and modeling of broadband LiNbO3 traveling wave optical intensity modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(10), 1807–1819 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chan, E.

Chen, B.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, R. T.

Chen, Y.-H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, C.

Cook, H. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–organic and plasmonic–organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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Kumar, R.

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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
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X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
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Liao, Y.

Lin, C.-Y.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Maeda, D.

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F. Qiu, H. Sato, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, I. Aoki, A. Otomo, and S. Yokoyama, “Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 123302 (2015).
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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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H. Miura, F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, T. Kashino, T. Kikuchi, M. Ozawa, H. Nawata, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “High thermal stability 40 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28643–28649 (2017).
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F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, H. Miura, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “Athermal hybrid silicon/polymer ring resonator electro-optic modulator,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 780–783 (2016).
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Moss, B. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Muslija, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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Nelson, R. L.

Niegemann, J.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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Odoi, K.

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F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, H. Miura, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “Athermal hybrid silicon/polymer ring resonator electro-optic modulator,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 780–783 (2016).
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F. Qiu, H. Sato, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, I. Aoki, A. Otomo, and S. Yokoyama, “Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 123302 (2015).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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F. Qiu, H. Sato, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, I. Aoki, A. Otomo, and S. Yokoyama, “Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 123302 (2015).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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H. Miura, F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, T. Kashino, T. Kikuchi, M. Ozawa, H. Nawata, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “High thermal stability 40 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28643–28649 (2017).
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F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, H. Miura, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “Athermal hybrid silicon/polymer ring resonator electro-optic modulator,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 780–783 (2016).
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F. Qiu, H. Sato, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, I. Aoki, A. Otomo, and S. Yokoyama, “Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 123302 (2015).
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L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
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Pan, Z.

Pavanello, F.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeifle, J.

Popovic, M. A.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, F.

H. Miura, F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, T. Kashino, T. Kikuchi, M. Ozawa, H. Nawata, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “High thermal stability 40 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28643–28649 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, H. Miura, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “Athermal hybrid silicon/polymer ring resonator electro-optic modulator,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 780–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Qiu, H. Sato, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, I. Aoki, A. Otomo, and S. Yokoyama, “Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 123302 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ram, R. J.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reano, R. M.

Robinson, B. H.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–organic and plasmonic–organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

Salamin, Y.

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sato, H.

F. Qiu, H. Sato, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, I. Aoki, A. Otomo, and S. Yokoyama, “Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 123302 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

Schindler, P. C.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seo, B. J.

B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shainline, J. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sommer, M.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spring, A. M.

H. Miura, F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, T. Kashino, T. Kikuchi, M. Ozawa, H. Nawata, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “High thermal stability 40 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28643–28649 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, H. Miura, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “Athermal hybrid silicon/polymer ring resonator electro-optic modulator,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 780–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Qiu, H. Sato, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, I. Aoki, A. Otomo, and S. Yokoyama, “Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 123302 (2015).
[Crossref]

Steier, W.

B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tazawa, Y. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Fetterman, and W. Steier, “Ring resonator based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(9), 3514–3519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, V. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subbaraman, H.

Sullivan, P.

Sun, C.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, H.

Takayesu, J.

Tazawa, H.

Tillack, A. F.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–organic and plasmonic–organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ummethala, S.

Usuki, T.

Van Thourhout, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wade, M. T.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahlbrink, T.

Wang, A. X.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Waterman, A. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weimann, C.

Witzens, C. J.

C. J. Witzens, “Silicon photonics: modulators make efficiency leap,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 459–462 (2017).
[Crossref]

Woessner, M.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wolf, S.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–organic and plasmonic–organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Yokoyama, S.

H. Miura, F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, T. Kashino, T. Kikuchi, M. Ozawa, H. Nawata, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “High thermal stability 40 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28643–28649 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, H. Miura, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “Athermal hybrid silicon/polymer ring resonator electro-optic modulator,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 780–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Qiu, H. Sato, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, I. Aoki, A. Otomo, and S. Yokoyama, “Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 123302 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zahner, M.

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, X.

Zou, Y.

Zwick, T.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zwickel, H.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–organic and plasmonic–organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–organic and plasmonic–organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, H. Miura, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “Athermal hybrid silicon/polymer ring resonator electro-optic modulator,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 780–783 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Qiu, H. Sato, A. M. Spring, D. Maeda, M. Ozawa, K. Odoi, I. Aoki, A. Otomo, and S. Yokoyama, “Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(12), 123302 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Hadjloum, M. El Gibari, H. Li, and A. S. Daryous, “Improvement of both bandwidth and driving voltage of polymer phase modulators using buried in-plane coupled micro-strip driving electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(23), 234901 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, R. W. McElhanon, C. G. Bulmer, and A. S. Greenblatt, “Performance and modeling of broadband LiNbO3 traveling wave optical intensity modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(10), 1807–1819 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Tazawa, Y. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Fetterman, and W. Steier, “Ring resonator based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(9), 3514–3519 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Takayesu, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, E. Chan, G. Wang, P. Sullivan, Y. Liao, J. Davies, L. Dalton, A. Scherer, and W. Krug, “A hybrid electrooptic microring resonator-Based 1×4×1 ROADM for wafer scale optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(4), 440–448 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, C. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High performance optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer filled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2941–2951 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

B. J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, and R. Dinu, “Design of ring resonators using electro-optic polymer waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 7953–7958 (2008).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. J. Witzens, “Silicon photonics: modulators make efficiency leap,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 459–462 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Photon. Res. (1)

Science (1)

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross-section of the designed plate-slot waveguide modulator, (b) the calculated quasi-TM00 mode distribution, indicating a highly concentrated optical field within the EO polymer, and (c) calculated electric-field distribution in the vertical-direction.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Fabricating process of the plate-slot waveguide modulators, (b) EO polymer structure, and (c) top-view SEM image of the ring resonator (before coating sol-gel SiO2).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transfer function at 1 kHz for the MZI modulator, where the Vπ is extracted in the over-modulated optical signals.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Transmission spectrum of the ring resonator without bias voltage, and (b) the fitted high resolution spectra of one resonant peak at 1599.67 nm shift with a range of bias voltages. The shift of the resonance peak is linearly fitted with the bias voltages (inset).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized modulation indices (η) as a function of frequency of the MZI and ring modulators. Insets show the measured optical transmission spectra of the MZI and ring modulators.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of MZI modulators

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of ring resonator modulators