Abstract

Silicon on insulator photonics has offered a versatile platform for the recent development of integrated optomechanical circuits. However, there are some constraints such as the high cost of the wafers and limitation to a single physical device level. In the present work we investigate nanocrystalline silicon as an alternative material for optomechanical devices. In particular, we demonstrate that optomechanical crystal cavities fabricated of nanocrystalline silicon have optical and mechanical properties enabling non-linear dynamical behaviour and effects such as thermo-optic/free-carrier-dispersion self-pulsing, phonon lasing and chaos, all at low input laser power and with typical frequencies as high as 0.3 GHz.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

D. Navarro-Urrios, N. E. Capuj, M. F. Colombano, P. D. García, M. Sledzinska, F. Alzina, A. Griol, A. Martínez, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Nonlinear dynamics and chaos in an optomechanical beam,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14965 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Leijssen, G. R. La Gala, L. Freisem, J. T. Muhonen, and E. Verhagen, “Nonlinear cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical thermal fluctuations,” Nat. Commun. 8, s16024 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Gil-Santos, M. Labousse, C. Baker, A. Goetschy, W. Hease, C. Gomez, A. Lemaître, G. Leo, C. Ciuti, and I. Favero, “Light-Mediated Cascaded Locking of Multiple Nano-Optomechanical Oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(6), 063605 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

K. C. Balram, M. I. Davanço, J. D. Song, and K. Srinivasan, “Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 346–352 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

D. Navarro-Urrios, N. E. Capuj, J. Gomis-Bresco, F. Alzina, A. Pitanti, A. Griol, A. Martínez, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “A self-stabilized coherent phonon source driven by optical forces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15733 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Shah, M. Zhang, R. Rand, and M. Lipson, “Master-slave locking of optomechanical oscillators over a long distance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(11), 113602 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (9)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Pennec, V. Laude, N. Papanikolaou, B. Djafari-Rouhani, M. Oudich, S. El Jallal, J. C. Beugnot, J. M. Escalante, and A. Martínez, “Modeling light-sound interaction in nanoscale cavities and waveguides,” Nanophotonics 3(6), 413–440 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Davanço, S. Ates, Y. Liu, and K. Srinivasan, “Si3N4 optomechanical crystals in the resolved-sideband regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, D. T. Spencer, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low loss waveguide platform and its integration with silicon photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 667–686 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sekoguchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Photonic crystal nanocavity with a Q-factor of ~9 million,” Opt. Express 22(1), 916–924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Theodorakos, I. Zergioti, V. Vamvakas, D. Tsoukalas, and Y. S. Raptis, “Picosecond and nanosecond laser annealing and simulation of amorphous silicon thin films for solar cell applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043108 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Navarro-Urrios, J. Gomis-Bresco, S. El-Jallal, M. Oudich, A. Pitanti, N. Capuj, A. Tredicucci, F. Alzina, A. Griol, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, A. Martínez, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Dynamical back-action at 5.5 GHz in a corrugated optomechanical beam,” AIP Adv. 4(12), 124601 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Escalante, A. Martínez, and V. Laude, “Design of single-mode waveguides for enhanced light-sound interaction in honeycomb-lattice silicon slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(6), 064302 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. Cuffe, O. Ristow, E. Chávez, A. Shchepetov, P.-O. Chapuis, F. Alzina, M. Hettich, M. Prunnila, J. Ahopelto, T. Dekorsy, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lifetimes of Confined Acoustic Phonons in Ultrathin Silicon Membranes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(9), 095503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Matres, G. C. Ballesteros, P. Gautier, J.-M. Fédéli, J. Martí, and C. J. Oton, “High nonlinear figure-of-merit amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(4), 3932–3940 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bochmann, A. Vainsencher, D. D. Awschalom, and A. N. Cleland, “Nanomechanical coupling between microwave and optical photons,” Nat. Phys. 9(11), 712–716 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and non-linear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Verhagen, S. Deléglise, S. Weis, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode,” Nature 482(7383), 63–67 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-Y. Wang and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1331–1333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-Y. Wang, K. G. Petrillo, M. A. Foster, and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow-power all-optical processing of high-speed data signals in deposited silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24600–24606 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Mayer Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, “Photonic micro-electromechanical systems vibrating at X-band (11-GHz) rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452(7183), 72–75 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscale,” Science 321(5893), 1172–1176 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151104 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Waldow, T. Plötzing, M. Gottheil, M. Först, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, and H. Kurz, “25ps all-optical switching in oxygen implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7693–7702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Ylönen, A. Torkkeli, and H. Kattelus, “In situ boron-doped LPCVD polysilicon with low tensile stress for MEMS applications,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 109(1–2), 79–87 (2003).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

F. Volklein and H. Baltes, “A microstructure for measurement of thermal conductivity of polysilicon thin films,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 1(4), 193–196 (1992).
[Crossref]

Aalto, T.

Ahopelto, J.

J. Cuffe, O. Ristow, E. Chávez, A. Shchepetov, P.-O. Chapuis, F. Alzina, M. Hettich, M. Prunnila, J. Ahopelto, T. Dekorsy, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lifetimes of Confined Acoustic Phonons in Ultrathin Silicon Membranes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(9), 095503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alegre, T. P. M.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alzina, F.

D. Navarro-Urrios, N. E. Capuj, M. F. Colombano, P. D. García, M. Sledzinska, F. Alzina, A. Griol, A. Martínez, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Nonlinear dynamics and chaos in an optomechanical beam,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14965 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Navarro-Urrios, N. E. Capuj, J. Gomis-Bresco, F. Alzina, A. Pitanti, A. Griol, A. Martínez, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “A self-stabilized coherent phonon source driven by optical forces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15733 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Navarro-Urrios, J. Gomis-Bresco, S. El-Jallal, M. Oudich, A. Pitanti, N. Capuj, A. Tredicucci, F. Alzina, A. Griol, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, A. Martínez, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Dynamical back-action at 5.5 GHz in a corrugated optomechanical beam,” AIP Adv. 4(12), 124601 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Cuffe, O. Ristow, E. Chávez, A. Shchepetov, P.-O. Chapuis, F. Alzina, M. Hettich, M. Prunnila, J. Ahopelto, T. Dekorsy, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lifetimes of Confined Acoustic Phonons in Ultrathin Silicon Membranes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(9), 095503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arcizet, O.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Aspelmeyer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ates, S.

M. Davanço, S. Ates, Y. Liu, and K. Srinivasan, “Si3N4 optomechanical crystals in the resolved-sideband regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Awschalom, D. D.

J. Bochmann, A. Vainsencher, D. D. Awschalom, and A. N. Cleland, “Nanomechanical coupling between microwave and optical photons,” Nat. Phys. 9(11), 712–716 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baker, C.

E. Gil-Santos, M. Labousse, C. Baker, A. Goetschy, W. Hease, C. Gomez, A. Lemaître, G. Leo, C. Ciuti, and I. Favero, “Light-Mediated Cascaded Locking of Multiple Nano-Optomechanical Oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(6), 063605 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballesteros, G. C.

Balram, K. C.

K. C. Balram, M. I. Davanço, J. D. Song, and K. Srinivasan, “Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 346–352 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltes, H.

F. Volklein and H. Baltes, “A microstructure for measurement of thermal conductivity of polysilicon thin films,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 1(4), 193–196 (1992).
[Crossref]

Barclay, P.

Barrios, C. A.

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D. Navarro-Urrios, N. E. Capuj, M. F. Colombano, P. D. García, M. Sledzinska, F. Alzina, A. Griol, A. Martínez, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Nonlinear dynamics and chaos in an optomechanical beam,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14965 (2017).
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P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, “Nonlinear response of silicon photonic crystal microresonators excited via an integrated waveguide and fiber taper,” Opt. Express 13(3), 801–820 (2005).
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AIP Adv. (1)

D. Navarro-Urrios, J. Gomis-Bresco, S. El-Jallal, M. Oudich, A. Pitanti, N. Capuj, A. Tredicucci, F. Alzina, A. Griol, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, A. Martínez, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Dynamical back-action at 5.5 GHz in a corrugated optomechanical beam,” AIP Adv. 4(12), 124601 (2014).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151104 (2008).
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M. Davanço, S. Ates, Y. Liu, and K. Srinivasan, “Si3N4 optomechanical crystals in the resolved-sideband regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041101 (2014).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

I. Theodorakos, I. Zergioti, V. Vamvakas, D. Tsoukalas, and Y. S. Raptis, “Picosecond and nanosecond laser annealing and simulation of amorphous silicon thin films for solar cell applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043108 (2014).
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J. M. Escalante, A. Martínez, and V. Laude, “Design of single-mode waveguides for enhanced light-sound interaction in honeycomb-lattice silicon slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(6), 064302 (2014).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

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F. Volklein and H. Baltes, “A microstructure for measurement of thermal conductivity of polysilicon thin films,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 1(4), 193–196 (1992).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, D. T. Spencer, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low loss waveguide platform and its integration with silicon photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 667–686 (2014).
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Nanophotonics (1)

Y. Pennec, V. Laude, N. Papanikolaou, B. Djafari-Rouhani, M. Oudich, S. El Jallal, J. C. Beugnot, J. M. Escalante, and A. Martínez, “Modeling light-sound interaction in nanoscale cavities and waveguides,” Nanophotonics 3(6), 413–440 (2014).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
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D. Navarro-Urrios, N. E. Capuj, M. F. Colombano, P. D. García, M. Sledzinska, F. Alzina, A. Griol, A. Martínez, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Nonlinear dynamics and chaos in an optomechanical beam,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14965 (2017).
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R. Leijssen, G. R. La Gala, L. Freisem, J. T. Muhonen, and E. Verhagen, “Nonlinear cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical thermal fluctuations,” Nat. Commun. 8, s16024 (2017).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

K. C. Balram, M. I. Davanço, J. D. Song, and K. Srinivasan, “Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 346–352 (2016).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Bochmann, A. Vainsencher, D. D. Awschalom, and A. N. Cleland, “Nanomechanical coupling between microwave and optical photons,” Nat. Phys. 9(11), 712–716 (2013).
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Nature (6)

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452(7183), 72–75 (2008).
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M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
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J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
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A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Mayer Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
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E. Verhagen, S. Deléglise, S. Weis, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode,” Nature 482(7383), 63–67 (2012).
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New J. Phys. (1)

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and non-linear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
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Opt. Express (7)

K. Narayanan and S. F. Preble, “Optical nonlinearities in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8998–9005 (2010).
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H. Sekoguchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Photonic crystal nanocavity with a Q-factor of ~9 million,” Opt. Express 22(1), 916–924 (2014).
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P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, “Nonlinear response of silicon photonic crystal microresonators excited via an integrated waveguide and fiber taper,” Opt. Express 13(3), 801–820 (2005).
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J. Matres, G. C. Ballesteros, P. Gautier, J.-M. Fédéli, J. Martí, and C. J. Oton, “High nonlinear figure-of-merit amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(4), 3932–3940 (2013).
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M. Waldow, T. Plötzing, M. Gottheil, M. Först, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, and H. Kurz, “25ps all-optical switching in oxygen implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7693–7702 (2008).
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K.-Y. Wang, K. G. Petrillo, M. A. Foster, and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow-power all-optical processing of high-speed data signals in deposited silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24600–24606 (2012).
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Y. Pennec, B. Djafari Rouhani, E. H. El Boudouti, C. Li, Y. El Hassouani, J. O. Vasseur, N. Papanikolaou, S. Benchabane, V. Laude, and A. Martinez, “Simultaneous existence of phononic and photonic band gaps in periodic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14301–14310 (2010).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

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S. Y. Shah, M. Zhang, R. Rand, and M. Lipson, “Master-slave locking of optomechanical oscillators over a long distance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(11), 113602 (2015).
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J. Cuffe, O. Ristow, E. Chávez, A. Shchepetov, P.-O. Chapuis, F. Alzina, M. Hettich, M. Prunnila, J. Ahopelto, T. Dekorsy, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lifetimes of Confined Acoustic Phonons in Ultrathin Silicon Membranes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(9), 095503 (2013).
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D. Navarro-Urrios, N. E. Capuj, J. Gomis-Bresco, F. Alzina, A. Pitanti, A. Griol, A. Martínez, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “A self-stabilized coherent phonon source driven by optical forces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15733 (2015).
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Science (2)

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
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T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscale,” Science 321(5893), 1172–1176 (2008).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) SEM image of an OMC in nc-Si with ratio between the geometrical parameters of the mirror and central cells of 0.8. b) Raman spectra of a monocrystalline silicon sample (black) and the nc-Si layer (red) c) Scheme of the experimental setup used for characterizing the OMC.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 a) Optical transmission spectrum of one of the OMCs fabricated of nc-Si. On the inset we show a zoom on one of the optical resonances together with a lorentzian fit of the resonance (in red). b) Optical spectrum of the first order optical resonance of a c-Si (top panel) and a nc-Si (bottom panel) OMCs for two different values of the intracavity photon number. The x-axis is referred as the detuning between λlaser and the unperturbed resonance position (λr,o). Notice that there is an x-axis break introduced to show the whole set of transmission curves c) RF spectrum obtained by exciting the cavity with the optical mode highlighted in panel a). On the inset we show a zoom a mechanical mode appearing at 2.63 GHz (black) and a mode associated to an equivalent c-Si OMCs (green) together with lorentzian fits of the resonances (in red).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calibration of the TO coefficient. Spectral shift of the first optical resonance of an OMC as a function of the Peltier temperature placed below the sample. Black and red dots correspond to a nc-Si and a c-Si material respectively. The OMCs are geometrically equivalent, the defect region being constructed with Λ = 0.8.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Non-linear dynamics of the nc-Si OMC. The left panel shows the colour contour plot of the RF spectrum as a function of the laser wavelength obtained at about 4 mW. The right panel shows the specific RF spectra at the two laser wavelength highlighted by vertical dashed lines in the main panel. The grey curve corresponds to the transduction of thermally activated mechanical modes. The green curve reports a mechanical mode placed at 0.302 GHz that is driven into the phonon lasing regime.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Numerical simulations of the self-pulsing (SP) dynamics in the nc-Si OMC. a) Maximum SP frequency as a function of the free-carrier relaxation rate. The different colours are associated to different values of the quality factor of the optical cavity. Panels b) and c) show the simulated radio-frequency spectrum of the transmitted signal as a function of the laser wavelength for two different values of the rate at which heat is dissipated out of the cavity (Γth = 2MHz and Γth = 1MHz for panels b) and c) respectively).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 RF spectrum of thermally activated motion (black), phonon lasing at 0.21 GHz (red) and chaotic behaviour (green). The three different spectra have been obtained by exciting the same optical mode of a nc-Si OMC using different laser wavelengths at 8 mW laser power.

Equations (1)

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N ˙ = Γ fc N+β n o 2 ΔT . = Γ th ΔT+ α fc N n o

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