Abstract

In this work, we present a nonlinear silicon nitride waveguide. These waveguide are fabricated by readily available PECVD, conventional contact UV-lithography and high-temperature annealing techniques, thus dramatically reducing the processing complexity and cost. By patterning the waveguide structures firstly and then carrying out a high-temperature annealing process, not only sufficient waveguide thickness can be achieved, which gives more freedom to waveguide dispersion control, but also the material absorption loss in the waveguides be greatly reduced. The linear optical loss of the fabricated waveguide with a cross-section of 2.0 × 0.58 µm2 was measured to be as low as 0.58 dB/cm. The same loss level is demonstrated over a broad wavelength range from 1500 nm to 1630 nm. Moreover, the nonlinear refractive index of the waveguide was determined to be ~6.94 × 10−19 m2/W, indicating that comparable nonlinear performance with their LPCVD counterparts is expected. These silicon nitride waveguides based on a PECVD deposition platform can be useful for the development of more complicated on-chip nonlinear optical devices or circuits.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (3)

2015 (6)

W. Xie, Y. Zhu, T. Aubert, S. Verstuyft, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “Low-loss silicon nitride waveguide hybridly integrated with colloidal quantum dots,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12152–12160 (2015).
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C. J. Krückel, A. Fülöp, T. Klintberg, J. Bengtsson, P. A. Andrekson, and V. Torres-Company, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of low-stress high-confinement silicon-rich nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25827–25837 (2015).
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T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, J. Simonen, G. Genty, and M. Kauranen, “Strong second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161902 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

M.-C. Tien, J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low loss Si3N4 waveguides with low nonlinearity and high power handling capability,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23562–23568 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Group velocity dispersion and self phase modulation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061101 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

M. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, and C. Sullivan, “Fabrication techniques for low loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 109–118 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, “Comparative investigation of hydrogen bonding in silicon based PECVD grown dielectrics for optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 26(1), 33–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, “Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride optimized for application in integrated optics,” Sens. Actuat. Phys. 74(1–3), 9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

C. E. Morosanu, “The Preparation, Characterization and Applications of Silicon Nitride Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 65(2), 171–208 (1980).
[Crossref]

Al Noman, A.

Alic, N.

Andrekson, P. A.

Aubert, T.

Ay, F.

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, “Comparative investigation of hydrogen bonding in silicon based PECVD grown dielectrics for optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 26(1), 33–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aydinli, A.

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, “Comparative investigation of hydrogen bonding in silicon based PECVD grown dielectrics for optical waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 26(1), 33–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bache, M.

Baets, R.

Barton, J. S.

Bauters, J. F.

Bengtsson, J.

Bienstman, P.

Blumenthal, D. J.

Boller, K.-J.

Bowers, J. E.

Boyraz, O.

Brasch, V.

Bucio, T. D.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capolino, F.

Chee, A. K. L.

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. F. R.

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

Chi, Y.-C.

G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(9611), 9611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clemmen, S.

Dai, D.

Dave, U.

Debbarma, S.

Dhakal, A.

Dhoore, S.

Driessen, A.

K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, “Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride optimized for application in integrated optics,” Sens. Actuat. Phys. 74(1–3), 9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dutt, A.

Epping, J. P.

Fainman, Y.

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Group velocity dispersion and self phase modulation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061101 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12987–12994 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, L.

Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fülöp, A.

Gaeta, A. L.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3398–3400 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geiselman, M.

Genty, G.

T. Ning, O. Hyvärinen, H. Pietarinen, T. Kaplas, M. Kauranen, and G. Genty, “Third-harmonic UV generation in silicon nitride nanostructures,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2012–2017 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, J. Simonen, G. Genty, and M. Kauranen, “Strong second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, J.

M. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, and C. Sullivan, “Fabrication techniques for low loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 109–118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Habermehl, S.

M. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, and C. Sullivan, “Fabrication techniques for low loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 109–118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Han, K.

Han, T.

Heck, M. J. R.

Heideman, R. G.

Helin, P.

Hens, Z.

Hermans, A.

Hilderink, L. T. H.

K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, “Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride optimized for application in integrated optics,” Sens. Actuat. Phys. 74(1–3), 9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hoekman, M.

Hong, J.

Huang, B.-J.

G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(9611), 9611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Hyvärinen, O.

T. Ning, O. Hyvärinen, H. Pietarinen, T. Kaplas, M. Kauranen, and G. Genty, “Third-harmonic UV generation in silicon nitride nanostructures,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2012–2017 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, J. Simonen, G. Genty, and M. Kauranen, “Strong second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, K.

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Group velocity dispersion and self phase modulation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061101 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12987–12994 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaramillo-Villegas, J. A.

John, D.

Jost, J. D.

Kamyab, L.

Kaplas, T.

Kauranen, M.

T. Ning, O. Hyvärinen, H. Pietarinen, T. Kaplas, M. Kauranen, and G. Genty, “Third-harmonic UV generation in silicon nitride nanostructures,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2012–2017 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, J. Simonen, G. Genty, and M. Kauranen, “Strong second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khokhar, A. Z.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

Kippenberg, T. J.

Klintberg, T.

Kordts, A.

Krückel, C. J.

Kuyken, B.

Lacava, C.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lambeck, P. V.

K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, “Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride optimized for application in integrated optics,” Sens. Actuat. Phys. 74(1–3), 9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

Leaird, D. E.

Lee, C. J.

Lee, Y. J.

Leinse, A.

Levy, J. S.

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3398–3400 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Lin, G.-R.

G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(9611), 9611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.-H.

G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(9611), 9611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linders, P. W. C.

K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, “Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride optimized for application in integrated optics,” Sens. Actuat. Phys. 74(1–3), 9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Luke, A. Dutt, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Overcoming Si3N4 film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22829–22833 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3398–3400 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
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G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(9611), 9611 (2015).
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T. Ning, H. Pietarinen, O. Hyvärinen, J. Simonen, G. Genty, and M. Kauranen, “Strong second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161902 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. T. H. Tan, K. Ikeda, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Group velocity dispersion and self phase modulation in silicon nitride waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061101 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Opt. Express (11)

J. P. Epping, M. Hoekman, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, A. van Rees, P. J. M. van der Slot, C. J. Lee, and K.-J. Boller, “High confinement, high yield Si3N4 waveguides for nonlinear optical applications,” Opt. Express 23(2), 642–648 (2015).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

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Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Shaw, J. Guo, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, and C. Sullivan, “Fabrication techniques for low loss silicon nitride waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 5720, 109–118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(9611), 9611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuat. Phys. (1)

K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, “Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride optimized for application in integrated optics,” Sens. Actuat. Phys. 74(1–3), 9–12 (1999).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic picture of the fabrication processes of the SiN optical waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SEM image of the SiN waveguide (after dry etching, with photo resist on top); (b) Microscopic image of a 4 cm long spiral SiN waveguide.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The optical transmission spectra of the fabricated SiN waveguide (with air top cladding, before high-temperature annealing); (b) Total waveguide losses at different wavelength determined with cut-back method.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The optical transmission spectra of the fabricated SiN waveguide (with SiO2 top cladding, after high-temperature annealing); (b) Total waveguide losses at different wavelength determined with cut-back method.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Total optical losses for different waveguide width at 1550 nm. Insets show simulated mode profile of the waveguide and its confinement factor with different polarization.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The schematic picture of the FWM measurement setup.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental FWM phenomenon observed with pump and signal at 1550 nm and 1550.8 nm, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The relationship between the conversion efficiency and the square of the input pump power.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental FWM phenomenon between the wavelength of 1500 nm and 1600 nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of our work with previous publications

Equations (1)

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η= P i (L) P s (0) = (γ P p L eff ) 2 e αL

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