Abstract

We investigated the optical and electrical properties of red AlGaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as functions of chip size, p-cladding layer thickness, and the number of multi-quantum wells (MQWs). External quantum efficiency (EQE) decreased with decreasing chip size. The ideality factor gradually increased from 1.47 to 1.95 as the chip size decreased from 350 μm to 15 μm. This indicates that the smaller LEDs experienced larger carrier loss due to Shockley-Read-Hall nonradiative recombination at sidewall defects. S parameter, defined as ∂lnL/∂lnI, increased with decreasing chip size. Simulations and experimental results showed that smaller LEDs with 5 pairs of MQWs had over 30% higher IQE at 5 A/cm2 than the LED with 20 pairs of MQWs. These results show that the optimization of the number of QWs is needed to obtain maximum EQE of micro-LEDs.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (3)

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Luminescence 191(B), 112– 116 (2017).

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From Large-Size to Micro-LEDs: Scaling Trends Revealed by Modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 11, 1700508 (2017).

2016 (1)

K. A. Bulashevich and S. Yu. Karpov, “Impact of surface recombination on efficiency of III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 10(6), 480– 484 (2016).

2015 (2)

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

D. P. Han, C. H. Oh, D. G. Zheng, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, K. S. Kim, and D. S. Shin, “Analysis of nonradiative recombination mechanisms and their impacts on the device performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 02BA01 (2015).

2014 (3)

D. P. Han, D. G. Zheng, C. H. Oh, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, D. S. Shin, and K. S. Kim, “Nonradiative recombination mechanisms in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes investigated by temperature-dependent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151108 (2014).

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).

S. Lu, W. Liu, Z. H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Ju, Y. Ji, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Zhu, Z. Kyaw, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Low thermal-mass LEDs: size effect and limits,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32200–32207 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031116 (2011).

2010 (3)

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Individual Pixels in a Micro Light-Emitting Diode Array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).

Z. Gong, S. R. Jin, Y. J. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

D. Zhu, J. R. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).

2008 (2)

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

2003 (2)

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).

J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).

2002 (1)

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, M. Ilegems, K. Streubel, and K. H. Gulden, “Experimental determination of the internal quantum efficiency of AlGaInP microcavity light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2563–2568 (2002).

2001 (1)

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951–4954 (2001).

2000 (2)

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).

Aventurier, B.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Luminescence 191(B), 112– 116 (2017).

Berlinguer Palmini, R.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

Bhat, R.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).

Boroditsky, M.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).

Bradford, C.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031116 (2011).

Bulashevich, K. A.

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From Large-Size to Micro-LEDs: Scaling Trends Revealed by Modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 11, 1700508 (2017).

K. A. Bulashevich and S. Yu. Karpov, “Impact of surface recombination on efficiency of III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 10(6), 480– 484 (2016).

Burrone, J.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y. J.

Z. Gong, S. R. Jin, Y. J. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).

Chen, Z. Z.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).

Cheng, C. C.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).

Choi, H. W.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).

Crawford, M. H.

D. Zhu, J. R. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).

Dai, L.

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951–4954 (2001).

Dawson, M. D.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).

Z. Gong, S. R. Jin, Y. J. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Individual Pixels in a Micro Light-Emitting Diode Array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).

Day, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031116 (2011).

Degenaar, P.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Demir, H. V.

DenBaars, S. P.

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).

Drakakis, E. M.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Dupre, L.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Luminescence 191(B), 112– 116 (2017).

Edwards, P. R.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).

Ferreira, R.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

French, P. M. W.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Gessmann, Th.

J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).

Gong, Z.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).

Z. Gong, S. R. Jin, Y. J. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Individual Pixels in a Micro Light-Emitting Diode Array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

Gontijo, I.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).

Green, R. P.

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Individual Pixels in a Micro Light-Emitting Diode Array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).

Grossman, N.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Grubb, M. S.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

Gu, E.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

Z. Gong, S. R. Jin, Y. J. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Gu, E. D.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Individual Pixels in a Micro Light-Emitting Diode Array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).

Guilhabert, B.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Individual Pixels in a Micro Light-Emitting Diode Array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

Gulden, K. H.

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, M. Ilegems, K. Streubel, and K. H. Gulden, “Experimental determination of the internal quantum efficiency of AlGaInP microcavity light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2563–2568 (2002).

Han, D. P.

D. P. Han, C. H. Oh, D. G. Zheng, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, K. S. Kim, and D. S. Shin, “Analysis of nonradiative recombination mechanisms and their impacts on the device performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 02BA01 (2015).

D. P. Han, D. G. Zheng, C. H. Oh, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, D. S. Shin, and K. S. Kim, “Nonradiative recombination mechanisms in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes investigated by temperature-dependent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151108 (2014).

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).

Hasanov, N.

Henderson, R. K.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

Herrnsdorf, J.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

Huang, Y.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hwang, D.

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).

Ilegems, M.

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, M. Ilegems, K. Streubel, and K. H. Gulden, “Experimental determination of the internal quantum efficiency of AlGaInP microcavity light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2563–2568 (2002).

Jackson, M.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).

Jeon, C. W.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).

Ji, Y.

Jiang, H. X.

H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, “Nitride micro-LEDs and beyond--a decade progress review,” Opt. Express 21(9Suppl 3), A475–A484 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031116 (2011).

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951–4954 (2001).

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).

Jin, S. R.

Z. Gong, S. R. Jin, Y. J. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

Jin, S. X.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).

Ju, Z.

Jung, Y. H.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

Karpov, S. Y.

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From Large-Size to Micro-LEDs: Scaling Trends Revealed by Modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 11, 1700508 (2017).

Karpov, S. Yu.

K. A. Bulashevich and S. Yu. Karpov, “Impact of surface recombination on efficiency of III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 10(6), 480– 484 (2016).

Kelly, A. E.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Individual Pixels in a Micro Light-Emitting Diode Array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).

Kennedy, G. T.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

Kim, D.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kim, H.

D. P. Han, C. H. Oh, D. G. Zheng, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, K. S. Kim, and D. S. Shin, “Analysis of nonradiative recombination mechanisms and their impacts on the device performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 02BA01 (2015).

D. P. Han, D. G. Zheng, C. H. Oh, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, D. S. Shin, and K. S. Kim, “Nonradiative recombination mechanisms in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes investigated by temperature-dependent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151108 (2014).

Kim, H. S.

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

D. Zhu, J. R. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).

Kim, K. S.

D. P. Han, C. H. Oh, D. G. Zheng, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, K. S. Kim, and D. S. Shin, “Analysis of nonradiative recombination mechanisms and their impacts on the device performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 02BA01 (2015).

D. P. Han, D. G. Zheng, C. H. Oh, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, D. S. Shin, and K. S. Kim, “Nonradiative recombination mechanisms in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes investigated by temperature-dependent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151108 (2014).

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).

Kim, T. I.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

Koleske, D. D.

D. Zhu, J. R. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).

Konoplev, S. S.

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From Large-Size to Micro-LEDs: Scaling Trends Revealed by Modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 11, 1700508 (2017).

Krames, M.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).

Krauss, T.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).

Kyaw, Z.

Largeron, C.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Luminescence 191(B), 112– 116 (2017).

Li, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031116 (2011).

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).

Li, Y.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

Li, Y. L.

J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).

Lie, D. Y. C.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031116 (2011).

Lin, J. Y.

H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, “Nitride micro-LEDs and beyond--a decade progress review,” Opt. Express 21(9Suppl 3), A475–A484 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031116 (2011).

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951–4954 (2001).

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).

Liu, W.

Lu, S.

Martin, R. W.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).

Massoubre, D.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

Z. Gong, S. R. Jin, Y. J. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Individual Pixels in a Micro Light-Emitting Diode Array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

McGovern, B.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

McKendry, J.

Z. Gong, S. R. Jin, Y. J. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).

McKendry, J. J. D.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Individual Pixels in a Micro Light-Emitting Diode Array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).

Mughal, A.

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).

Nakamura, S.

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).

Neil, M. A. A.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

Nikolic, K.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Noemaun, A. N.

D. Zhu, J. R. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).

Noyce, R. N.

C. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier Generation and Recombination in P-N Junctions and P-N Junction Characteristics,” Proc. IRE45(9), 1228−1243 (1957).

Oh, C. H.

D. P. Han, C. H. Oh, D. G. Zheng, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, K. S. Kim, and D. S. Shin, “Analysis of nonradiative recombination mechanisms and their impacts on the device performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 02BA01 (2015).

D. P. Han, D. G. Zheng, C. H. Oh, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, D. S. Shin, and K. S. Kim, “Nonradiative recombination mechanisms in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes investigated by temperature-dependent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151108 (2014).

Olivier, F.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Luminescence 191(B), 112– 116 (2017).

Pao, H. A.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

Poher, V.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Pynn, C. D.

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).

Rogers, J. A.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

Royo, P.

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, M. Ilegems, K. Streubel, and K. H. Gulden, “Experimental determination of the internal quantum efficiency of AlGaInP microcavity light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2563–2568 (2002).

Sah, C.

C. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier Generation and Recombination in P-N Junctions and P-N Junction Characteristics,” Proc. IRE45(9), 1228−1243 (1957).

Scherer, A.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).

Schubert, E. F.

D. Zhu, J. R. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).

J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).

Shah, J. M.

J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).

Shim, J. I.

D. P. Han, C. H. Oh, D. G. Zheng, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, K. S. Kim, and D. S. Shin, “Analysis of nonradiative recombination mechanisms and their impacts on the device performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 02BA01 (2015).

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).

D. P. Han, D. G. Zheng, C. H. Oh, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, D. S. Shin, and K. S. Kim, “Nonradiative recombination mechanisms in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes investigated by temperature-dependent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151108 (2014).

Shin, D. S.

D. P. Han, C. H. Oh, D. G. Zheng, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, K. S. Kim, and D. S. Shin, “Analysis of nonradiative recombination mechanisms and their impacts on the device performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 02BA01 (2015).

D. P. Han, D. G. Zheng, C. H. Oh, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, D. S. Shin, and K. S. Kim, “Nonradiative recombination mechanisms in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes investigated by temperature-dependent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151108 (2014).

Shockley, W.

C. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier Generation and Recombination in P-N Junctions and P-N Junction Characteristics,” Proc. IRE45(9), 1228−1243 (1957).

Song, I. S.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

Song, J.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

Stanley, R. P.

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, M. Ilegems, K. Streubel, and K. H. Gulden, “Experimental determination of the internal quantum efficiency of AlGaInP microcavity light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2563–2568 (2002).

Streubel, K.

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, M. Ilegems, K. Streubel, and K. H. Gulden, “Experimental determination of the internal quantum efficiency of AlGaInP microcavity light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2563–2568 (2002).

Sun, X. W.

Tan, S. T.

Templier, F.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Luminescence 191(B), 112– 116 (2017).

Tian, P. F.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).

Tirano, S.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Luminescence 191(B), 112– 116 (2017).

Tripathy, S.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).

Underwood, I.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

Vrijen, R.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).

Watson, I. M.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).

Z. Gong, S. R. Jin, Y. J. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).

Watson, S.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

Wierer, J. J.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

Xie, E. Y.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

Xu, J. R.

D. Zhu, J. R. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).

Yablonovitch, E.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).

Zhang, B.

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951–4954 (2001).

Zhang, G. Y.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).

Zhang, H. X.

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Zhang, S. L.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z. H.

Zheng, D. G.

D. P. Han, C. H. Oh, D. G. Zheng, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, K. S. Kim, and D. S. Shin, “Analysis of nonradiative recombination mechanisms and their impacts on the device performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 02BA01 (2015).

D. P. Han, D. G. Zheng, C. H. Oh, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, D. S. Shin, and K. S. Kim, “Nonradiative recombination mechanisms in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes investigated by temperature-dependent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151108 (2014).

Zhu, B.

Zhu, D.

D. Zhu, J. R. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).

Zuhdi, A. M.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. D. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031116 (2011).

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).

D. Zhu, J. R. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).

D. P. Han, D. G. Zheng, C. H. Oh, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, D. S. Shin, and K. S. Kim, “Nonradiative recombination mechanisms in InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes investigated by temperature-dependent measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(15), 151108 (2014).

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Individual Pixels in a Micro Light-Emitting Diode Array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. L. Zhang, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(6), 1918–1925 (2015).

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951–4954 (2001).

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).

Z. Gong, S. R. Jin, Y. J. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, M. Ilegems, K. Streubel, and K. H. Gulden, “Experimental determination of the internal quantum efficiency of AlGaInP microcavity light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2563–2568 (2002).

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).

J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).

J. Luminescence (1)

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupre, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Luminescence 191(B), 112– 116 (2017).

J. Neural Eng. (1)

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. Berlinguer Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, and P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 16004 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, and M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).

Z. Gong, E. Gu, S. R. Jin, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, H. X. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, V. Poher, G. T. Kennedy, P. M. W. French, and M. A. A. Neil, “Efficient flip-chip InGaN micro-pixellated light-emitting diode arrays: promising candidates for micro-displays and colour conversion,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094002 (2008).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. P. Han, C. H. Oh, D. G. Zheng, H. Kim, J. I. Shim, K. S. Kim, and D. S. Shin, “Analysis of nonradiative recombination mechanisms and their impacts on the device performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(2), 02BA01 (2015).

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Status Solidi RRL (1)

K. A. Bulashevich and S. Yu. Karpov, “Impact of surface recombination on efficiency of III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 10(6), 480– 484 (2016).

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From Large-Size to Micro-LEDs: Scaling Trends Revealed by Modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 11, 1700508 (2017).

Small (1)

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I. S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-efficiency, microscale GaN light-emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[PubMed]

Other (1)

C. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier Generation and Recombination in P-N Junctions and P-N Junction Characteristics,” Proc. IRE45(9), 1228−1243 (1957).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) EQE curves for six different LEDs as a function of current density. (b) Normalized EQEs at 5 A/cm2 for the two sets of different-size LEDs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Size dependence of minimum ideality factor for LEDs, which was estimated as a function of current density. (b) Variation of S for different LEDs as a function of driving current density. (c) Size dependence of the IV and (inset) JV curves of LEDs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) IQE of LEDs (chip size: 30 × 30 μm2) with different numbers of MQWs as a function of current density. (b) Relative EQE experimentally obtained from different-size LEDs with different numbers of MQW pairs as a function of current density.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of the size, area, number, and sidewall surface ratio of LEDs

Equations (2)

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n ideality = q kT ( In I V ) 1
L= η c B N 2

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