Abstract

Ultra-high sensitive and stable detection of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) based on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor was realized using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) as well as a miniaturized 3D-printed photoacoustic detection channel (PADC) for the first time. A HCN molecule absorption line located at 6536.46 cm−1 was selected which was in the range of the EDFA emission spectrum. The detection sensitivity of the reported EDFA-QEPAS sensor was enhanced significantly due to the high available EDFA excitation laser power. A 3D printing technique was used to develop the compact PADC, resulting in a size of 29 × 15 × 8 mm3 and a mass of ~5 g in order to improve the sensor stability and implement sensor applications requiring a compact size and light weight. At atmospheric pressure, room temperature and a 1 s acquisition time, a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 29 parts per billion (ppb) was achieved, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 1.08 × 10−8 cm−1W/Hz-1/2. The long-term performance and the stability of the HCN EDFA-QEPAS sensor system were investigated using an Allan deviation analysis. It indicated that the MDL can be improved to 220 parts per trillion (ppt) with an integration time of 300 s, which demonstrated this compact, integrated and miniaturized 3D-printed PADC based sensor had an excellent stability.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Mordmueller, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “QEPAS with electrical co excitation for photoacoustic measurements in fluctuating background gases,” Appl. Phys. B 123(8), 224 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

2015 (5)

Y. Ma, G. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 7596–7604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. K. Lauridsen, T. Rindzevicius, S. Molin, H. K. Johansen, R. W. Berg, T. S. Alstrøm, K. Almdal, F. Larsen, M. S. Schmidt, and A. Boisen, “Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5, 84–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-ehanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

S. F. Rastegar, A. A. Peyghan, and N. L. Hadipour, “Response of Si-and Al-doped graphenes toward HCN: a computational study,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 265, 412–417 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. T. Baei, “B12N12 sodalite like cage as potential sensor for hydrogen cyanide,” Comput. Theor. Chem. 1024, 28–33 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Gotor, A. M. Costero, S. Gil, M. Parra, R. Martínez-Máñez, F. Sancenón, and P. Gaviña, “Selective and sensitive chromogenic detection of cyanide and HCN in solution and in gas phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(50), 5669–5671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 79450R (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, and G. Bearman, “Advanced quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensor for early fire detection,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 1(1), 331–336 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Carroll, W. Lenney, T. Wang, P. Španěl, A. Alcock, and D. Smith, “Detection of volatile compounds emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry,” Pediatr. Pulmonol. 39(5), 452–456 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1983 (1)

T. L. Blank, M. V. Roloff, R. D. Short, S. M. Schuengel, and W. E. Ribelin, “Inhalation toxicity studies of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in spbague-dawley rats,” Toxicol. Lett. 18, 136 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1967 (1)

K. S. Brown and R. R. Robinette, “No simple pattern of inheritance in ability to smell solutions of cyanide,” Nature 215(5099), 406–408 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

A. C. Allison, “268. Cyanide-smelling deficiency among africans,” Man (Lond.) 53, 176–177 (1953).
[Crossref]

Akikusa, N.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alcock, A.

W. Carroll, W. Lenney, T. Wang, P. Španěl, A. Alcock, and D. Smith, “Detection of volatile compounds emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry,” Pediatr. Pulmonol. 39(5), 452–456 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allison, A. C.

A. C. Allison, “268. Cyanide-smelling deficiency among africans,” Man (Lond.) 53, 176–177 (1953).
[Crossref]

Almdal, K.

R. K. Lauridsen, T. Rindzevicius, S. Molin, H. K. Johansen, R. W. Berg, T. S. Alstrøm, K. Almdal, F. Larsen, M. S. Schmidt, and A. Boisen, “Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5, 84–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alstrøm, T. S.

R. K. Lauridsen, T. Rindzevicius, S. Molin, H. K. Johansen, R. W. Berg, T. S. Alstrøm, K. Almdal, F. Larsen, M. S. Schmidt, and A. Boisen, “Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5, 84–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baei, M. T.

M. T. Baei, “B12N12 sodalite like cage as potential sensor for hydrogen cyanide,” Comput. Theor. Chem. 1024, 28–33 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Bearman, G.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, and G. Bearman, “Advanced quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensor for early fire detection,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 1(1), 331–336 (2008).
[Crossref]

Berg, R. W.

R. K. Lauridsen, T. Rindzevicius, S. Molin, H. K. Johansen, R. W. Berg, T. S. Alstrøm, K. Almdal, F. Larsen, M. S. Schmidt, and A. Boisen, “Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5, 84–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biver, N.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Blank, T. L.

T. L. Blank, M. V. Roloff, R. D. Short, S. M. Schuengel, and W. E. Ribelin, “Inhalation toxicity studies of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in spbague-dawley rats,” Toxicol. Lett. 18, 136 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bockelée-Morvan, D.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boerkamp, M.

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boisen, A.

R. K. Lauridsen, T. Rindzevicius, S. Molin, H. K. Johansen, R. W. Berg, T. S. Alstrøm, K. Almdal, F. Larsen, M. S. Schmidt, and A. Boisen, “Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5, 84–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boissier, J.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Borri, S.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brown, K. S.

K. S. Brown and R. R. Robinette, “No simple pattern of inheritance in ability to smell solutions of cyanide,” Nature 215(5099), 406–408 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, B.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carroll, W.

W. Carroll, W. Lenney, T. Wang, P. Španěl, A. Alcock, and D. Smith, “Detection of volatile compounds emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry,” Pediatr. Pulmonol. 39(5), 452–456 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. D.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-ehanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).
[Crossref]

Costero, A. M.

R. Gotor, A. M. Costero, S. Gil, M. Parra, R. Martínez-Máñez, F. Sancenón, and P. Gaviña, “Selective and sensitive chromogenic detection of cyanide and HCN in solution and in gas phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(50), 5669–5671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cristescu, S. M.

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Curl, R. F.

De Natale, P.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, L.

Fertein, E.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fouchet, T.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Galli, I.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, X. M.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-ehanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gaviña, P.

R. Gotor, A. M. Costero, S. Gil, M. Parra, R. Martínez-Máñez, F. Sancenón, and P. Gaviña, “Selective and sensitive chromogenic detection of cyanide and HCN in solution and in gas phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(50), 5669–5671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

German, K. R.

Gil, S.

R. Gotor, A. M. Costero, S. Gil, M. Parra, R. Martínez-Máñez, F. Sancenón, and P. Gaviña, “Selective and sensitive chromogenic detection of cyanide and HCN in solution and in gas phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(50), 5669–5671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giusfredi, G.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gornall, W. S.

Gotor, R.

R. Gotor, A. M. Costero, S. Gil, M. Parra, R. Martínez-Máñez, F. Sancenón, and P. Gaviña, “Selective and sensitive chromogenic detection of cyanide and HCN in solution and in gas phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(50), 5669–5671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurwell, M.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hadipour, N. L.

S. F. Rastegar, A. A. Peyghan, and N. L. Hadipour, “Response of Si-and Al-doped graphenes toward HCN: a computational study,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 265, 412–417 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harren, F. J. M.

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork and spatially resolved trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jia, S.

Johansen, H. K.

R. K. Lauridsen, T. Rindzevicius, S. Molin, H. K. Johansen, R. W. Berg, T. S. Alstrøm, K. Almdal, F. Larsen, M. S. Schmidt, and A. Boisen, “Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5, 84–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kosterev, A. A.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 79450R (2011).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, and G. Bearman, “Advanced quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensor for early fire detection,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 1(1), 331–336 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larsen, F.

R. K. Lauridsen, T. Rindzevicius, S. Molin, H. K. Johansen, R. W. Berg, T. S. Alstrøm, K. Almdal, F. Larsen, M. S. Schmidt, and A. Boisen, “Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5, 84–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lauridsen, R. K.

R. K. Lauridsen, T. Rindzevicius, S. Molin, H. K. Johansen, R. W. Berg, T. S. Alstrøm, K. Almdal, F. Larsen, M. S. Schmidt, and A. Boisen, “Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5, 84–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lavvas, P.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lellouch, E.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lendl, B.

Lenney, W.

W. Carroll, W. Lenney, T. Wang, P. Španěl, A. Alcock, and D. Smith, “Detection of volatile compounds emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry,” Pediatr. Pulmonol. 39(5), 452–456 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewicki, R.

Li, Z.

Lis, D.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-ehanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Ma, W.

Ma, Y.

Ma, Y. F.

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork and spatially resolved trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maamary, R.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Malinovsky, A. L.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mandon, J.

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Marchenko, D.

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martínez-Máñez, R.

R. Gotor, A. M. Costero, S. Gil, M. Parra, R. Martínez-Máñez, F. Sancenón, and P. Gaviña, “Selective and sensitive chromogenic detection of cyanide and HCN in solution and in gas phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(50), 5669–5671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazzotti, D.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mink, J.

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Molin, S.

R. K. Lauridsen, T. Rindzevicius, S. Molin, H. K. Johansen, R. W. Berg, T. S. Alstrøm, K. Almdal, F. Larsen, M. S. Schmidt, and A. Boisen, “Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5, 84–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mordmueller, M.

M. Mordmueller, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “QEPAS with electrical co excitation for photoacoustic measurements in fluctuating background gases,” Appl. Phys. B 123(8), 224 (2017).
[Crossref]

Moreno, R.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morozov, I. V.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moser, H.

Moullet, A.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Neerincx, A. H.

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Parra, M.

R. Gotor, A. M. Costero, S. Gil, M. Parra, R. Martínez-Máñez, F. Sancenón, and P. Gaviña, “Selective and sensitive chromogenic detection of cyanide and HCN in solution and in gas phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(50), 5669–5671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patimisco, P.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peng, Z. F.

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peyghan, A. A.

S. F. Rastegar, A. A. Peyghan, and N. L. Hadipour, “Response of Si-and Al-doped graphenes toward HCN: a computational study,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 265, 412–417 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rastegar, S. F.

S. F. Rastegar, A. A. Peyghan, and N. L. Hadipour, “Response of Si-and Al-doped graphenes toward HCN: a computational study,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 265, 412–417 (2013).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

Ren, W.

Ribelin, W. E.

T. L. Blank, M. V. Roloff, R. D. Short, S. M. Schuengel, and W. E. Ribelin, “Inhalation toxicity studies of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in spbague-dawley rats,” Toxicol. Lett. 18, 136 (1983).
[Crossref]

Rindzevicius, T.

R. K. Lauridsen, T. Rindzevicius, S. Molin, H. K. Johansen, R. W. Berg, T. S. Alstrøm, K. Almdal, F. Larsen, M. S. Schmidt, and A. Boisen, “Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5, 84–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Robinette, R. R.

K. S. Brown and R. R. Robinette, “No simple pattern of inheritance in ability to smell solutions of cyanide,” Nature 215(5099), 406–408 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roloff, M. V.

T. L. Blank, M. V. Roloff, R. D. Short, S. M. Schuengel, and W. E. Ribelin, “Inhalation toxicity studies of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in spbague-dawley rats,” Toxicol. Lett. 18, 136 (1983).
[Crossref]

Sancenón, F.

R. Gotor, A. M. Costero, S. Gil, M. Parra, R. Martínez-Máñez, F. Sancenón, and P. Gaviña, “Selective and sensitive chromogenic detection of cyanide and HCN in solution and in gas phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(50), 5669–5671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scamarcio, G.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schade, W.

M. Mordmueller, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “QEPAS with electrical co excitation for photoacoustic measurements in fluctuating background gases,” Appl. Phys. B 123(8), 224 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. S.

R. K. Lauridsen, T. Rindzevicius, S. Molin, H. K. Johansen, R. W. Berg, T. S. Alstrøm, K. Almdal, F. Larsen, M. S. Schmidt, and A. Boisen, “Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5, 84–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schuengel, S. M.

T. L. Blank, M. V. Roloff, R. D. Short, S. M. Schuengel, and W. E. Ribelin, “Inhalation toxicity studies of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in spbague-dawley rats,” Toxicol. Lett. 18, 136 (1983).
[Crossref]

Serebryakov, D. V.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Short, R. D.

T. L. Blank, M. V. Roloff, R. D. Short, S. M. Schuengel, and W. E. Ribelin, “Inhalation toxicity studies of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in spbague-dawley rats,” Toxicol. Lett. 18, 136 (1983).
[Crossref]

Sicardy, B.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sigrist, M. W.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smith, D.

W. Carroll, W. Lenney, T. Wang, P. Španěl, A. Alcock, and D. Smith, “Detection of volatile compounds emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry,” Pediatr. Pulmonol. 39(5), 452–456 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spagnolo, V.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Španel, P.

W. Carroll, W. Lenney, T. Wang, P. Španěl, A. Alcock, and D. Smith, “Detection of volatile compounds emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry,” Pediatr. Pulmonol. 39(5), 452–456 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stansberry, J.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stern, A.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Strobel, D. F.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, R.

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork and spatially resolved trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, G. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 7596–7604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, T.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-ehanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).
[Crossref]

Te Lintel Hekkert, S.

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thomazy, D.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 79450R (2011).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork and spatially resolved trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, G. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 7596–7604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 79450R (2011).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, and G. Bearman, “Advanced quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensor for early fire detection,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 1(1), 331–336 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, Y.

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Waclawek, J. P.

Wang, G. S.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-ehanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-ehanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

W. Carroll, W. Lenney, T. Wang, P. Španěl, A. Alcock, and D. Smith, “Detection of volatile compounds emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry,” Pediatr. Pulmonol. 39(5), 452–456 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Weaver, H.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Willer, U.

M. Mordmueller, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “QEPAS with electrical co excitation for photoacoustic measurements in fluctuating background gases,” Appl. Phys. B 123(8), 224 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

Xiao, L.

Yamanishi, M.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yi, H. M.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, W.

Yin, X.

Young, E.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Young, L.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, G.

Y. Ma, G. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 7596–7604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork and spatially resolved trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, G. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 7596–7604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Y. Ma, G. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 7596–7604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. B.

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork and spatially resolved trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, W. J.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-ehanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W. X.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-ehanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

Zhu, X.

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Mordmueller, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “QEPAS with electrical co excitation for photoacoustic measurements in fluctuating background gases,” Appl. Phys. B 123(8), 224 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Marchenko, A. H. Neerincx, J. Mandon, J. Zhang, M. Boerkamp, J. Mink, S. M. Cristescu, S. Te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro,” Appl. Phys. B 118(2), 275–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork and spatially resolved trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091115 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

S. F. Rastegar, A. A. Peyghan, and N. L. Hadipour, “Response of Si-and Al-doped graphenes toward HCN: a computational study,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 265, 412–417 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

R. Gotor, A. M. Costero, S. Gil, M. Parra, R. Martínez-Máñez, F. Sancenón, and P. Gaviña, “Selective and sensitive chromogenic detection of cyanide and HCN in solution and in gas phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(50), 5669–5671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comput. Theor. Chem. (1)

M. T. Baei, “B12N12 sodalite like cage as potential sensor for hydrogen cyanide,” Comput. Theor. Chem. 1024, 28–33 (2013).
[Crossref]

Icarus (1)

E. Lellouch, M. Gurwell, B. Butler, T. Fouchet, P. Lavvas, D. F. Strobel, B. Sicardy, A. Moullet, R. Moreno, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, L. Young, D. Lis, J. Stansberry, A. Stern, H. Weaver, E. Young, X. Zhu, and J. Boissier, “Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto’s atmosphere with ALMA,” Icarus 286, 289–307 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Man (Lond.) (1)

A. C. Allison, “268. Cyanide-smelling deficiency among africans,” Man (Lond.) 53, 176–177 (1953).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

K. S. Brown and R. R. Robinette, “No simple pattern of inheritance in ability to smell solutions of cyanide,” Nature 215(5099), 406–408 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-ehanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pediatr. Pulmonol. (1)

W. Carroll, W. Lenney, T. Wang, P. Španěl, A. Alcock, and D. Smith, “Detection of volatile compounds emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry,” Pediatr. Pulmonol. 39(5), 452–456 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 79450R (2011).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of quartz tuning forks in spectroscopic gas sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[Crossref]

SAE Int. J. Aerosp. (1)

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, and G. Bearman, “Advanced quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensor for early fire detection,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 1(1), 331–336 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. (1)

R. K. Lauridsen, T. Rindzevicius, S. Molin, H. K. Johansen, R. W. Berg, T. S. Alstrøm, K. Almdal, F. Larsen, M. S. Schmidt, and A. Boisen, “Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis,” Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5, 84–89 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

Y. Ma, G. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 7596–7604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toxicol. Lett. (1)

T. L. Blank, M. V. Roloff, R. D. Short, S. M. Schuengel, and W. E. Ribelin, “Inhalation toxicity studies of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in spbague-dawley rats,” Toxicol. Lett. 18, 136 (1983).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, “Hydrogen cyanide,” https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0333 .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The calculated near infrared (NIR) HCN absorption line based on the GEISA database: (a) the absorption line in the NIR range; (b) line strength within the 6420-6600 cm−1 spectral range
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 1.53 μm CW-DFB diode laser output performance as function of injection current and at three operating temperatures of the laser thermoelectric cooler (TEC)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The 3D-printed PADC: (a) A designed 3D model; (b) 3D-printed PADC including a grin lens, a QTF and mRs; (c) the flow field within the PADC
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of the EDFA-QEPAS sensor system for HCN detection
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 2f signal for two QTFs with different f0 values of 30.72 kHz and 32.768 kHz at the same experimental conditions
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 2f signal amplitude with different mRs as a function of modulation depth
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 EDFA-QEPAS 2f signal amplitude as a function of optical power at a modulation depth of 0.26 cm−1. Insert for the 2f signal amplitude as a function of HCN concentrations
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 2f signal with EDFA amplified output power of 1200 mW and the background noise with pure N2
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Allan deviation analysis for time series measurements of pure N2

Equations (1)

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S α P Q f 0

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